- Ivan Turgenev
name = Ivan Turgenev
caption = Ivan Turgenev, 1872 portrait by
birthdate = birth date|1818|10|28|mf=y
Oryol, Russian Empire
deathdate = death date and age|1883|9|3|1818|10|28|mf=y
genre = Realist
notableworks = "
Fathers and Sons"
influences = Shakespeare, Goethe, Pushkin, Belinsky, Lermontov, Byron, Schiller, Hegel, Schlegel, Schopenhauer, Bakunin
Theodor Storm, Gustave Flaubert, Herman Bang, Henry James, Joseph Conrad, Anton Chekhov, Irène Némirovsky, Ernest Hemingway, Truman Capote
"'Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev (langWithName|ru|Russian|Ива́н Серге́евич Турге́нев IPA2|ɪˈvan sʲɪrˈgʲeɪvʲɪtɕ turˈgʲenʲɪf) (OldStyleDate|November 9|1818|October 28 – OldStyleDate|September 3|1883|August 22) was a
Russian novelist and playwright. His novel " Fathers and Sons" is regarded as one of the major works of 19th-century fiction.
Turgenev was born into a wealthy landed family in Oryol, Russia, on
October 28, 1818. His father, Sergei Nikolaevich Turgenev, a colonel in the Imperial Russian cavalry, was a chronic philanderer. Ivan's mother Varvara Petrovna Lutovinova was a wealthy heiress, who had had an unhappy childhood and suffered in her marriage. Ivan's father died when Ivan was sixteen, leaving him and his brother Nicholas to be brought up by their abusive mother. After the standard schooling for a son of a gentleman, Turgenev studied for one year at the University of Moscowand then moved to the University of Saint Petersburg, focusing on Classics, Russian literatureand philology. He was sent in 1838 to the University of Berlinto study philosophy(particularly Hegel) and history. Turgenev was impressed with German society and returned home believing that Russia could best improve itself by incorporating ideas from the Age of Enlightenment. Like many of his educated contemporaries, he was particularly opposed to serfdom.
When Turgenev was a child a family serf had read to him verses from the "Rossiad" of
Kheraskov, a celebrated poet of the 18th century. Turgenev's early attempts in literature, poems, and sketches gave indications of genius and were favorably spoken of by Belinsky, then the leading Russian literary critic. During the latter part of his life, Turgenev did not reside much in Russia; he lived either at Baden-Badenor Paris, often in proximity to the family of the celebrated singer Pauline Garcia-Viardot, with whom he had a lifelong affair.
Turgenev never married, although he had a daughter with one of his family's serfs. He was tall and broad-shouldered, but was timid, restrained and soft-spoken. His closest literary friend was
Gustave Flaubert. His relations with Leo Tolstoyand Fyodor Dostoevskywere often strained, as the two were, for various reasons, dismayed by Turgenev's seeming preference for Western Europe. His rocky friendship with Tolstoy in 1861 wrought such animosity that Tolstoy challenged Turgenev to a duel, afterwards apologizing. The two did not speak for 17 years. Dostoevsky parodies Turgenev in his novel "The Devils" (1872) through the character of the vain novelist Karmazinov, who is anxious to ingratiate himself with the radical youth. However, in 1880 Dostoevsky's speech at the unveiling of the Pushkin monument brought about a reconciliation of sorts with Turgenev, who, like many in the audience, was moved to tears by his rival's eloquent tribute to the Russian spirit.
Turgenev died at
Bougival, near Paris, on 4 September 1883. On his deathbed he pleaded with Tolstoy: "My friend, return to literature!" After this Tolstoy wrote such works as " The Death of Ivan Ilych" and " The Kreutzer Sonata".
Shortly after his death, Turgenev's brain was weighed at 2,021
grams. It is believedWho|date=September 2008 to be the largest human brain on record.Fact|date=September 2008
Turgenev first made his name with "
A Sportsman's Sketches" ("Записки охотника"), also known as "Sketches from a Hunter's Album" or "Notes of a Hunter", a collection of short stories based on his observations of peasant life and nature while hunting in the forests around his mother's estate of Spasskoye. Most of the stories were published in a single volume in 1852, with others being added in later editions. The book is credited with having influenced public opinion in favour of the abolition of serfdom in 1861. Turgenev himself considered the book' to be his most important contribution to Russian literature. [It is reported that in Paris in the 1870s he remarked:: "All that I would wish for my gravestone is a brief inscription saying that my book (the "Sportman's Sketches") served the cause of the liberation of our peasants" - memoirs of Captain Faurie, in V. G. Fridliand (ed.), "I. S. Turgenev v vospominaniiakh sovremennikov" (Moscow: Pravda, 1988): 308.] and Tolstoy, among others, agreed wholeheartedly, adding that Turgenev's evocations of nature in these stories were unsurpassed. [Tolstoy said after Turgenev's death: "His stories of peasant life will forever remain a valuable contribution to Russian literature. I have always valued them highly. And in this respect none of us can stand comparison with him. Take, for example, "Living Relic" (Живые мощи), "Loner" (Бирюк), and so on. All these are unique stories. And as for his nature descriptions, these are true pearls, beyond the reach of any other writer!" Quoted by K. N. Lomunov, "Turgenev i Lev Tolstoi: Tvorcheskie vzaimootnosheniia", in S. E. Shatalov (ed.), "I. S. Turgenev v sovremennom mire" (Moscow: Nauka, 1987).]
One of the stories in "
A Sportsman's Sketches", known as "Bezhin Lea" or "Byezhin Prairie", was later to become the basis for the controversial film " Bezhin Meadow" (1937), directed by Sergei Eisenstein.
In the 1840s and early 1850s during the rule of Tsar Nicholas I, the political climate in Russia was stifling for many writers. This is evident in the despair and subsequent death of Gogol, and the oppression, persecution and arrests of artists, scientists and writers, including Dostoevsky. During this time, thousands of Russian intellectuals (members of the "intelligentsia") emigrated to Europe. Among them were
Alexander Herzenand Turgenev himself, although the latter's decision to settle abroad probably had more to do with his fateful love for Pauline Viardot than anything else. In 1852, when his first major novels of Russian society were still to come, Turgenev wrote an obituary for Nikolai Gogolintended for publication in the "Saint Petersburg Gazette". The key passage reads, "Gogol is dead!... What Russian heart is not shaken by those three words?... He is gone, that man whom we now have the right, the bitter right given to us by death, to call great." The censor of Saint Petersburgdid not approve of this and banned publication, but the Moscowcensor allowed it to be published in a newspaper in that city. The censor was dismissed, but Turgenev was held responsible for the incident, imprisoned for a month, and then exiled to his country estate for nearly two years.
" ("Фауст"), "The Lull" ("Затишье"), expressing the anxieties and hopes of Russians of his generation.
In 1854 he moved to Western Europe and during the following year produced the novel "
Rudin" ("Рудин"), the story of a man in his thirties who is unable to put his talents and idealism to any use in the Russia of Nicholas I. "Rudin" is also full of nostalgia for the idealistic student circles of the 1840s.
In 1858 Turgenev wrote the novel "A Nest of the Gentry" ("Дворянское гнездо", published 1859), also full of nostalgia for the irretrievable past and of love for the Russian countryside. It contains one of his most memorable female characters, Liza, whom Dostoevsky paid tribute to in his Pushkin speech of 1880, alongside Tatiana and Tolstoy's
Alexander II had ascended the Russian throne in 1855, and the political climate had become more relaxed. In 1859, inspired by reports of positive social changes, Turgenev wrote the novel "
On the Eve" ("Накануне"), portraying the Bulgarian revolutionary Insarov.
The following year saw the publication of one of his finest novellas, "First Love" ("Первая любовь"), which was based on bitter-sweet childhood memories, and the delivery of his speech "
Hamlet and Don Quixote" at a public reading in Saint Petersburgin aid of writers and scholars suffering hardship. The vision presented therein of man torn between the self-centred scepticism of Hamletand the idealistic generosity of Don Quixoteis one that can be said to pervade Turgenev's own works. It is worth noting that Dostoevsky, who had just returned from exile in Siberia, was present at this speech, for eight years later he was to write "The Idiot", a novel whose tragic hero, Prince Myshkinresembles Don Quixotein many respects. [See the "Influences" section in the Infobox of the article on Dostoevsky for a reference to a study dealing with precisely this issue.] Turgenev, whose knowledge of Spanish, thanks to his contact with Pauline Viardot and her family, was good enough for him to have considered translating Cervantes's novel into Russian, played an important role in introducing this immortal figure of world literature into the Russian context.
Fathers and Sons" ("Отцы и дети"), Turgenev's most famous and enduring novel, appeared in 1862. Its leading character, Bazarov, was in turns heralded and reviled as either a glorification or a parody of the 'new men' of the 1860s. However, the issues treated in the novel transcend the merely contemporary. Many radical critics at the time (with the notable exception of Dimitri Pisarev) did not take "Fathers and Sons" seriously and, after the relative critical failure of his masterpiece, Turgenev was disillusioned and started to write less.
Turgenev's next novel, "Smoke" ("Дым"), was published in 1867 and was again received less than enthusiastically in his native country, as well as triggering a quarrel with Dostoevsky in Baden-Baden.
His last substantial work attempting to do justice to the problems of contemporary Russian society, "Virgin Soil" ("Новь"), was published in 1877.
Stories of a more personal nature, such as "
Torrents of Spring" ("Вешние воды"), "King Lear of the Steppes" ("Степной король Лир"), and " The Song of Triumphant Love" ("Песнь торжествующей любви") were also written in these autumnal years of his life. Other last works included the "Poems in Prose" and "Clara Milich" ("After Death"), which appeared in the journal "European Messenger".
Turgenev wrote on themes similar to those found in the works of Tolstoy and Dostoevsky, but he did not approve of the religious and moral preoccupations that his two great contemporaries brought to their artistic creation. Turgenev was closer in temperament to his friends
Gustave Flaubertand Theodor Storm, the North German poet and master of the novellaform who also often dwelt on memories of the past and evoked the beauty of nature. [See Karl Ernst Laage, " Theodor Storm. Biographie" (Heide: Boyens, 1999).] Turgenev's artistic purity made him a favorite of like-minded novelists of the next generation, such as Henry Jamesand Joseph Conrad, both of whom greatly preferred Turgenev to Tolstoy and Dostoevsky. James, who wrote no fewer than five critical essays on Turgenev's work, claimed that "his merit of form is of the first order" (1873) and praised his "exquisite delicacy", which "makes too many of his rivals appear to hold us in comparison by violent means, and introduce us in comparison to vulgar things" (1896). [See Henry James, "European Writers & The Prefaces" (The Library of America: New York, 1984).] The notoriously critical Vladimir Nabokovpraised Turgenev's "plastic musical flowing prose", but criticized his "labored epilogues" and "banal handling of plots." Nabokov stated that Turgenev "is not a great writer, though a pleasant one", and ranked him fourth among nineteenth-century Russian prose writers, behind Tolstoy, Gogol, and Anton Chekhovbut ahead of Dostoevsky. [See Vladimir Nabokov, "Lectures on Russian Literature" (HBJ, San Diego: 1981).]
List of works
* 1857 - "Rudin" (Рудин); English translation: "
* 1859 - "Dvoryanskoye Gnezdo" (Дворянское гнездо); English translations: "
Home of the Gentry", "A Nest of Gentlefolk", "A Nest of Nobles"
* 1860 - "Nakanune" (Накануне); English translation: "
On the Eve"
* 1862 - "Otzy i Deti" (Отцы и дети); English translation: "
Fathers and Sons"
* 1867 - "Dym" (Дым); English translation: "Smoke"
* 1872 - "Veshnie Vody" (Вешние воды); English translation: "
Torrents of Spring"
* 1877 - "Nov" (Новь); English translation: "Virgin Soil"
elected shorter fictions
* 1850 - "Dnevnik Lishnego Cheloveka" (Дневник лишнего человека); short story, English translation: "
The Diary of a Superfluous Man"
* 1852 - "Zapiski Okhotnika" (Записки охотника); collection of stories, English translations: "
A Sportsman's Sketches", "The Hunter's Sketches"
* 1855 - "Yakov Pasynkov" (Яков Пасынков); novella
* 1855 - "Faust" (Фауст); novella
* 1858 - "Asya" (Aся); novella, English translation: "Asya"
* 1860 - "Pervaia Liubov" (Первая любовь); novella, English translation: "First Love"
* 1870 - "Stepnoy Korol' Lir" (Степной король Лир); novella, English translation: "
King Lear of the Steppes"
* 1881 - "Pesn' Torzhestvuyushey Lyubvi" (Песнь торжествующей любви); novella, English translation: "
The Song of Triumphant Love"
* 1883 - "Klara Milich" (Клара Милич); novella, English translation: "
The Mysterious Tales"
* 1843 - "Neostorozhnost" (Неосторожность); "A Rash Thing to Do"
* 1847 - "Gde Tonko Tam i Rvetsya" (Где тонко, там и рвется)
* 1849/1856 - "Zavtrak u Predvoditelia" (Завтрак у предводителя)
* 1850/1851 - "Razgovor na Bol'shoi Doroge" (Разговор на большой дороге); "A Conversation on the Highway"
* 1846/1852 - "Bezdenezh'e" (Безденежье)
* 1851 - "Provintsialka" (Провинциалка); English translation: "
The Provincial Lady"
* 1857/1862 - "Nakhlebnik" (Нахлебник); English translation: "The Hanger-On"; "
Fortune's Fool"; "The Family Charge"
* 1855/1872 - "Mesiats v Derevne" (Месяц в деревне); English translation: "A Month in the Country"
* 1882 - "Vecher v Sorrento" (Вечер в Сорренто); "An Evening in Sorrento"
* Asteroid 3323 Turgenev, named after the writer
Lee Hoibyan American composer and his opera based on "A Month in the Country"
Frederick Ashtonwho created a ballet based on "A Month in the Country" in 1976
Vladimir Rebikov, who composed an opera based on " Home of the Gentry" in 1916
Galina Ulanova, who advised her pupils to read such stories of Turgenev's as "Asya" or " Torrents of Spring" when preparing to dance Giselle
* [http://www.archive.org/search.php?query=mediatype%3A(texts)%20-contributor%3Agutenberg%20-collection%3A(opensource)%20AND%20(subject%3A%22Turgenev%2C%20Ivan%2C%201818-1883%22%20OR%20creator%3A%22Turgenev%2C%20Ivan%2C%201818-1883%22%20OR%20creator%3AIvan%20Turgenev) Works by & about Ivan Turgenev] at
Internet Archive(scanned books original editions color illustrated)
* [http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/t#a922] (plain text and HTML)
* [http://az.lib.ru/t/turgenew_i_s/ Turgenev's works in Russian]
* [http://www.turgenev.org.ru/index.html Turgenev Society] (mainly in Russian)
* [http://www.tourgueniev.fr/ Turgenev Museum in Bougival] (in French)
* [http://ivanturgenevchronicle.blogspot.com Ivan Turgenev Chronicle] by Erik Lindgren
* [http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/turgenev.htm Short biography]
* [http://www.ucalgary.ca/~zekulin/tbibl/index.html Turgenev Bibliography 1983-] by Nicholas Žekulin
* [http://eis.bris.ac.uk/~rurap/novelsof.htm The Novels of Ivan Turgenev: Symbols and Emblems] by Richard Peace
* [http://www-chucol.mml.cam.ac.uk/users/las36/public_html/index_en.html Turgenev and Russian Music] (with music samples)
* [http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/t/turgenev/ivan/t93s/t93s.html Text of "
A Sportsman's Sketches", in English as translated from the Russian]
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