- Cranberry juice
Cranberry juice is the juice of the cranberry. Commercially, it is sold in either as a pure juice, which is quite tart, or, more commonly, as cranberry juice "cocktail" or "drink" , in blends with other juices, such as apple or grape, or mixed with water and corn syrup, sugar, or an artificial sweetener (such as aspartame or sucralose). These may also be blended with other juices or flavors. The term, when used on its own, almost always refers to a sweetened drink.
Cranberry juice cocktail is sometimes used as a mixer with alcoholic drinks such as a Cape Codder (1+1/2 ounces of vodka to 4 ounces cranberry juice) or non-alcoholic drinks such as the Bog Grog (2 parts Chelmsford ginger ale [or regular ginger ale] to 3 parts cranberry juice).
Cranberry juice is known to have various health benefits. These include:
- Cranberry juice contains phytochemicals, which may help prevent cancer and cardiovascular disease.
- Cranberry juice is high in oxalate, and has been suggested to increase the risk for developing kidney stones, although more recent studies have indicated it may lower the risk.
Cranberry Juices are usually free from artificial colourings, making them suitable for those who do not consume food dyes.
Cranberry juice and urinary tract infection (UTI)
A known claim is that cranberry juice may help prevent and relieve the symptoms of urinary tract infections by primary and secondary means. The primary means works on the bacteria directly by altering the molecular structure of the fimbriae on the pathogenic strains of the bacteria that cause the infections. The properties of the proanthocyanidins in cranberries prevents the bacteria from adhering to the surface of the bladder and urinary tract. The secondary means works indirectly on the bacteria by changing the intravesical pH (the pH of the bladder's contents) making it more acidic.
However, results from recent randomized controlled trials have been disappointing. A trial of 319 college women with an acute UTI, failed to show that drinking cranberry juice (8 oz of 27% twice daily) would reduce the incidence of a second UTI. Another study performed in The Netherlands randomised 221 women to receive either co-trimoxazole or cranberry capsules. That study found that the antibiotics were superior to cranberry capsules, but were associated with an increase in antibiotic resistance. However, in an accompanying editorial, the dose of cranberries used in the study was criticised for being too low.
1cup of cranberry juice (253ml) contains the following nutritional information according to the USDA:
- Calories : 116
- Fat: 0.33
- Carbohydrates: 30.87
- Fibers: 0.3
- Protein: 0.99
- Cholesterol: 0
- ^ Boivin D, Blanchette M, Barrette S, Moghrabi A, Béliveau R (2007). "Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and suppression of TNF-induced activation of NFkappaB by edible berry juice". Anticancer Res. 27 (2): 937–48. PMID 17465224.
- ^ Terris MK, Issa MM, Tacker JR (January 2001). "Dietary supplementation with cranberry concentrate tablets may increase the risk of nephrolithiasis". Urology 57 (1): 26–9. doi:10.1016/S0090-4295(00)00884-0. PMID 11164137.
- ^ McHarg T, Rodgers A, Charlton K (November 2003). "Influence of cranberry juice on the urinary risk factors for calcium oxalate kidney stone formation". BJU Int. 92 (7): 765–8. doi:10.1046/j.1464-410X.2003.04472.x. PMID 14616463.
- ^ http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/07/080721152005.htm
- ^ . PMID 20646356.
- ^ Barbosa-Cesnik C, Brown MB, Buxton M, et al.. "Cranberry juice fails to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection: results from a randomized placebo-controlled trial". Clinical Infectious Diseases 52 (1): 23–30. doi:10.1093/cid/ciq073. PMC 3060891. PMID 21148516. http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/52/1/23.full.
- ^ Beerepoot MAJ, ter Riet G, Nys S, et al. (2011). "Cranberries vs. antibiotics to prevent urinary tract infections: a randomized double-blind noninferiority trial in premenopausal women". Arch Intern Med 171 (14): 1270–1278. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2011.306.
- ^ Gurley BJ (2011). "Cranberries as antibiotics?". Arch Intern Med 171 (14): 1279–1280. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2011.332.
- ^ http://cranberryjuice.com/benefits.html
- ^ "CFSAN - Bad Bug Book - pH Values of Various Foods". http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/FoodborneIllness/FoodborneIllnessFoodbornePathogensNaturalToxins/BadBugBook/ucm122561.htm. Retrieved 2010-11-09.
- ^ http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search/
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