Minahasan languages

Minahasan languages
northern Sulawesi
Linguistic classification: Austronesian

The Minahasan languages are a group of languages spoken by the Minahasa people in northern Sulawesi.


The languages are (with individual languages marked by italics) (Sneddon 1978:9):

  • Tonsawang
  • North Minahasan
    • Tontemboan
    • Northeast: Tondano, Tombulu (Minahasa), Tonsea

Adelaar and Himmelmann (2005) classified Sangiric and Minahasan as branches of the Philippine languages. However, a 2008 analysis of the Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database found moderate (80%) support for a Sangir–Minahasan family, which it placed among the Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian languages.


  • K. Alexander Adelaar and Nikolaus Himmelmann, The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar. Routledge, 2005.
  • Sneddon, James N. 1978. Proto-Minahasan: phonology, morphology, and wordlist. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database, 2008.

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