Jules Ferry

Jules Ferry

Infobox Prime Minister
name=Jules Ferry

order=44th Prime Minister of France
term_start =23 September 1880
term_end =14 November 1881
predecessor =Charles de Freycinet
successor =Léon Gambetta
order2=49th Prime Minister of France
term_start2 =21 February 1883
term_end2 =6 April 1885
predecessor2 =Armand Fallières
successor2 =Henri Brisson
birth_date =5 April 1832
death_date =death date and age|1893|3|17|1832|4|5|

Jules François Camille Ferry (5 April 1832ndash 17 March 1893) was a French statesman, and ardent imperialist ["A History of Western Society", Seventh Edition. John Buckler, Bennett D. Hill, John P. McKay]

Early life

Born in Saint-Dié, in the Vosges "département", France, he studied law, and was called to the bar at Paris, but soon went into politics, contributing to various newspapers, particularly to "Le Temps". He attacked the Second French Empire with great violence, directing his opposition especially against Baron Haussmann, prefect of the Seine "département". Elected republican deputy for Paris in 1869, he protested against the declaration of war with Germany, and on 6 September 1870 was appointed prefect of the Seine by the Government of National Defense.

In this position he had the difficult task of administering Paris during the siege, and after the Paris Commune was obliged to resign (5 June 1871). From 1872 to 1873 he was sent by Adolphe Thiers as minister to Athens, but returned to the chamber as deputy for the Vosges, and became one of the leaders of the republican party. When the first republican ministry was formed under WH Waddington on 4 February 1879, he was one of its members, and continued in the ministry until 30 March 1885, except for two short interruptions (from 10 November 1881 to 30 January 1882, and from 29 July 1882 to 21 February 1883), first as minister of education and then as minister of foreign affairs. A leader of the Opportunist Republicans faction, he was twice premier (1880-1881 and 1883-1885).

Major works

Two important works are associated with his administration, the non-clerical organization of public education, and the beginning of the colonial expansion of France. Following the republican programme he proposed to destroy the influence of the clergy in the university and found his own system of republican schooling. He reorganized the committee of public education (law of 27 February 1880), and proposed a regulation for the conferring of university degrees, which, though rejected, aroused violent polemics because the 7th article took away from the unauthorized religious orders the right to teach. He finally succeeded in passing his eponymous laws of 16 June 1881 and 28 March 1882, which made primary education in France free, non-clerical (laïque) and mandatory. In higher education, the number of professors, called the "hussards noirs de la République" "("Republic's black hussars")" because of their Republican support, doubled under his ministry Fact|date=August 2007.

The education policies establishing French language as the language of the Republic have been contested in the second half of the 20th century insofar as, if they played an important role in unifying the French nation-state and the Third Republic, they also nearly provoked the extinction of several regional languages [ [http://www.chez.com/buan1/poignant.htm 1998 report] from Bernard Poignant, mayor of Quimper, to Lionel Jospin fr icon] .

After the military defeat of France by Germany in 1870, Ferry formed the idea of acquiring a great colonial empire, principally for the sake of economic exploitation. In a [http://www.tatamis.info/medias/controle_citoyen/ferry-jules.htm speech] before the Chamber of Deputies on 28 July 1883, he declared that "the superior races have a right because they have a duty: it is their duty to civilize the inferior races." Ferry directed the negotiations which led to the establishment of a French protectorate in Tunis (1881), prepared the treaty of 17 December 1885 for the occupation of Madagascar; directed the exploration of the Congo and of the Niger region; and above all he organized the conquest of Annam and Tonkin in what became Indochina.

The last endeavor led to a war with China, whose Qing dynasty had a claim of suzerainty over the two provinces. The excitement caused at Paris by the sudden retreat of the French troops from Lang Son during this war led to the Tonkin Affair: his violent denunciation by Clemenceau and other radicals ,and his downfall on 30 March 1885). Although the treaty of peace with China (9 June 1885), in which the Qing Dynasty ceded suzerainty of Annam and Tonkin to France, was the work of his ministry, he would never again serve as premier.

He still remained an influential member of the moderate republican party, and directed the opposition to General Boulanger. After the resignation of Jules Grévy (2 December 1887), he was a candidate for the presidency of the republic, but the radicals refused to support him, and he withdrew in favour of Sadi Carnot.

Ferry's 1st Ministry, 23 September 1880 - 14 November 1881

*Jules Ferry - President of the Council and Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts
*Jules Barthélemy-Saint-Hilaire - Minister of Foreign Affairs
*Jean Joseph Frédéric Adolphe Farre - Minister of War
*Ernest Constans - Minister of the Interior and Worship
*Pierre Magnin - Minister of Finance
*Jules Cazot - Minister of Justice
*Georges Charles Cloué - Minister of Marine and Colonies
*Sadi Carnot - Minister of Public Works
*Adolphe Cochery - Minister of Posts and Telegraphs
*Pierre Tirard - Minister of Agriculture and Commerce

Ferry's 2nd Ministry, 21 February 1883 - 6 April 1885

*Jules Ferry - President of the Council and Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts
*Paul-Armand Challemel-Lacour - Minister of Foreign Affairs
*Jean Thibaudin - Minister of War
*Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau - Minister of the Interior
*Pierre Tirard - Minister of Finance
*Félix Martin-Feuilléee - Minister of Justice and Worship
*Charles Brun - Minister of Marine and Colonies
*Jules Méline - Minister of Agriculture
*David Raynal - Minister of Public Works
*Adolphe Cochery - Minister of Posts and Telegraphs
*Anne Charles Hérisson - Minister of Commerce

*9 August 1883 - Alexandre Louis François Peyron succeeds Charles Brun as Minister of Marine and Colonies
*9 October 1883 - Jean-Baptiste Campenon succeeds Thibaudin as Minister of War.
*20 November 1883 - Jules Ferry succeeds Challemel-Lacour as Minister of Foreign Affairs. Armand Fallières succeeds Ferry as Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts.
*14 October 1884 - Maurice Rouvier succeeds Hérisson as Minister of Commerce
*3 January 1885 - Jules Louis Lewal succeeds Campenon as Minister of War.

ee also

* Jules Ferry laws
* Opportunist Republicans
* Vergonha


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