- Russian serfdom
The origins of
serfdomin Russiaare traced to Kievan Rusin the 11th century. Legal documents of the epoch, such as Russkaya Pravda, distinguished several degrees of feudal dependency of peasants. Traditionally, the term for a peasantof the epoch of feudalismin Imperial Russia, "krepostnoi krestyanin" (крепостной крестьянин), is translated as serf.
The legal code of
Ivan III of Russia, Sudebnik(1497), strengthened the dependency of peasants, statewise, and restricted their mobility. The Russianspersistently battled against the successor states of the Golden Horde, chiefly the Khanate of Crimea. Annually the Russian population of the borderland suffered from Tatar invasionsand tens of thousands of noblemen protected the southern borderland—a heavy burden for the state—which slowed its social and economic development and expanded the taxation of peasantry.
After the passage of laws which further restricted the peasant's right to free movement, the vast majority of the Russian populace was finally bound in full serfdom. Serfs were given estates in the "Sobornoye Ulozhenie" (Соборное уложение, "Code of Law") of 1649; and flight was made a criminal offense in 1658. Russian landowners eventually gained almost unlimited ownership over Russian serfs. [ [http://www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org/Lida-District/serfs-etc.htm Rural Population Classes] ] The landowner could transfer the serf without the land to another landowner while keeping the serf's personal property and family, however the landowner had no right to kill the serf. [ [http://www.lse.ac.uk/Depts/language/Ruslang/tolstoy/history.html Serfdom in Early Nineteenth Century Russia] ]
As a whole serfdom came to Russia much later than in other European countries.
Slaveryremained a major institution in Russiauntil 1723, when Peter the Greatconverted the household slaves into house serfs. Russian agricultural slaves were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679. [ [http://www.britannica.com/blackhistory/article-24160 Historical survey > Ways of ending slavery] ] [ [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0038-7134%28198407%2959%3A3%3C653%3ASIR1%3E2.0.CO%3B2-V&size=LARGE&origin=JSTOR-enlargePage Slavery in Russia, 1450-1725 by Richard Hellie] ]
There were numerous rebellions against this bondage, most often in conjunction with
Cossackuprisings, such as the uprisings of Ivan Bolotnikov(1606–1607), Stenka Razin(1667–1671), Kondraty Bulavin(1707–1709), and Yemelyan Pugachev(1773–1775). While the Cossackuprisings benefited from disturbances among the peasants, and they in turn received an impetus from Cossack rebellion, none of the Cossack movements were directed against the institution of serfdom itself. Instead, peasants in Cossack-dominated areas became Cossacks, thus escaping from the peasantry rather than directly organizing peasants against the institution. Between the end of the Pugachev rebellionand the beginning of the 19th century, there were hundreds of outbreaks across Russia, and there was never a time when the peasantry was completely quiescent.
A Polish historian,
Jerzy Czajewski, claims that the Russian peasants were escaping from Russia to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealthin significant enough numbers to become a major concern for the Russian Government sufficient to play a role in its decision to partition the Commonwealth. Jerzy Czajewski, "Zbiegostwo ludności Rosji w granice Rzeczypospolitej" (Russian population exodus into the Rzeczpospolita), Promemoria journal, October 2004 nr. (5/15), ISSN 1509-9091 , [http://www.promemoria.pl/arch/2004_15/2004_15.html Table of Content online] , Polish language]
By the mid-19th century, the peasants composed a majority of the population, and according to the census of 1857 the number of private serfs was 23.1 million out of 62.5 million Russians. By comparison, the
United Stateshad approximately 4 million slavesby 1860, the British Empirehad 776,000 slaves when it abolished slavery in 1834, and Brazilhad a slave population of roughly 750,000 by the time slavery was abolished in 1888.
The exact numbers, according to official data, were: entire population 60,909,309; peasantry of all classes 49,486,665; state peasants 23,138,191; peasants on the lands of proprietors 23,022,390; peasants of the appanages and other departments 3,326,084. [ [http://home.freeuk.net/russica2/books/russia/28.html Russia by Donald Mackenzie Wallace] ] State peasants were considered personally free, but their freedom of movement was restricted. [ [https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/citd/RussianHeritage/4.PEAS/4.L/Peasants.html Assigned, Church and Crown Peasants] ]
Russian serfdom depended entirely on the traditional and extensive technology of the peasantry. Yields remained low and stationary throughout most of the nineteenth century. Any increase in income drawn from agriculture was drawn largely through increasing land area and extensive grain raising by means of exploitation of the peasant labor, that is, by burdening the peasant household still further.
In Russian Baltic provinces (Courland, Estonia, Livonia) serfdom, however, was abolished at the beginning of 19th century.
In 1861 all serfs were freed in a major agrarian reform, stimulated by the fear voiced by Tsar Alexander II that "it is better to liberate the peasants from above" than to wait until they won their freedom by risings "from below." Serfdom was abolished in 1861, but its abolition was achieved on terms unfavorable to the peasants and served to increase revolutionary pressures. In 1864–1871 serfdom was abolished in Georgia. In
Kalmykiaserfdom was only abolished in 1892. [ [http://www.nupi.no/cgi-win/Russland/etnisk_b.exe?Kalmykian NUPI - Centre for Russian Studies] ]
The origins of
serfdomin Russia("крепостничество", or krepostnichestvo) may be traced to the 11th century, however, the most complete form of feudal exploitationenveloped only certain categories of rural population. In the 12th century, the exploitation of the so-called zakups on arable lands ("ролейные (пашенные) закупы", or roleyniye (pashenniye) zakupy) and corvee smerds (Russian term for corvee is "барщина", or barschina) was the closest to what is now known as serfdom. According to the " Russkaya Pravda", a princely smerd had limited propertyand personal rights. His escheatwas given to the prince and his life was equated with that of the kholop, meaning his murderwas punishable by 5 grivnas.
In the 13th-15th centuries, feudal dependency applied to a significant number of
peasants, but serfdom as we know it was still not a widespread phenomenon. In the mid-15th century, the right of certain categories of peasants in some votchinas to leave their master was limited to a period of one week before and after the so-called Yuri's Day( November 26). The Sudebnik of 1497 officially confirmed this time limit as universal for everybody and also established the amount of the "break-away" fee called "pozhiloye" ("пожилое"). The Sudebnik of 1550increased the amount of pozhiloye and introduced an additional taxcalled "za povoz" ("за повоз" , or transportation fee), in case a peasant refused to bring the harvestfrom the fields to his master. A temporary ("Заповедные лета", or Prohibition years) and later an open-ended prohibition for peasants to leave their masters was introduced by the ukaseof 1597, which also defined the so-called fixed years("Урочные лета", or urochniye leta), or the 5-year time frame for search of the runaway peasants. In 1607, a new ukase defined sanctions for hiding and keeping the runaways: the fine had to paid to the state and pozhiloye - to the previous owner of the peasant.
Most of the
dvoryanewere content with the long time frame for search of the runaway peasants. The major landowners of the country, however, together with the dvoryane of the south, were interested in a short-term persecutiondue to the fact that many runaways would usually flee to the southern parts of Russia. During the first half of the 17th century the dvoryane sent their collective petitions ("челобитные", or chelobitniye) to the authorities, asking for the extension of the "fixed years". In 1642, the Russian government established a 10-year limit for search of the runaways and 15-year limit for search for peasants, taken away by their new owners.
The Sobornoye Ulozhenie ("Соборное уложение", or Code of Law) of 1649 introduced an open-ended search for those on the run, meaning that all of the peasants who had fled from their masters after the census of 1626 or 1646–1647 had to be returned. The government would still introduce new time frames and grounds for search of the runaways after 1649, which applied to the peasants who had fled to the outlying districts of the country, such as regions along the border
abatises called "zasechniye linii" ("засечные линии") (ukases of 1653 and 1656), Siberia(ukases of 1671, 1683 and 1700), Don (1698) etc. The dvoryane constantly demanded that the search for the runaways be sponsored by the government. The legislationof the second half of the 17th century paid much attention to the means of punishment of the runaways.
History of slavery
Emancipation reform of 1861 in Russia
* [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-38538/Russia Russia :: Social classes -- Encyclopaedia Britannica]
* [http://occawlonline.pearsoned.com/bookbind/pubbooks/stearns_awl/chapter24/objectives/deluxe-content.html Serfdom: The Life of East Europe's Masses]
* [http://www.worldwideschool.org/library/books/hst/russian/Russia/chap42.html Russia - Chapter XXVIII The Serfs]
* [http://www.britannica.com/blackhistory/article-24156 Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to History]
* [http://www.cyberussr.com/rus/saltychikha.html Saltychikha (1730–1801): Infamously cruel Russian serf-owner]
* [http://www.j-bradford-delong.net/movable_type/2003_archives/001447.html The Causes of Slavery or Serfdom: A Hypothesis]
* [http://www.kommersant.ru/k-money-old/story.asp?m_id=33342 Крепостная правда] in
*ru icon Князьков, С. "Как сложилось и как пало крепостное право в России". 1906
*ru icon Энгельман, И. "История крепостного права в России". М., 1900
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