United States midterm election


United States midterm election
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Midterm elections in the United States refer to general elections in the United States that are held two years after the quadrennial (four-year) elections for the President of the United States (i.e. near the midpoint of the four-year presidential term). Federal offices that are up for election during the midterms are members of the United States Congress, including all 435 seats in the United States House of Representatives, and the full terms for 33 or 34 of the 100 seats in the United States Senate.

In addition, 34 of the 50 U.S. states elect their governors to four-year terms during midterm elections, while Vermont and New Hampshire elect governors to two-year terms in both midterm and presidential elections. Thus, 36 governors are elected during midterm elections. Many states also elect officers to their state legislatures in midterm years. There are also elections held at the municipal level. On the ballot are many mayors, other local public offices, and a wide variety of citizen initiatives.

Special elections are often held in conjunction with regular elections, so additional Senators, governors and other local officials may be elected to partial terms.

Midterm elections usually generate lower voter turnout than presidential elections. Only about 40 percent of those eligible to vote actually go to the polls in midterm elections.[1]

Contents

Historical record of midterm elections

Midterm elections are sometimes regarded as a referendum on the sitting president's and/or incumbent party's performance.[2][3] They usually don't turn out well for the party of the president; over the past 21 midterm elections, the president's party has lost an average 30 seats in the House, and an average 4 seats in the Senate.

Year Sitting President President's Party Net gain/loss of President's Party
House seats Senate seats
2010 Barack Obama Democrat (D) D-63 D-6
2006 George W. Bush Republican (R) R-30 R-6
2002 R+8 R+2
1998 Bill Clinton D D+5 0
1994 D-54 D-8
1990 George H. W. Bush R R-8 R-1
1986 Ronald Reagan R-5 R-8
1982 R-26 0
1978 Jimmy Carter D D-15 D-3
1974 Gerald Ford R R-48 R-4
1970 Richard Nixon R-12 R+1
1966 Lyndon B. Johnson D D-48 D-3
1962 John F. Kennedy D-4 D+2
1958 Dwight D Eisenhower R R-48 R-12
1954 R-18 R-2
1950 Harry S Truman D D-28 D-5
1946 D-54 D-12
1942 Franklin D. Roosevelt D-45 D-8
1938 D-72 D-7
1934 D+9 D+9
1930 Herbert Hoover R R-52 R-8
1926 Calvin Coolidge R-9 R-7
1922 Warren Harding R-77 R-7
1918 Woodrow Wilson D D-22 D-7
1914 D-61 D+4
1910 William Taft R R-57 R-3

Comparison with other U.S. General Elections

Basic rotation of U.S. general elections (fixed-terms only[1])
Year 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Type Presidential Off-yeara Midterm Off-yearb Presidential
President Yes No Yes
Senate Class II (33 seats) No Class III (34 seats) No Class I (33 seats)
House All 435 seats No All 435 seats No All 435 seats
Gubernatorial 11 states
DE, IN, MO, MT, NH, NC, ND, UT, VT, WA, WV
2 states
NJ, VA
36 states[2]
AL, AK, AZ, AR, CA, CO, CT, FL, GA, HI, ID, IL, IA, KS, ME, MD, MA, MI, MN, NE, NV, NH, NM, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VT, WI, WY
3 states
KY, LA, MS
11 states
DE, IN, MO, MT, NH, NC, ND, UT, VT, WA, WV
Other state and local officies Varies from state-to-state, county-to-county, city-to-city, community-to-community, etc.
1 This table does not include special elections, which are held to fill political offices that have become vacant between the regularly scheduled elections.
2 Both the Governors of New Hampshire and Vermont are each elected to two-year terms. The other 48 state governors serve four-year terms.
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References

  1. ^ "Demand for Democracy". The Pew Center on the States. http://www.pewcenteronthestates.org/trends_detail.aspx?id=31674. Retrieved 2011-10-13. 
  2. ^ Baker, Peter; VandeHei, Jim (2006-11-08). "A Voter Rebuke For Bush, the War And the Right". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/11/07/AR2006110701697.html. Retrieved 2010-05-26. "Bush and senior adviser Karl Rove tried to replicate that strategy this fall, hoping to keep the election from becoming a referendum on the president's leadership." 
  3. ^ "Election '98 Lewinsky factor never materialized". CNN. 1998-11-04. http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/stories/1998/11/04/impeachment/. "Americans shunned the opportunity to turn Tuesday's midterm elections into a referendum on President Bill Clinton's behavior, dashing Republican hopes of gaining seats in the House and Senate." 

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