Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology. [Heater, Derek Benjamin. 1967. Political Ideas in the Modern World. University of Michagan. Pp 41-42. [http://books.google.com/books?id=v4gFAAAAMAAJ&q=fascism+%22totalitarian+nationalism%22&dq=fascism+%22totalitarian+nationalism%22&pgis=1] ] [Koln, Hans; Calhoun, Craig. "The Idea of Nationalism: A Study in its Origins and Background." Transaction Publishers. Pp 20. [http://books.google.com/books?id=Qnwbviylg6wC&pg=PA20&dq=fascism+%22totalitarian+nationalism%22&lr=&sig=ACfU3U3ATCdRb6PO8HRi-LEcgwmwDjYXDA] ] [University of California. 1942. "Journal of Central European Affairs". Volume 2. [http://books.google.com/books?id=gUw9AAAAIAAJ&q=fascism+%22totalitarian+nationalism%22&dq=fascism+%22totalitarian+nationalism%22&lr=&pgis=1] ] [Gentile, Emilio. 2003. "The Struggle for Modernity: Nationalism, Futurism, and Fascism". Greenwood Publishing Group. Pp 8. [http://books.google.ca/books?id=TNmrDDs8lSkC&pg=PA8&lpg=PA8&dq=fascism%22+totalitarian+nationalism%22&source=web&ots=oLSKn0coXu&sig=t0LHbSJM8P2irioa8EmpL3U4c6E&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=8&ct=result] ] [Brewer, Ebenezer Cobham; Room, Adrian. "Brewer's Dictionary of Modern Phrase and Fable". Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. Pp 228. [http://books.google.com/books?id=N5FdEcKfhAIC&pg=PA228&dq=fascism+%22totalitarian+nationalist%22&sig=ACfU3U299Bj9_u17-yuC4Q51LFVEzx_Gnw] ] [Adams, Ian; Dyson, R.W. 2003 "Fifty Major Political Thinkers." Routledge. Pp 179. [http://books.google.com/books?id=kOs0B-VTFMkC&pg=PA179&dq=%22corporatism%22+hitler+mussolini&lr=&sig=ACfU3U2bF9T7G1iRyhQThmbVfpyjQQtNfQ] ] [Griffiths, Richard. 2005. "Fascism: 1880-1930." Continuum International Publishing Group. Pp 120 [http://books.google.com/books?id=OKU5YKV7dxQC&pg=PA120&dq=%22corporatism%22+hitler+mussolini&lr=&sig=ACfU3U2JrHnDbWCzKJV0wsl-VCBtJjgXMg] ] [Griffin, Roger (editor). 1998. "Fascism, neo-fascism, new radical right?" - by Diethelm Prowe. "International Fascism: Theories, Causes and the New Consensus." London: Arnold Publishers. Pp. 309. (Speaks of corporatism, nationalism and totalitarianism as being key elements of fascism. On corporatism as a key economic policy that transcended multiple fascist movements in Germany, Italy, Romania, Spain and others. The quotation says that fascism advocated "An institutional structure of 'representation' reflecting functions and duties in politics and the economy, such as corporatism, designed to eliminate traditional material interest group conflicts, building on some mythical past of co-operation and obligation.")] [Payne, Stanley G. 1995 "A History of Fascism, 1914-1945." University of Wisconson Press. Pp. 330 [http://books.google.ca/books?id=NLiFIEdI1V4C&pg=PA330&lpg=PA330&dq=%22nationalist+corporatism%22+fascism&source=web&ots=ONn5yF_9ko&sig=gXRwekNtXKymW6SQQ9PfP0syKxM&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result] (Speaks of fascism in Japan as corresponding with "nationalist corporatism".)] [Johnson, Larry. 1995. "Ideologies: An Analytical and Contextual Approach". Broadview Press. Pp. 210. [http://books.google.ca/books?id=47wD-pNzVPkC&pg=PA210&dq=nationalism+corporatism+fascism&lr=&sig=ACfU3U0tVTC-VnY3XgRG75YSh4QAlQn1vQ] (Claims among other things that fascism involves "extreme nationalism, statism, corporatism..."] It is primarily concerned with perceived problems associated with cultural, economic, political, and social decline or decadence, and which seeks to solve such problems by achieving a millenarian national rebirth by exalting the
nation, as well as promoting cults of unity, strength and purity.cite book |last=Paxton |first=Robert |title=The Anatomy of Fascism |publisher=Vintage Books |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=oGMfAAAACAAJ&dq=The+Anatomy+of+Fascism |isbn=1400033918] cite book |last=Griffin |first=Roger |title=The Nature of Fascism |publisher=Palgrave Macmillan |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=fcn5ZtaPc7oC&dq=%22third+way%22+fascism+eatwell&lr= |isbn=0312071329] cite news |url=http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9117286 |publisher= Encyclopædia Britannica|title=Fascism |date=8 January 2008] cite book |last=Passmore |first=Kevin |title=Fascism: A Very Short Introduction |publisher=Oxford University Press |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=EQG0AAAACAAJ&dq=A+Very+Short+Introduction+passmore |isbn=0192801554] cite book |last=Laqueuer |first=Walter |title=Fascism: Past, Present, Future |publisher=Oxford University Press |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=fWggQTqioXcC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Fascism:+Past,+Present,+Future&sig=ACfU3U1n62biDhT9uHo0oHkCLSi97MrTmw |isbn=019511793X]
Various scholars attribute different characteristics to fascism, but the following elements are usually seen as its integral parts:
nationalism(including national socialism, national syndicalism, economic nationalism, along with collectivism, mysticismand populismbased on the nationalist values); corporatism(including class collaboration, economic planning, mixed economy, and third way); totalitarianism(including dictatorship, holism, major social interventionism, and statism); and militarism. [Griffin, Roger (editor). 1998. "Causal factors in the rise of fascism." "International Fascism: Theories, Causes and the New Consensus." London: Arnold Publishers. Pp. 163. Speaks of holismas being a key part of fascist ideology.] [Griffin, Roger (editor). 1998. "Fascism, neo-fascism, new radical right?" - by Diethelm Prowe. "International Fascism: Theories, Causes and the New Consensus." London: Arnold Publishers. Pp. 309. (Speaks of mysticism as part of "mystical nationalism" as being important to fascism's nationalist stances).] Fascism opposes communism, conservatism, liberalism, and international socialism.cite book |last=Eatwell |first=Roger|title=Fascism: A History|publisher=University of Michigan|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=x3U6AAAAMAAJ&q=fascism+eatwell&dq=fascism+eatwell&pgis=1|isbn=071399147X] cite book |last=Griffin|first=Roger |title=The Nature of Fascism|publisher=Palgrave Macmillan|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=fcn5ZtaPc7oC&dq=%22third+way%22+fascism+eatwell&lr= |isbn=0312071329] cite book |last=Paxton |first=Robert |title=The Anatomy of Fascism|publisher=Vintage Books|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=oGMfAAAACAAJ&dq=The+Anatomy+of+Fascism|isbn=1400033918] cite book |last=Payne |first=Stanley |title=A History of Fascism, 1914-45|publisher=University of Wisconsin Press|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=NLiFIEdI1V4C&dq=A+History+of+Fascism+payne&lr=&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 |isbn=0299148742] cite book |last=Nolte |first=Ernst |title=Three Faces of Fascism: Action Française, Italian Fascism and National Socialism|publisher=Holt, Rinehart and Winston|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=xX9AAAAAIAAJ&q=three+faces+of+fascism&dq=three+faces+of+fascism&pgis=1] cite book |last=Fritzsche|first=Peter |title=Rehearsals for Fascism: Populism and Political Mobilization in Weimar Germany|publisher=Oxford University Press|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=xX9AAAAAIAAJ&q=three+faces+of+fascism&dq=three+faces+of+fascism&pgis=1 |isbn=0195057805] cite news|url=http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9024764|publisher= Encyclopædia Britannica|title=Collectivism |date=8 January 2008] [Roger Griffin, " [http://ah.brookes.ac.uk/history/staff/griffin/coreoffascism.pdf The palingenetic core of generic fascist ideology] ", Chapter published in Alessandro Campi (ed.), "Che cos'è il fascismo?" Interpretazioni e prospettive di ricerche, Ideazione editrice, Roma, 2003, pp. 97-122. (Speaks of fascism seeing international socialism as a threat.]
Some authors reject broad usage of the term or exclude certain parties and regimes.cite book |last=Griffiths |first=Richard|title=Fascism|publisher=Continuum|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=OKU5YKV7dxQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Fascism+Griffiths&sig=ACfU3U2TgW2afjBfckWz-3sqqzAlthZC3w|isbn=0826478565] Following the defeat of the
Axis powersin World War II, there have been few self-proclaimed fascist groups and individuals. In contemporary political discourse, the term "fascist" is often used by adherents of some ideologies as a pejorative description of their opponents.
The term "fascismo" was brought into popular usage by the Italian founders of Fascism,
Benito Mussoliniand the Neo-Hegelian philosopher Giovanni Gentile. [cite book | last = New World | first =Websters | title = Webster's II New College Dictionary| publisher =Houghton Mifflin Reference Books| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=OL60E3r2yiYC&pg=PA415&dq=fascismo+fascio&sig=ACfU3U0GjGSAC9nr1oc9xOaW3pAVXexS5g | isbn =0618396012] It is derived from the Italian word " fascio", which means "bundle" or "union", and from the Latin word " fasces".cite book | last = Payne | first =Stanley | title =A History of Fascism, 1914-45| publisher =University of Wisconsin Press| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=NLiFIEdI1V4C&dq=A+History+of+Fascism+payne&lr=&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 | isbn =0299148742] The fasces, which consisted of a bundle of rods often tied around an axe, were an ancient Roman symbol of the authority of the civic magistrates; they were carried by his Lictors and could be used for corporal and capital punishment at his command.cite book | last = Payne | first =Stanley | title =A History of Fascism, 1914-45| publisher =University of Wisconsin Press| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=NLiFIEdI1V4C&dq=A+History+of+Fascism+payne&lr=&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 | isbn =0299148742] Furthermore, the symbolism of the fasces suggested "strength through unity": a single rod is easily broken, while the bundle is difficult to break. [cite book | last =Doordan | first =Dennis P| title =In the Shadow of the Fasces: Political Design in Fascist Italy| publisher =The MIT Press| url =http://www.jstor.org/pss/1511586 | isbn =0299148742] This is a familiar theme throughout different forms of fascism; for example the Falangesymbol is a bunch of arrows joined together by a yoke. [cite book | last = Parkins | first =Wendy | title =Fashioning the Body Politic: Dress, Gender, Citizenship| publisher =Berg Publishers| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=DjUc4r87w7wC&pg=PA178&dq=the+yoke+and+arrows&sig=ACfU3U0jj_4cVT9mN7EBOdAwyLv5OhsCnA | isbn =1859735878]
The popular presentation of Fascism in the publications of the
Anglospherehave been radically different in the period during and after World War IIthan in the period 1919—1939, when Mussolini and the Italian Fascists were widely acclaimed.cite news |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=My2rlb0bnx0C&pg=PA71&lpg=PA71&dq=%22I+am+no+superman+like+Mussolini%22&source=web&ots=UlaTM7Nm67&sig=YW9AV1oyMNjUgc96AgDvJtup2sM&hl=en |publisher=Leon Surette |title=Pound in Purgatory |date=27 January 2008] [cite news |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=LcvGAAAACAAJ&dq=A+History+of+Us:+War,+Peace+and+all+that+Jazz |publisher=Oxford University Press |title=A History of US: Book 9: War, Peace, and All That Jazz 1918-1945 |date=27 January 2008] As fascism was associated with the Axis powerswho fought and lost the war, and the Anglosphere were mostly among the victorious Allied powers, it was difficult for many years to provide a neutral view of the topic. English-speaking (and other) historians, political scientists, and other scholars have engaged in long and furious debates concerning the exact nature of fascism.cite book |last=Gregor |first=A. James |title=Phoenix: Fascism in Our Time |publisher=Transaction Publishers |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=EIJXYCBFqnUC&pg=PA6&dq=%22extreme+right%22+fascism&lr=&sig=ACfU3U2gCeyCXuMJAei133LkOS3xan-HZw |isbn=0765808552] However since the 1990s scholars have begun to gather a rough consensus on the system's core tenets. Noted proponents include Stanley Payne, Hamish MacDonald, Roger Griffin, Nicholas Farrelland Robert O. Paxton.
While various attempts to define Fascism have been made, the problem scholars often run into is that each form of fascism is different from any other, leaving many definitions as too wide or too narrow.cite book |last=Payne |first=Stanley G |title=Fascism, Comparison and Definition |publisher=Univ of Wisconsin Press |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=HvqRDWVyIcEC&pg=PP1&dq=Fascism:+Comparison+and+Definition&sig=ACfU3U2PvGk1srTFtkrtu-wGsKah2kilaw#PPA4,M1 |isbn=0299080641] cite book |last=Griffiths |first=Richard |title=An Intelligent Person's Guide to Fascism |publisher=Duckworth|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=Y668AAAACAAJ&dq=Griffiths,+Richard+Fascism |isbn=0715629182] Below are two examples of attempts to define Fascism, in a concise, to the point form;
The place of fascism in the
political spectrumremains highly debated. Fascist leaders themselves produced different definitions of what part of the political spectrum their movement stood, in 1932, Mussolini professed about the twentieth century saying "This is a century of authority, a century tending to the 'right', a Fascist century". [Adams, Ian; Dyson, R.W. 2003. "Fifty Major Political Thinkers." Routledge. Pp 178. [http://books.google.com/books?id=kOs0B-VTFMkC&pg=PA179&dq=%22corporatism%22+hitler+mussolini&lr=&sig=ACfU3U2bF9T7G1iRyhQThmbVfpyjQQtNfQ#PPA178,M1] ] However many Italian Fascists like Benito Mussolini were ex-socialists and ex-syndicalists, and upon the Fascists being ousted and then reinstalled in the German puppet Italian Social Republic, Mussolini and the Fascists professed to be a left-wing movement. [Smith, Denis Mack. Mussolini; A Biography. New York: Vintage Books, 1983. p311] In practice, fascism opposed communism, conservatismand liberalismbut also laissez faire capitalismand international socialism. Many scholars accept fascism as a search for a Third Wayamong these fields. [cite book |last=Bastow|first=Steve |title=Third Way Discourse: European Ideologies in the Twentieth Century|publisher=Edinburgh University Press |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=0J9DpxWxi14C&pg=PA93&dq=%22third+way%22+fascism&sig=ACfU3U21wyLLZwse3dYoyA7aXJoN9cYUsw |isbn=074861561X] cite book |last=Macdonald |first=Hamish |title=Mussolini and Italian Fascism |publisher=Nelson Thornes |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=221W9vKkWrcC&pg=PT16&dq=Gabriele+d%27Annunzio+paris+peace&sig=ACfU3U1BTr2IQkCU7gfZKyLAg2TRbp6a8g |isbn=0748733868] [cite book |last=Woolley |first=Donald Patrick |title=The Third Way: Fascism as a Method of Maintaining Power in Italy and Spain |publisher=University of North Carolina at Greensboro |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=SjOyGwAACAAJ&dq=%22third+way%22+fascism] [cite book |last=Heywood |first=Andrew |title=Key Concepts in Politics |publisher=Palgrave |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=221W9vKkWrcC&pg=PT16&dq=Gabriele+d%27Annunzio+paris+peace&sig=ACfU3U1BTr2IQkCU7gfZKyLAg2TRbp6a8g |isbn=0312233817] [cite book |last=Renton |first=Dave |title=Fascism: Theory and Practice|publisher=Pluto Press |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=Ojtn0IT6LpgC&pg=PA28&dq=%22third+way%22+fascism&lr=&sig=ACfU3U29w491Co0j3H4s72KUCvx_36hSIQ |isbn=0745314708] [cite book |last=Kallis |first=Aristotle A |title=The Fascism Reader |publisher=Routledge |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=tP2wXl5nzboC&pg=PA33&dq=%22third+way%22+fascism+eatwell&lr=&sig=ACfU3U049ZN8MGgXE7O87P1E2rKYDdUGnQ |isbn=0415243599] cite book |last=Griffin |first=Roger |title=The Nature of Fascism |publisher=Palgrave Macmillan |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=fcn5ZtaPc7oC&dq=%22third+way%22+fascism+eatwell&lr= |isbn=0312071329] [cite book |last=Parla |first=Taha |title=The Social and Political Thought of Ziya Gökalp, 1876-1924 |publisher=Brill |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=63weAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA113&dq=%22third+way%22+fascism&lr=&sig=ACfU3U22B0TsrgAkF0dKzH-tGewY7I5n2g |isbn=9004072292] [cite book |last=Durham |first=Martin |title=Women and Fascism |publisher=Routledge |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=yA1Y5znKY1sC&pg=PA4&dq=%22third+way%22+fascism+eatwell&lr=&sig=ACfU3U00G6DB4k2NLWe5EMGpvsNKqyq5tA |isbn=0415122805] Sir Oswald Mosley, for example, the leader of the British Union of Fascists, chose to describe his position as "hard centre" on the political spectrum. [cite book |last=Skidelsky |first=Robert Jacob Alexander |title=Oswald Mosley |publisher=Holt, Rinehart and Winston |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=Xv2pAwKeX10C&q=mosley+%22hard+centre%22&dq=mosley+%22hard+centre%22&lr=&pgis=1 |isbn=0030865808] Scholar A. James Gregorasserts that the most "uninspired effort to understand fascism" is to simply place it on the right-wing, or the radical rightas the common tendency was in the Anglosphere during the post-war period.cite book |last=Gregor |first=A. James |title=Phoenix: Fascism in Our Time |publisher=Transaction Publishers |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=EIJXYCBFqnUC&pg=PA6&dq=%22extreme+right%22+fascism&lr=&sig=ACfU3U2gCeyCXuMJAei133LkOS3xan-HZw |isbn=0765808552] While Walter Laqueurasserts that historical fascism "did not belong to the extreme Left, yet defining it as part of the extreme Right is not very illuminating either", but that it "was always a coalition between radical, populist ('fascist') elements and others gravitating toward the extreme Right".cite book |last=Laqueuer |first=Walter |title=Fascism: Past, Present, Future |publisher=Oxford University Press |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=fWggQTqioXcC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Fascism:+Past,+Present,+Future&sig=ACfU3U1n62biDhT9uHo0oHkCLSi97MrTmw |isbn=019511793X] Since the end of World War II, many fascist movements have become more monolithically right-wing, and became intertwined with the radical right. [Roger Griffin, Interregnum or Endgame?: Radical Right Thought in the ‘Post-fascist’ Era, "The Journal of Political Ideologies," vol. 5, no. 2, July 2000, pp. 163-78] [‘Non Angeli, sed Angli: the neo-populist foreign policy of the "New" BNP', in Christina Liang (ed.) Europe for the Europeans: the foreign and security policy of the populist radical right (Ashgate, Hampshire,2007). ISBN 0754648516]
The original founders of Fascism in Italy were made up of people who were previously
socialists, syndicalists, military men and anarchistsbut had become angered at the international left's opposition to patriotismand decided to form a new movement; Benito Mussolini, Michele Bianchiand Dino Grandiwere all previously socialists. [cite book |last=Gregor |first=A. James |title=A Place in the Sun: Marxism and Fascism in China's Long Revolution|publisher=Westview Press|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=bmIJNq5dUp8C&dq=dino+Grandi++left+wing |isbn=0813337828] The biggest difference between the movements, is that fascism rejects the idea of class war in favor of class collaboration, [cite book |last=Counts|first=George Sylvester|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=U2saJs2cuXsC&pg=PA70&dq=%22class+collaboration%22+fascism&sig=ACfU3U3hEGDZGYOj-UOVa6sbFDLvpj3RWw|publisher=Ayer Publishing|title=Bolshevism, Fascism, and Capitalism: An Account of the Three Economic Systems|isbn=0836918665] while also rejecting socialist internationalism in favor of statist nationalism.cite book |last=Gregor|first=A. James|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=xQEjHAAACAAJ&dq=giovanni+gentile|publisher=Transaction Pub|title=Giovanni Gentile: Philosopher Of Fascism|isbn=0765805936] Over time however, the Italian Fascists' more leftist social policies and some leftist economic policies were conceded by pressure of elites (of economic, cultural, and political background) and replaced them by more right-leaning policies, such as abandoning the Fascist Manifesto's initial promise of granting the right to vote for women, abandoning early promises to nationalize all property, and abandoning earlier overt militancy against political, cultural, and economic elites, such as the monarchy, aristocracy, clergy, businessmen, and landowners, and adopted a strategy of cooperation with them.
The word "fascist" has become a slur throughout the
political spectrumfollowing World War II, and it has been uncommon for political groups to call themselves "fascist." Scholar Richard Griffiths asserted in 2005 that the term fascism is the "most misused, and over-used word of our times".cite book |last=Griffiths |first=Richard |title=An Intelligent Person's Guide to Fascism|publisher=Duckworth|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=Y668AAAACAAJ&dq=Griffiths,+Richard+Fascism |isbn=0715629182] In contemporary political discourse, adherents of some political ideologies tend to associate fascism with their enemies, or define it as the opposite of their own views. In the strict sense of the word, Fascism covers movements before WWII, and later movements who some claim have a vague connection to the original form are described as neo-fascist. Furthermore, in the post-war era, fascism has been improperly and commonly associated with white supremacism, anti-Semitismand racismwhich assumes fascism as being exclusive to caucasiansocieties when in fact, aside from fascist movements related to Nazism, other fascist movements have existed in non-caucasian societies and racially-mixed societies such as in Brazil, Mexico, Japan, and arguably the former Zaire(now the Democratic Republic of Congo) under the rule of Mobutu Sese Seko. [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=IHJDaepcRwMC&pg=PA338&dq=mobutu+fascist&lr=&sig=ACfU3U1s5gnh5T-Oj8j47cMX2w5AbEgugA] ] [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=P1HnXObckeAC&pg=PA85&dq=mobutu+fascist&sig=ACfU3U3BAdXOh7lGt6g9nvYPzN6wCPmh2w] ] [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=I81BAAAAIAAJ&q=mobutu+fascist&dq=mobutu+fascist&lr=&pgis=1] ] Some have argued that the term "fascist" has become hopelessly vague over the years and that it has become little more than a pejorative epithet, for example socialist George Orwellwrote in 1944:
Fascism sees the struggle of nation and race as fundamental in society, in opposition to communism's perception of class struggle [Ebenstein, William. 1964. "Today's Isms: Communism, Fascism, Capitalism, and Socialism." Prentice Hall (original from the University of Michigan). Pp 178. [http://books.google.com/books?id=Ym0AAAAAMAAJ&q=fascism+%22corporatism%22&dq=fascism+%22corporatism%22&lr=&pgis=1] ] and in opposition to capitalism's focus on the value of productivity, materialism, and individualism. The nation is seen in fascism as a single organic entity which bounds people together by their ancestry and is seen as a natural unifying force of people. Fascists promote the unification and expansion of influence, power, and/or territory of and for their nation.
National socialism and national syndicalism
While fascists support the unifying of workers to their cause along socialistic or syndicalistic lines, fascists specify that they advocate
national socialismor national syndicalismwhich promotes the creation of a strong proletarian nation, but not a proletarian class. [Payne, Stanley G. 1996. A History of Fascism, 1914-1945. Routledge. Pp. 64] Also, national-socialistic fascists, unlike international socialists, do not believe in the notion of equality of people across ethnic, cultural, national, or religious lines. Fascists declare either nation or race as the supreme unifying source of a people, and claim that class divisions which they perceive as being imposed by capitalism, communism, and international socialismmust be subdued to allow the nation or race to unify.
In the case of Italy, Fascism arose in the 1920s as a mixture of national syndicalist notions with an anti-materialist theory of the state. Many Italian Fascists were former international socialists who abandoned international socialism due to its perceived unpatriotic nature for being unwilling to support Italy's war against
Austria-Hungaryin World War Ias international socialists condemned the conflict as being a " bourgeoiswar". While others with nationalist sympathies saw the war as necessary to reunite Italian territories in Austria to Italy to end what they perceived as national oppression of Italians in Austria-Hungary. Mussolini and other ex-socialists formed the Fascist movement in 1919 with a left-wing platform combined with nationalism in the Fascist Manifesto of 1919. Over time the Italian Fascists would drift rightward on social and economic policies, such as abandoning previous hostility to the monarchy, the Roman Catholic Church, and businesses in order to attract more support for the Fascist regime while retaining its nationalist agenda. Upon being ousted in 1943 and a new Fascist regime being created in the German puppet state of the Italian Social Republic, Mussolini briefly returned to earlier left-wing promises to attempt to regain support for the Fascist movement, such as advocating major nationalization of property and promoting the Fascist movement as a left-wing movement. [Smith, Denis Mack. Mussolini; A Biography. New York: Vintage Books, 1983. p311]
parliamentary democracyof producing division and decline, and wished to renew the nation from decadence. Fascists dismissed the Marxist concept of " class struggle" and oppose international socialists' promotion of internationalism instead of nationalism, by advocating " class collaboration" devoted to unifying the nation.
Nationalist-oriented collectivism, mysticism, and populism
Fascism appealed both to collectivism, mysticism, and populism along a basis that promoted nationalism. Fascism made populist appeals to the middle-class, especially the lower middle-class by promising the protection of the middle-class and small business and small property owners from communism such as by promising the protection of private property and an economy based on competition and profit while pledging to oppose big business. [Griffen, Roger (editor). Chapter 8: "Extremism of the Centre" - by Seymour Martin Lipset. "International Fascism: Theories, Causes and the New Consensus." Arnold Readers. Pp. 101.] Fascism also has elements of populism that appealed to an
Agrarianmyth. [Tom Brass, "Peasants, Populism and Postmodernism", Routledge, 2000] Fascism also tends to be anti-intellectual. [Griffin, Roger and Matthew Feldma [http://books.google.com/books?id=kne26UnE1wQC&pg=PT477&dq=fascism+anti-intellectualism+griffin&sig=ACfU3U0MKyugOI5gQ2sSK-hN7PdnFTQy5g#PPT478,M1 Fascism: Critical Concepts in Political Science] , 2004 Taylor and Francis] The Nazis in particular despised intellectuals and university professors. Hitler declared them unreliable, useless and even dangerous. [Evans, pg. 299] Still, Hitler has been quoted as saying "When I take a look at the intellectual classes we have - unfortunately, I suppose, they are necessary; otherwise one could one day, I don't know, exterminate them or something - but unfortunately they're necessary." [Domarus, "Hitler" II. 251-252]
Fascist regimes have advocated
economic nationalismas a means to bolster their economies and economic conditions for society and reduce the country's dependence on other countries. To do this fascists promoted a policy called autarkywhich was designed to create a fully self-sufficient country which would no longer have any dependence on international trade.
corporatism, an economic system than is in between laissez-fairecapitalist and statist economic systems of traditional communist and socialist governments. Corporatism is highly similar to Keynesianismwhich typically allows a significant degree of freedom from state intervention for private interests that are operating well independently or are outside of national interests, but if areas of the economy vital to national interests are operating poorly, or require direction to operate in accordance to national interest, state intervention is utilized.
Under fascist corporatism,
class collaborationis advocated as a means to solve class strife and create a unified society across class lines. Fascist corporatism opposes class conflictand class-based society as promoted by communismand international socialismand blamed capitalismfor exploiting workers and nations. Managers and unions under corporatism were officially under mandated obligation to cooperate to settle disputes. Critics claim that in practice, corporatism in Germany and Italy under fascism typically favoured business and industrial interests over that of workers.
Fascists opposed what they believed to be
laissez-faireor quasi-laissez-faire economic policies dominant in the era prior to the creation of the Federal Reserveand the Income Tax, and the subsequent Great Depression. [David Baker, "The political economy of fascism: Myth or reality, or myth and reality?", "New Political Economy", Volume 11, Issue 2 June 2006 , pages 227-250.] People of many different political stripes blamed laissez-faire capitalismfor the Great Depression, and fascists promoted their ideology as a "third way" between capitalism and Marxian socialism. [Philip Morgan, "Fascism in Europe, 1919-1945", Taylor & Francis, 2003, p. 168.] Their policies manifested as a radical extension of government control over the economy without wholesale expropriationof the means of production. Fascist governments nationalized some key industries, managed their currencies and made some massive state investments. They also introduced price controls, wage controls and other types of economic planning measures.Stanislav Andreski, Wars, Revolutions, Dictatorships, Routledge 1992, page 64] Fascist governments instituted state-regulated allocation of resources, especially in the financial and raw materialssectors.
Other than nationalization of certain industries, private
propertywas allowed, but property rights and private initiative were contingent upon service to the state. [James A. Gregor, The Search for Neofascism: The Use and Abuse of Social Science, Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 7] For example, "an owner of agricultural land may be compelled to raise wheat instead of sheep and employ more labor than he would find profitable."Herbert Kitschelt, Anthony J. McGann. The Radical Right in Western Europe: a comparative analysis. 1996 University of Michigan Press. p. 30] According to historian Tibor Ivan Berend, " dirigisme" was an inherent aspect of fascist economies. [Tibor Ivan Berend, "An Economic History of Twentieth-Century Europe", Cambridge University Press, 2005, p. 93] The Labour Charter of 1927, promulgated by the Grand Council of Fascism, stated in article 7::"The corporative State considers private initiative, in the field of production, as the most efficient and useful instrument of the Nation"," then goes on to say in article 9 that: "State intervention in economic production may take place only where private initiative is lacking or is insufficient, or when are at stakes the political interest of the State. This intervention may take the form of control, encouragement or direct management."
Fascists thought that private property should be regulated to ensure that "benefit to the community precedes benefit to the individual." [Richard Allen Epstein, "Principles for a Free Society: Reconciling Individual Liberty With the Common Good", De Capo Press 2002, p. 168] They also introduced price controls and other types of economic planning measures.Stanislav Andreski, Wars, Revolutions, Dictatorships, Routledge 1992, page 64]
Fascism also operated from a Social Darwinist view of human relations. Their aim was to promote "superior" individuals and weed out the weak. [Alexander J. De Grand, "Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany", Routledge, 1995. pp. 47.] In terms of economic practice, this meant promoting the interests of successful businessmen while destroying
trade unions and other organizations of the working class. [De Grand, "Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany", pp. 48-51.] Historian Gaetano Salveminiargued in 1936 that fascism makes taxpayers responsible to private enterprise, because "the State pays for the blunders of private enterprise... Profit is private and individual. Loss is public and social." [Salvemini, Gaetano. "Under the Axe of Fascism" 1936.]
Fascists were most vocal in their opposition to
finance capitalism, interestcharging, and profiteering. [Frank Bealey & others. Elements of Political Science. Edinburgh University Press, 1999, p. 202] Some fascists, particularly Nazis, considered finance capitalism a "parasitic" "Jewish conspiracy". [Postone, Moishe. 1986. "Anti-Semitism and National Socialism." "Germans & Jews Since the Holocaust: The Changing Situation in West Germany", ed. Anson Rabinbach and Jack Zipes. New York: Homes & Meier.] Nevertheless, fascists also opposed Marxismand independent trade unions.
According to sociologist
Stanislav Andreski, fascist economics "foreshadowed most of the fundamental features of the economic system of Western European countries today: the radical extension of government control over the economy without a wholesale expropriation of the capitalists but with a good dose of nationalisation, price control, incomes policy, managed currency, massive state investment, attempts at overall planning (less effectual than the Fascist because of the weakness of authority)." Politics professor Stephen Haseler credits fascism with providing a model of economic planning for social democracy. [Stephen Haseler. The Death of British Democracy: Study of Britain's Political Present and Future. Prometheus Books 1976. p. 153]
In Nazi economic planning, in place of ordinary profit incentive to guide the economy, investment was guided through regulation to accord to the needs of the State. The profit incentive for business owners was retained, though greatly modified through various profit-fixing schemes: "Fixing of profits, not their suppression, was the official policy of the Nazi party." However the function of profit in automatically guiding allocation of investment and unconsciously directing the course of the economy was replaced with economic planning by Nazi government agencies. [citation
title=Profits Under Nazi Planning
journal=The Quarterly Journal of Economics
volume=Vol. 61, No. 1
Fascist corporatism opposed what it deemed the excesses of
laissez-faire capitalismand statist socialism. Unlike laissez-faire capitalist systems, fascist corporatism involved significant government intervention such as regulations, objectives, and nationalization of certain enterprises. Unlike statist socialist systems, fascist corporatism for the most part protected the right of private property and allowed significant independence for private free enterprise except in areas deemed vital to the national interest where private enterprise was not able to meet economic expectations of the state, in which such enterprises were nationalized. In Italy, the Fascist period presided over the creation of the largest number of state-owned enterprises in Western Europesuch as the nationalization of petroleum companies in Italy into a single state enterprise called the Italian General Agency for Petroleum ("Azienda Generale Italiani Petroli", AGIP). [Schachter, Gustav; Engelbourg, Saul. 2005. "Cultural Continuity In Advanced Economies: Britain And The U.S. Versus Continental Europe." Published by Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. Pp 302. [http://books.google.com/books?id=4nQj2Ym7OuoC&pg=PA302&dq=mussolini+fascist+nationalized+petroleum+company&lr=&sig=ACfU3U0oCd7BXk0iZbWbELd7J18gDargxw] ] Fascists promoted their ideology as a "third way" between capitalismand Marxian socialism. [Philip Morgan, "Fascism in Europe, 1919–1945", Taylor & Francis, 2003, p. 168.]
Fascism explicitly supports the creation of a totalitarian state. Italian Fascists declared the following:
A key element of fascism is its endorsement of the leadership over a country of a dictator, who is often known simply as the "Leader" ("
Duce" in Italian, " Führer" in German, " Caudillo" in Spanish, and " Conducător" in Romanian). Fascist leaders that rule countries are not always heads of state, but heads of government, such as Benito Mussolini who held power under the largely figurehead King of Italy, Victor Emmanuel III.
Fascism is typified by totalitarian attempts to impose state control over all aspects of life: political, social, cultural, and economic, by way of a strong, single-party government for enacting laws and a strong militia or police force for enforcing them through threat of reprisal against dissidents or through political violence directed at opponents. [David Baker, The political economy of fascism: Myth or reality, or myth and reality? New Political Economy, Volume 11, Issue 2 June 2006 , pages 227 – 250 ] Fascism exalts the
nation, state, or group of people as superior to the individuals composing it, and uses explicit populist rhetoric. It calls for a heroic mass effort to restore past greatness, and demands loyalty to a single leader, leading to a cult of personalityand unquestioned obedience to orders (see Führerprinzip). Fascism is also considered to be a form of collectivism. [cite journal|author=Triandis, Harry C.|coauthors=Gelfand, Michele J.|title=Converging Measurement of Horizontal and Vertical Individualism and Collectivism|journal=Journal of Personality and Social Psychology|volume=74|issue=1|year=1998|pages=119|doi=10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.206; "Collectivism". (2006). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved November 14, 2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9024764] [Calvin B. Hoover, "The Paths of Economic Change: Contrasting Tendencies in the Modern World," "The American Economic Review", Vol. 25, No. 1, Supplement, Papers and Proceedings of the Forty-seventh Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association. (Mar., 1935), pp. 13-20; Philip Morgan, "Fascism in Europe, 1919-1945, New York Tayolor & Francis 2003, p. 168] [Friedrich A. Hayek. 1944. "The Road to Serfdom". Routledge Press] Fascism promotes the indoctrinationof people into the movement, such as through education, propaganda, and organizations.
Interventionist social policies
On the question of whether one can speak of “fascist social policy” as single concept with logical and internally consistent ideas and common identifiable goals, some scholars say that one cannot, pointing for example to German National Socialism where such policy was mostly opportunistic and pragmatic. [Rimlinger, G.V. ‘’Social Policy Under German Fascism’’ in [http://books.google.com/books?id=2E24qf2_8hEC&dq Stagnation and Renewal in Social Policy: The Rise and Fall of Policy Regimes] by Martin Rein, Gosta Esping-Andersen, and Lee Rainwater, p. 61, M.E. Sharpe, 1987] Generally all fascist movements endorse
social interventionismdedicating to influencing society to promote the state's interests.
Mussolini promised a “social revolution” for “remaking” the Italian people which was only achieved in part. [Knight, Patricia [http://books.google.com/books?id=UChQ6AkxkpcC&dq Mussolini and Fascism] , p. 72, Routledge, 2003 ] The groups that primarily benefited from Italian Fascist social policy were the middle and lower-middle classes who filled the jobs in the vastly expanding government – the government expanding from about 500,000 to a million jobs in 1930 alone. [Knight, Patricia [http://books.google.com/books?id=UChQ6AkxkpcC&dq Mussolini and Fascism] , p. 72, Routledge, 2003 ] Health and welfare spending grew dramatically under Italian fascism, welfare rising from 7% of the budget in 1930 to 20% in 1940. [ Pollard, John Francis [http://books.google.com/books?id=qjlaJEAgYYgC&dq The Fascist Experience in Italy] , p. 80 Routledge 1998] The Fascist government advocated a number of policies on improving living standards for labourers such as by establishing the nationwide
Opera Nazionale Dopolavoroin 1925, which was a state-sponsored organization that created numerous municipal clubs across Italy that allowed lower-income citizens to attend recreational activities, watch movies, and listen to musical performances, etc.
Hitler was personally opposed to the idea of social welfare because, in his view, it encouraged the preservation of the degenerate and feeble. [Adolf Hitler, "Mein Kampf", pgs. 27-28] However, once in power the Nazis created welfare programs to deal with the large numbers of unemployment. Nevertheless, unlike social welfare programs in other countries, Nazi social welfare programs were
residual, as they excluded certain people from the system whom they felt were incapable of helping themselves and would only pose a threat to the future health of the German people. [Evans, pgs. 491-492]
Positions on abortion and birth control
The Fascist government in Italy banned abortion and literature on birth control in 1926 and declared abortion and distribution of birth control literature as crimes against the state. [De Grazia, Victoria. 2002. "How Fascism Ruled Women: Italy, 1922-1945". University of California Press. Pp. 55] A year later, the Fascist government began the "Battle for Births" in 1927, a social engineering policy aimed at increasing the population of Italians.
Nazi eugenicsplaced the improvement of the race through eugenicsat the center of their concerns and targeted those humans they identified as " life unworthy of life" (German "Lebensunwertes Leben"), including but not limited to mentally and physically disabled, homosexuals, feeble-minded, insane, and the weak. Adolf Hitlerpersonally decriminalized abortion in case of fetuses having racial or hereditary defects, while the abortion of healthy "pure" German, "Aryan" unborn remained strictly forbidden. [Henry Friedlander, ' [http://books.google.com/books?id=gqLDEKVk2nMC&pg=PR22&dq=Friedlander+and+abortion+nazi&ei=WOT3R4zxPIOOywSH6JW0DQ&sig=nt0z_vPg8PMvE2yKUYaoWHYTx_o#PPA30,M1 The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution] " (Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of Northern Carolina Press, 1995): 30. Via Google Books.] In fact, for non-Aryans abortion was not only allowed but often compelled. [McLaren, Angus [http://books.google.com/books?id=0ndUbVIHCOUC&dq Twentieth-Century Sexuality] p. 139 Blackwell Publishing 1999 ] Like their forbears, the Neo-nazi position on abortion is not about preservation of life but propagation of the race; the Aryan Nation security chief stated: “I’m just against abortion for the pure white race. For blacks and other mongrelized races, abortion is a good idea.” [Griffin, Roger and Matthew Feldman [ Fascism: Critical Concepts in Political Science] , p. 140, Taylor & Francis, 2004] The Nazis based their eugenics program on the United States' programs of forced sterilization. [ [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2003/11/09/ING9C2QSKB1.DTL Eugenics and the Nazis - the California connection ] ] Their eugenics program stemmed also from the “progressive biomedical model” of Weimar Germany. [McLaren, Angus [http://books.google.com/books?id=0ndUbVIHCOUC&dq Twentieth-Century Sexuality] p. 139 Blackwell Publishing 1999 ]
Positions on culture, gender roles and relations, and sexual orientation
Fascism also tends to promote principles of
masculineheroism, militarism, and discipline; and rejects cultural pluralismand multiculturalism. [Roger Griffin, The `post-fascism' of the Alleanza Nazionale: a case-study in ideological morphology, "Journal of Political Ideologies", Vol. 1, No. 2, 1996]
The Italian Fascist government during the "Battle for Births" gave financial incentives to women who raised large families as well as policies designed to reduce the number of women employed to allow women to give birth to larger numbers of children. [McDonald, Harmish. 1999. "Mussolini and Italian Fascism". Nelson Thornes. Pp. 27]
Nazi propaganda sometimes promoted pre- and extramarital sexual relations, unwed motherhood, and divorce and at other times opposed such behaviour. [Ann Taylor Allen. [http://www.h-net.msu.edu/reviews/showrev.cgi?path=36061145897125. Review of Dagmar Herzog, Sex after Fascism: Memory and Morality in Twentieth-Century Germay] H-German, H-Net Reviews, January 2006] The growth of Nazi power, however, was accompanied by a breakdown of traditional sexual morals with regard to extramarital sex and licentiousness. [ Hau, Michael, Sex after Fascism: Memory and Morality in Twentieth-Century Germany (review) Modernism/modernity - Volume 14, Number 2, April 2007, pp. 378-380, The Johns Hopkins University Press]
The Italian Fascist government declared
homosexualityillegal in Italy in 1931. [McDonald, 1999. Pp. 27]
The Nazis opposition to homosexuality was based on the Nazis view that homosexuality was degenerate, effeminate, and perverted and undermined the masculinity which they promoted and because they did not produce children for the master race. [Richard J Evans, "The Third Reich in Power, 1933-1939" pg. 529 The Penguin Press HC, 2005] Nevertheless the Nazis considered homosexuality curable through therapy. They explained it though modern
scientismand the study of sexologywhich said that homosexuality could be felt by "normal" people and not just an abnormal minority. [Ann Taylor Allen. [http://www.h-net.msu.edu/reviews/showrev.cgi?path=36061145897125 Review of Dagmar Herzog, Sex after Fascism] H-German, H-Net Reviews, January 2006] Critics have claimed that the Nazis' claim of scientific reasons for their promotion of racism, and hostility to homosexuals is pseudoscience, [Baumslag, Naomi; Pellgrino, Edmund D. 2005. "Murderous medicine: Nazi doctors, human experimentation, and typhus". Greenwood Publishing Group. Pp. 37. Claims Nazi scientific reasoning for racial policy was pseudoscience] [Lancaster, Roger N."The Trouble of Nature: Sex in Science and Popular Culture". University of California Press. Pp. 10. Claims that Nazi scientific reasoning for anti-homosexual policy was pseudoscience] in that scientific findings were selectively picked that promoted their pre-existing views, while scientific findings opposing those views were rejected and not taken into account.
Iron Guardopposed homosexuality as undermining society. [Volovici, Nationalist Ideology, p. 98, citing N. Cainic, Ortodoxie şi etnocraţie, pp. 162-4)]
Fascists typically advocate a strong military that is capable of both defensive and offensive actions. In Germany and Italy under Hitler and Mussolini, enormous amounts of funding was dedicated to the military. In some fascist regimes, the fascist movement itself has a paramilitary wing which is included in the armed forces of the country, such as the
SSin Germany and the MVSNin Italy, which are devoted directly and specifically to the fascist movement. The leaders of fascist movements often identify with the military, often wearing military-appearing uniforms. Fascism commits the state to mobilization for war, actively promoting military service as a position of honour.
Fascists support the threat and use of
political violenceagainst political opponents or people that fascists deemed enemies of movement itself or their nation. In Italy, Fascists fought on the streets with communists and anarchists. In Germany, Nazis also fought on the streets with communists and anarchists along wtih attacking minority groups such as Jews who were deemed enemies according to Nazi doctrine.
Positions on racism
Benito Mussoliniand Adolf Hitlerwere at odds over the idea of racism. Mussolini in the early 1930s claimed that the concept of a biologically-pure and superior race as believed by Hitler was flawed and impossible and saw racism as a flawed ideology. On the issue of social equality, Mussolini on a number of occasions rejected racism, and rejected the notion of the Nazis of biologically superior races. Hitler believed that race and racism was fundamental and based many of his views and policies on the issue of race and racism. Under pressure from Germany, Mussolini enacted racist policies in the late 1930s, including anti-Semitism which was highly unpopular in Italy and in the Italian Fascist movement itself. Fascists in other countries also had varying positions on racism, Plínio Salgadoand his Integralists of Brazil opposed racism, Gyula Gömbösand his M.O.V.E. party in Hungary supported racism, and others were divided on this issue as well. Neofascismhas tended to associate with racism.
Positions on religion
The attitude of fascism toward religion has run the spectrum from persecution, to denunciation, to cooperation, Laqueur, Walter [http://books.google.com/books?id=fWggQTqioXcC&dq Fascism: Past, Present, Future] p.41 1996 Oxford University Press] ] to embrace. ["Turban for the Crown : The Islamic Revolution in Iran" by Said Amir Arjomand. p.204-9] Stanley Payne notes that fundamental to fascism was the foundation of a purely materialistic "civic religion" which "would displace preceding structures of belief and relegate supernatural religion to a secondary role, or to none at all" and that "though there were specific examples of religious or would-be 'Christian fascists,' fascism presupposed a post-Christian, post-religious, secular, and immanent frame of reference." [Payne, Stanley [http://books.google.com/books?id=9wHNrF7nFecC&dq A History of Fascism, 1914-1945] , p. 9, Routledge 1996]
According to a biographer of Mussolini, "Initially, fascism was fiercely anti-Catholic" - the Church being a competitor for dominion of the people's hearts. [Farrell, Nicholas [http://books.google.com/books?id=aSlIzmsxU8oC&dq Mussolini: A New Life] p.5 2004 Sterling Publishing Company, Inc.] Mussolini, originally a socialist internationalist and
atheist, published anti-Catholicwritings and planned for the confiscation of Church property, but eventually moved to accommodation. Hitler was born a Roman Catholic but renounced his faith at the age of twelve and largely used religious references to attract religious support to the Nazi political agenda. Mussolini largely endorsed the Roman Catholic Church for political legitimacy, as during the Lateran Treatytalks, Fascist officials engaged in bitter arguments with Vatican officials and put pressure on them to accept the terms that the regime deemed acceptable. [Pollard, John F. (1985). "The Vatican and Italian Fascism, 1929-32." Cambridge, USA: Cambridge University Press. p53] Nazis arrested and killed thousands of Catholic clergy (18% of the priests in Poland were killed), eventually consigning thousands of them to concentration camps (2600 died in Dachau alone). [Craughwell, Thomas J., [http://www.catholicculture.org/culture/library/view.cfm?recnum=472 The Gentile Holocaust] Catholic Culture, Accessed July 18, 2008] Although Jews were obviously the greatest and primary target, Hitler also sent Roman Catholics to concentration camps along with the Jews and killed 3 million Catholic Poles along with three million Jewish Poles. [Craughwell, Thomas J., [http://www.catholicculture.org/culture/library/view.cfm?recnum=472 The Gentile Holocaust] Catholic Culture, Accessed July 18, 2008] The Nazi party had decidedly paganelements. Although both Hitler and Mussolini were anticlerical, some believe they both understood that it would be rash to begin their Kulturkampfs prematurely, such a clash, possibly inevitable in the future, being put off while they dealt with other enemies. [Laqueur, Walter [http://books.google.com/books?id=fWggQTqioXcC&dq Fascism: Past, Present, Future] pp. 31, 42, 1996 Oxford University Press] ]
Relations were close in the likes of the Belgian Rexists (which was eventually denounced by the Church). In addition, many Fascists were
anti-clericalin both private and public life. [Laqueur, Walter [http://books.google.com/books?id=fWggQTqioXcC&dq Fascism: Past, Present, Future] p.42 1996 Oxford University Press] ] In Mexico the fascist [ [http://www.bartleby.com/65/ga/GarridoC.html "Garrido Canabal, Tomás"] . "The Columbia Encyclopedia" Sixth Edition (2005).] [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=MopMAAAAMAAJ&q=&pgis=1 The New International Yearbook] p. 442, Dodd, Mead and Co. 1966] [Millan, Verna Carleton, [http://books.google.com/books?id=2zInbon4a6cC&q=&pgis=1 Mexico Reborn] , p.101, 1939 Riverside Press] Red Shirts not only renounced religion but were vehemently atheist [Krauze, Enrique [http://www.tnr.com/doc.mhtml?i=20060619&s=krauze061906&c=2 THE TROUBLING ROOTS OF MEXICO'S LÓPEZ OBRADOR: Tropical Messiah] The New Republic June 19, 2006] , killing priests, and on one occasion gunned down Catholics as they left Mass. [Parsons, Wilfrid [http://books.google.com/books?id=mduJHmsrzhEC&pg=PA239&lpg=PA239&dq=redshirts+catholics+killed&source=web&ots=a1G_9dWEoO&sig=vVnwzJ1GLjWLlfsu4NLVwerORto&hl=en#PPA239,M1 Mexican Martyrdom] , p. 238, 2003 Kessinger Publishing]
Others have argued that there has been a strong connection between some versions of fascism and religion, particularly the
Catholic Church. [Arjomand, Said Amir, "Turban for the Crown : The Islamic Revolution in Iran," Oxford University Press, 1988, p.208-9 ] Religion did play a real part in the Ustashain Croatiawhich had strong religious (Catholic) overtones and clerics in positions of power. [Laqueur, Walter [http://books.google.com/books?id=fWggQTqioXcC&dq Fascism: Past, Present, Future] p.148 1996 Oxford University Press] ] Spain's Falangists emphasized the struggle against the atheism of the left. The nationalist authoritarian movement in the Slovak Republic (the People's Party) was established by a catholic priest (Father Hlinka) and presided over by another (Father Tiso). The fascist movement in Romania known as the Iron Guardor the Legion of Archangel Michael invariably preceded its meetings with a church service and "their demonstrations were usually led by priests carrying icons and religious flags." Similar to Ayatollah Khomeini's Shi'a Islamist movement in Iran, it promoted a cult of "suffering, sacrifice and martyrdom." [source: Weber, E. "Rumania" in H. Rogger and E. Weber, eds., "The European Right: A Historical Profile." Berkeley: University of California Press, 1965.] [Nagy-Talavera, N. M. "The Green Shirts and the Others. A History of Fascism in Hungary and Rumania". Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1970; p.247, 266-70] In Latin America the most important Fascist movement was Plinio Salgado's Brazilian "Integralism." Built on a network of lay religious associations, its vision was of an "integral state," that `comes from Christ, is inspired in Christ, acts for Christ, and goes toward Christ.` ["Turban for the Crown : The Islamic Revolution in Iran" by Said Amir Arjomand. p.208-9 ] [Hilton, S. "Acao Integralista Brasiliera: Fascism in Brazil, 1932-38" "Lusa Brazilian Review", v.9, n.2, 1972: 12] [Williams, M.T. "Integralism and the Brazilian Catholic Church." "Hispanic American Historical Review", v.54, n.3, 1974: 436-40] Salgado, however, criticised the "dangerous pagan tendencies of Hitlerism" and maintained that his movement differed from European fascism in that it respected the "rights of the human person". [Payne, Stanley [http://books.google.com/books?id=9wHNrF7nFecC&dq A History of Fascism, 1914-1945] , pp. 345-346, Routledge 1996] According to Payne, such "would be" religious fascist only gain hold where traditional belief is weakened or absent, as fascism seeks to create new nonrationalist myth structures for those who no longer hold a traditional view. [Payne, Stanley [http://books.google.com/books?id=9wHNrF7nFecC&dq A History of Fascism, 1914-1945] , p. 9, Routledge 1996] Hence, the rise of modern secularism in Europe and Latin America and the incursion and large scale adoption of western secular culture in the mideast leave a void where this modern secular ideology, sometimes under a religious veneer, can take hold.
One theory is that religion and fascism could never have a lasting connection because both are a "holistic wetanshauungen" claiming the whole of the person. Along these lines, Yale political scientist,
Juan Linzand others have noted that secularization had created a void which could be filled by a total ideology, making totalitarianism possible [Griffin, Roger [http://books.google.com/books?id=FSgODum-CTUC&dq Fascism, Totalitarianism and Political Religion] , p. 7 2005Routledge ] [Maier, Hans and JodiBruhn [http://books.google.com/books?id=Wozo1W7giZQC&dq Totalitarianism and Political Religions] , p. 108, 2004 Routledge] , and Roger Griffinhas characterized fascism as a type of anti-religious political religion. [Eatwell, Roger [http://people.bath.ac.uk/mlsre/EWE1&2.htm The Nature of Fascism: or Essentialism by Another Name?] 2004] Such political religions vie with existing religions, and try, if possible, to replace or eradicate them. [Maier, Hans and JodiBruhn [http://books.google.com/books?id=Wozo1W7giZQC&dq Totalitarianism and Political Religions] , p. 108, 2004 Routledge] Hitler and the Nazi regime attempted to found their own version of Christianity called Positive Christianitywhich made major changes in its interpretation of the Biblewhich said that Jesus Christwas the son of God, but was not a Jew and claimed that Christ despised Jews, and that the Jews were the ones solely responsible for Christ's death.
Variations and subforms
Movements identified by scholars as fascist hold a variety of views, and what qualifies as fascism is often a hotly contested subject. The original movement which self-identified as Fascist was that of
Benito Mussoliniand his National Fascist Party. Intellectuals such as Giovanni Gentileproduced The Doctrine of Fascismand founded the ideology. The majority of strains which emerged after the original fascism, but are sometimes placed under the wider usage of the term, self-identified their parties with different names. Major examples include; Falangism, Integralism, Iron Guardand Nazismas well as various other designations. [cite book | last = Mühlberger | first =Detlef | title =The Social Basis of European Fascist Movements| publisher =Routledge| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=suENAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Falangism,+National+Syndicalism,+Integralism+and+National+Socialism&sig=ACfU3U33n_xq_eKDOGwFVLuXPKSGZOYFuA | isbn =0709935854]
Italian Fascism was the first form of fascism to emerge and the originator of the name. Founded by
Benito Mussolini, it is considered to be the model for the other fascisms, yet there is no agreement about which aspects of structure, tactics, culture, and ideology represent the "fascist minimum" core.Fascism was born during a period of social and political unrest following the First World War. The war had seen Italy, born from the Italian unificationless than a century earlier begin to appreciate a sense of nationalism, rather than the historic regionalism.cite news|url=http://www.fsmitha.com/h2/ch12.htm|publisher=FSmitha.com|title=Mussolini and Fascism in Italy|date=8 January 2008] Despite the Kingdom of Italy being a fully fledged Allied Power during the war against the Central Powers, Italy was given what nationalists considered an unfair deal at the Treaty of Versailles; which they saw as the other allies "blocking" Italy from progressing to a major power.cite news|url=http://www.fsmitha.com/h2/ch12.htm|publisher=FSmitha.com|title=Mussolini and Fascism in Italy|date=8 January 2008] A significant example of this was when the other allies told Italy to hand over the city of Fiumeat the Paris Peace Conference, this saw war veteran Gabriele d'Annunziodeclaring the independent state Italian Regency of Carnaro.cite book |last=Macdonald |first=Hamish |title=Mussolini and Italian Fascism|publisher=Nelson Thornes|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=221W9vKkWrcC&pg=PT16&dq=Gabriele+d%27Annunzio+paris+peace&sig=ACfU3U1BTr2IQkCU7gfZKyLAg2TRbp6a8g |isbn=0748733868] He positioned himself as "Duce" of the nation and declared a constitution, the " Charter of Carnaro" which was highly influential to early Fascism, though he himself never became a fascist.cite book |last=Macdonald |first=Hamish |title=Mussolini and Italian Fascism|publisher=Nelson Thornes|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=221W9vKkWrcC&pg=PT16&dq=Gabriele+d%27Annunzio+paris+peace&sig=ACfU3U1BTr2IQkCU7gfZKyLAg2TRbp6a8g |isbn=0748733868] An important factor in fascism gaining support in its earliest stages was the fact that it opposed discrimination based on social classand was strongly opposed to all forms of class war. Fascism instead supported nationalistsentiments such as a strong unity, regardless of class, in the hopes of raising Italy up to the levels of its great Roman past. This side of fascism endeared itself to the aristocracyand the bourgeois, as it promised to protect their existence; after the Russian Revolution, they had greatly feared the prospect of a bloody class war coming to Italy by the hand of the communists and the socialists. Mussolini did not ignore the plight of the working class, however, and he gained their support with stances such as those in " The Manifesto of the Fascist Struggle", published in June 1919. In the manifesto he demanded, amongst other things, creation of a minimum wage, showing the same confidence in labor unions(which prove to be technically and morally worthy) as was given to industry executives or public servants, voting rights for women, and the systemisation of public transport such as railways.cite news|url=http://www.wnd.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=39164|publisher=WND.com|title=Flunking Fascism 101|date=8 January 2008]
Mussolini and the fascists managed to be simultaneously
revolutionaryand traditionalist; [cite news|url=http://www.jstor.org/pss/1852268|publisher=Roland Sarti|title=Fascist Modernization in Italy: Traditional or Revolutionary|date=8 January 2008] [cite news|url=http://www.appstate.edu/~brantzrw/history3134/mussolini.html|publisher=Appstate.edu|title=Mussolini's Italy|date=8 January 2008] because this was vastly different to anything else in the political climate of the time, it is sometimes described as "The Third Way". [cite book |last=Macdonald|first=Hamish |title=Mussolini and Italian Fascism|publisher=Nelson Thornes|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=221W9vKkWrcC&pg=PT17&lpg=PT17&dq=%22third+way%22+mussolini&source=web&ots=YG16x28rgN&sig=u7p19AE4Zlv483mg003WWDKP8S4&hl=en|isbn=0748733868] The Fascisti, led by one of Mussolini's close confidants, Dino Grandi, formed armed squads of war veterans called Blackshirts(or "squadristi") with the goal of restoring order to the streets of Italy with a strong hand. The blackshirts clashed with communists, socialists and anarchists at parades and demonstrations; all of these factions were also involved in clashes against each other. The government rarely interfered with the blackshirts' actions, due in part to a looming threat and widespread fear of a communist revolution. The Fascisti grew so rapidly that within two years, it transformed itself into the National Fascist Partyat a congress in Rome. Also in 1921, Mussolini was elected to the Chamber of Deputies for the first time and was later appointed as Prime Ministerby the King in 1922. He then went on to install a dictatorshipafter the 10 June 1924 assassination of Giacomo Matteotti, who had finished writing "The Fascist Exposed: A Year of Fascist Domination", by Amerigo Duminiand others agents of the "Ceka" secret police created by Mussolini.
Influenced by the concepts of the
Roman Empire, with Mussolini viewing himself as a modern day Roman Emperor, Italy set out to build the Italian Empirecite news|url=http://jch.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/7/3/115|publisher=jch.sagepub.com|title=Mussolini's Cultural Revolution: Fascist or Nationalist?|date=8 January 2008] whose colonialismwould reach further into Africa in an attempt to compete with British and French colonial empires.cite book |last=Copinger|first=Stewart |title=The rise and fall of Western colonialism|publisher=F.A.Praeger|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=8tZBAAAAIAAJ&q=italian+empire+colonial+british+french&dq=italian+empire+colonial+british+french&pgis=1] Mussolini dreamt of making Italy a nation that was "great, respected and feared" throughout Europe, and indeed the world. An early example was his bombardment of Corfuin 1923. Soon after he succeeded in setting up a puppet regime in Albaniaand ruthlessly consolidated Italian power in Libya, which had been a colony (loosely) since 1912. It was his dream to make the Mediterranean "mare nostrum" ("our sea" in Latin), and he established a large naval base on the Greek island of Lerosto enforce a strategic hold on the eastern Mediterranean.
Falangism is a form of fascism founded by
José Antonio Primo de Riverain 1933, emerging during a complex political time during the Second Spanish Republic.cite book | last =Payne | first =Stanley G| title =Falange: A History of Spanish Fascism| publisher =Textbook Publisherss| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=rsHyAAAACAAJ&dq=Spanish+Fascism&lr=| isbn =0758134452] Primo de Rivera was the son of Miguel Primo de Riverawho was appointed Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Spain by Bourbon monarch Alfonso XIII of Spain; José's father would serve as military dictator from 1923—1930. In the Spanish general election, 1931the winners were socialists and radical republican parties; this saw Alfonso XIII "suspending the exercise of royal power" and going into exile in Rome.cite news|url=http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0803302.html|publisher=Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia|title=Alfonso XIII, king of Spain|date=8 January 2008] Spain had turned from a kingdominto a far-left republicovernight.cite news|url=http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0803302.html|publisher=Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia|title=Alfonso XIII, king of Spain|date=8 January 2008] A liberal Republican Constitution was instated, giving the right of autonomyto regions, stripping the nobility of juristic status and stripping from the Catholic Churchits schools. [cite book | last =Payne | first =Stanley G| title =Spain's First Democracy: The Second Republic, 1931-1936| publisher =Univ of Wisconsin Press| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=46N-pNbNG2kC&pg=PA47&lpg=PA47&dq=Republican+Constitution+spain&source=web&ots=cwO3rgcwnw&sig=S-SuDDsdMUUC2afqOiUhRqjrqJM&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=3&ct=result| isbn =0299136744]
It was in this environment that José Antonio Primo de Rivera looked at Mussolini's Italy and found inspiration. Primo de Rivera founded the Falange Española party; the name is a reference to the formidable
Ancient Greekmilitary formation phalanx. [cite book | last =Keefe| first =Eugene K| title =Area Handbook for Spain| publisher =American University| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=zLRAAAAAIAAJ&q=Phalanx+formation+falange&dq=Phalanx+formation+falange&lr=&pgis=1| isbn =0299136744] Just a year after foundation Falange Española merged with the Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalistaparty of Ramiro Ledesmaand Onésimo Redondo. [cite news|url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/308385/Juntas-de-Ofensiva-Nacional-Sindicalista|publisher=Britannica.com|title=Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista|date=8 January 2008] The party and Primo de Rivera revealed the Falange Manifestoin November 1934; it promoted nationalism, unity, glorification of the Spanish Empireand dedication to the national syndicalismeconomic policy, inspired by integralismin which there is class collaboration.cite news|url=http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/SPfalange.htm|publisher=Spartacus.Schoolnet.co.uk|title=Falange Española|date=8 January 2008] The manifesto supported agrarianism, looking to improve the standard of living for the peasants of the rural areas. It supported anti-capitalism, anti-Marxism, repudiating the latter's divisive class war philosophy, and was directly opposed to the ruling Republican regime.cite news|url=http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/SPfalange.htm|publisher=Spartacus.Schoolnet.co.uk|title=Falange Española|date=8 January 2008] The Falange participated in the Spanish general election, 1936with low results compared to the far-left Popular Front, but soon after increased in membership rapidly, with a membership of 40,000.cite news|url=http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/SPantonio.htm|publisher=Spartacus.Schoolnet.co.uk|title=José Antonio Primo de Rivera |date=8 January 2008]
Primo de Rivera was captured by Republicans on 6 July 1936 and held in captivity at
Alicante. The Spanish Civil Warbroke out on 17 July 1936 between the Republicans and the Nationalists, with the "Falangistas" fighting for Nationalist cause.cite news|url=http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/SPfalange.htm|publisher=Spartacus.Schoolnet.co.uk|title=Falange Española|date=8 January 2008] Despite his incarceration Primo de Rivera was a strong symbol of the cause, referred to as "El Ausente", meaning "the Absent One"; he was summarily executedon 20 November after a trial by socialists. [cite book | last =Loveday| first =Arthur Frederic | title =Spain, 1923-1948: Civil War and World War| publisher =Boswell Publishing Company| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=TVhYAAAAMAAJ&q=El+Ausente+primo+de+rivera&dq=El+Ausente+primo+de+rivera&pgis=1] After this, Francisco Franco, who was not as ideological as his predecessor, became leader of the Falangists and continued the nationalist fight, with aid from Italy and Germany against the republicans who were supported by the Soviet Union. [cite book | last =Tucker| first =Spencer | title =Encyclopedia of World War II: A Political, Social, and Military History| publisher =ABC-CLIO| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=U0xblxV_pLgC&pg=PA8&dq=Spanish+Civil+War+soviet+union+germany+italy&sig=ACfU3U02ykBEvGZ9lWEwfAAeX2WhGpvCoQ|isbn=1576079996] A merger between the Falange and the Carlist traditionalists who support a different line of the monarchy to that of exiled Alfonso XIII took place in 1937, creating the FET y de las JONS, essentially a move away from fascism.cite book | last =Payne | first =Stanley G| title =Falange: A History of Spanish Fascism| publisher =Textbook Publisherss| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=rsHyAAAACAAJ&dq=Spanish+Fascism&lr=| isbn =0758134452] This is somewhat controversial in Falangist circles because some elements argue that it was a move away from "authentic Falangism". [cite book | last = Del Boca | first =Angelo| title =Fascism Today: A World Survey| publisher =Pantheon Books| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=nadBAAAAIAAJ&q=%22authentic+Falangism%22&dq=%22authentic+Falangism%22&pgis=1] Regardless nationalists won the Civil War, inserting the Spanish Statein 1939 and under a single-party systemFranco ruled.cite book | last =Payne | first =Stanley G| title =Falange: A History of Spanish Fascism| publisher =Textbook Publisherss| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=rsHyAAAACAAJ&dq=Spanish+Fascism&lr=| isbn =0758134452] Franco managed to balance several different interests of elements in his party, in an effort to keep them united, especially in regards to the question of monarchy.cite book | last =Payne | first =Stanley G| title =The Franco Regime, 1936-1975| publisher =University of Wisconsin Press| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=mgDWLYcTYIAC&dq=Francisco+Franco+payne&lr=&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0| isbn =0299110702] The Francoist state was strongly nationalist, anti-communistand anti-separatist throughout with his Movimiento Nacional; he supported traditional valuessuch as Christianity, in contrast to the anti-clerical violence of the republicans.cite book | last =Payne | first =Stanley G| title =The Franco Regime, 1936-1975| publisher =University of Wisconsin Press| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=mgDWLYcTYIAC&dq=Francisco+Franco+payne&lr=&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0| isbn =0299110702] Whether or not Francoist Spain itself constituted a genuine form of fascism is debates, for example scholar Stanley Payne, has asserted: "scarcely any of the serious historians and analysts of Franco consider the generalissimo to be a core fascist". [Payne, Stanley [http://books.google.com/books?id=NiD3UeOCSGsC&dq Fascism in Spain, 1923-1977] , p. 476 1999 Univ. of Wisconsin Press]
The ideas of Falangism were also exported, mainly to parts of the
Hispanosphere, especially in South America.cite book | last =Chase| first =Allan| title =Falange: The Axis Secret Army in the Americas| publisher =G.P. Putnam's Sons| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=2LobAAAAMAAJ&q=%22+South+American+Falange%22&dq=%22+South+American+Falange%22&lr=&pgis=1] In some countries these movements were obscure, in others they had some impact.cite book | last =Chase| first =Allan| title =Falange: The Axis Secret Army in the Americas| publisher =G.P. Putnam's Sons| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=2LobAAAAMAAJ&q=%22+South+American+Falange%22&dq=%22+South+American+Falange%22&lr=&pgis=1] The Bolivian Socialist Falangeunder Óscar Únzagaprovided significant competition to the ruling government during the 1950s until the 1970s. [cite book | last =Gunson| first =Phil| title =The Dictionary of Contemporary Politics of South America| publisher =Routledge| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=tU0OAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA38&dq=Bolivian+Socialist+Falange+Oscar+%C3%9Anzaga&lr=&sig=ACfU3U3iwRJQmel2-H_TR_62Bb1kXYAaeg|ibsn=0415028086] Falangism was significant in Lebanonthrough the Kataeb Partyand its founder Pierre Gemayel. [cite book | last =Robertson| first =David| title =A Dictionary of Modern Politics| publisher =Routledge| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=qHXbGOUuF9YC&pg=PA181&dq=Falange+lebanon&lr=&sig=ACfU3U3TvgSS1Uhu16CWT75Ay7OSKcBEkA#PPA180,M1|ibsn=185743093X] The Lebanese Falange fought for the countries independence which was won in 1943; they became significant during the complex and multifaceted Lebanese Civil Warwhich was largely fought between Christians and Muslims. [cite book | last =Katz| first =Samuel M| title =Armies in Lebanon 1982-84| publisher =Osprey Publishing| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=0W5-jZY_T2IC&pg=PA7&dq=Phalange+lebanon+fascist&lr=&sig=ACfU3U2BYiFptL4UQ9d2NMEV1aBp7Ig3qA|ibsn=0850456029]
Nazism (National Socialism)
Nazism, short for National Socialism, is the political ideology of the
National Socialist German Workers’ Partythat ruled Germany from 1933 until 1945. The term national socialist is also a descriptive term used to refer to the Austrian National Socialismof a similar ideology, as well as several puppet states under Nazi control, including; the Arrow Crossof Hungary, [cite book | last = Kallis| first =Aristotle A | title =The Fascism Reader| publisher =Routledge| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=tP2wXl5nzboC&pg=PA201&lpg=PA201&dq=arrow+cross+%22national+socialist%22&source=web&ots=lpF4BrPTau&sig=ASr1kMUnrN1RjXmAuq36sY-cG7k&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPA201,M1 | isbn =0415243599] the Ustašeof Croatia [cite book | last =Palmer Domenico| first =Roy | title =Encyclopedia of Modern Christian Politics| publisher =Greenwood Publishing Group| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=Z8ZixRcQfV8C&pg=RA1-PA435&dq=Usta%C5%A1e+%22national+socialism%22&lr=&ei=TcjTSJzDKYzaigGTjP3mAw&sig=ACfU3U3G-4i8j_FS6bCrQw0J-5eEx9p2aw | isbn =0313323623] (also heavily influenced by Italian Fascism), and Rexismof Belgium. [cite book | last =Chapman| first =Guy| title =Why France Fell: The Defeat of the French Army in 1940| publisher =Holt, Rinehart and Winston| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=5v5sAAAAIAAJ&q=Rexism%22national+socialism%22&dq=Rexism%22national+socialism%22&lr=&ei=bsnTSIykEqX0iwG1uuTmAw&pgis=1] The Nazis came to prominence in Germany's Weimar Republicthrough democratic elections in 1932; their leader Adolf Hitlerwas appointed Chancellor of Germanythe following year, subsequently putting into place the Enabling Act, which effectively gave him the power of a dictator. Hitler's book detailing the national socialist ideology " Mein Kampf", was authored during the mid-1920s. The NSDAP announced a national rebirth, in the form of the Third Reichnicknamed the "Thousand Years Empire", promoted as a successor to the Holy Roman Empireand the German Empire.
Although the modern consensus sees Nazism as a type of generic fascism [Griffin, Roger and Matthew Feldman [http://books.google.com/books?id=2SlXXndbbCEC&dq Fascism: Critical Concepts in Political Science] p.8, 2004 Taylor and Francis] , some scholars, such as Gilbert Allardyce,
Zeev Sternhelland A.F.K. Organski, argue that Nazism is not fascismndash either because the differences are too great, or because they believe fascism cannot be generic. [cite journal|author=Gilbert Allardyce|title=What Fascism Is Not: Thoughts on the Deflation of a Concept|year=1979|journal=American Historical Review|volume=84|issue=2|pages=367–388|doi=10.2307/1855138] [cite book|author=Paul H. Lewis|title=Latin Fascist Elites|year=2000|publisher=Praeger/Greenwood|id=ISBN 0-275-97880-X|pages=9] A synthesis of these two opinions, states that German Nazism was a form of racially-oriented fascism, while Italian fascism was state-oriented. Nazism differed from Italian fascism in that it had a stronger emphasis on race, especially exhibited as antisemitism, in terms of social and economic policies. Though both ideologies denied the significance of the individual, Italian fascism saw the individual as subservient to the state, whereas Nazism saw the individual, as well as the state, as ultimately subservient to the race. [Grant, Moyra. Key Ideas in Politics. Nelson Thomas 2003. p. 21] Mussolini's Fascism held that cultural factors existed to serve the state, and that it was not necessarily in the state's interest to interfere in cultural aspects of society. The only purpose of governmentin Mussolini's fascism was to uphold the state as supreme above all else, a concept which can be described as statolatry. Where fascism talked of state, Nazism spoke of the " Volk" and of the " Volksgemeinschaft" [ Kershaw, Ian. The Nazi Dictatorship, Problems & perspectives of interpretation, 4th Edition. Hodder Arnold 2000, p41 ] Below is a presentation of opposing scholary view on the topic, Griffin is a leading exponent of the "generic fascism" theory, while Sternhell views national socialism as separate to fascism;
Brazilian Integralism is a form of fascism originating in
Brazilwith Plínio Salgado, he was the movement's figurehead and philosophical leader. [cite book | last = LeRoy Love| first = Joseph | title =São Paulo in the Brazilian Federation, 1889-1937| publisher =Stanford University Press| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=Eo_ttEHVKEYC&pg=PA136&lpg=PA136&dq=Pl%C3%ADnio+Salgado+integralism+fascism&source=web&ots=Q5tzPEr81h&sig=esNMB-uBO-MFCNQy0kQehSnLWf8&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=3&ct=result#PPA136,M1 | isbn =0804709912] The movement was founded in 1932 and was known in its native tongue as "Ação Integralista Brasileira"; rather than a reaction against the far-leftwhich was not strong in Brazil at the time, the Integralists were initially founded to combat national disunity and the percieved weakness of the liberal state, hoping for national rebirth via a fascist form.cite book | last =Bacchetta| first = Paola | title =Right-wing Women| publisher =Routledge| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=ag7qRiZqYZoC&pg=PA156&lpg=PA156&dq=Pl%C3%ADnio+Salgado+integralism+fascism&source=web&ots=z6QeGWt4mg&sig=jZoN9OSS0vpekYMPrPTEZ6J_AgY&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=7&ct=result | isbn =0415927773] Many of the ideas were similar to Italian fascism; it was militarised and favoured the creation of a strong centralised statewith a corporatist, government directed economic policy.cite book | last =Bacchetta| first = Paola | title =Right-wing Women| publisher =Routledge| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=ag7qRiZqYZoC&pg=PA156&lpg=PA156&dq=Pl%C3%ADnio+Salgado+integralism+fascism&source=web&ots=z6QeGWt4mg&sig=jZoN9OSS0vpekYMPrPTEZ6J_AgY&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=7&ct=result | isbn =0415927773] The party's nationalist element was influenced by the thought of Alberto Torresand was inclusionist, looking to create a strong national unity. While many of the members were Catholics, the group supported freedom of religionso as not to isolate Protestants in Brazil. As an ethnically diverse country due to its colonial history, the Integralists held a non-divisionist and anti-raciststance with the phrase, "union of all races and all people"; the members were mostly of European background such as Italian and Portuguese but there were also some people of Amerindian and African background. As Brazil was already territorially endowed, the Integralists had no need for an expansionist outlook.cite book | last = Payne | first =Stanley | title =A History of Fascism, 1914-45| publisher =University of Wisconsin Press| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=NLiFIEdI1V4C&dq=A+History+of+Fascism+payne&lr=&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 | isbn =0299148742]
The Iron Guard was an ultra-nationalist,
antisemiticmovement and political party in Romaniafrom 1927 to 1941. It was briefly in power from September 14, 1940 until January 21, 1941. The Iron Guard was founded by Corneliu Zelea Codreanuon 24 July 1927 as the "Legion of the Archangel Michael" ("Legiunea Arhanghelul Mihail"), and it was led by him until his death in 1938. Adherents to the movement continued to be widely referred to as "legionnaires" (sometimes "legionaries"; Romanian: "legionarii") and the organization as the "Legion" or the "Legionary Movement" ("Mişcarea Legionară"), despite various changes of the (intermittently banned) organization's name.
The Iron Guard presented itself as an alternative to corrupt, clientelist political parties, using marches, religious processions and patriotic hymns and anthems, along with volunteer work and charitable campaigns in rural areas. It was strongly anti-Semitic, promoting the idea that "Rabbinical aggression against the Christian world" in "unexpected 'protean forms':
Freemasonry, Freudianism, homosexuality, atheism, Marxism, Bolshevism, the civil war in Spain, and social democracy" were undermining society. [Volovici, "Nationalist Ideology", p. 98, citing N. Cainic, "Ortodoxie şi etnocraţie", pp. 162-4)] .
The Iron Guard "willingly inserted strong elements of
Orthodox Christianityinto its political doctrine to the point of becoming one of the rare modern European political movements with a religious ideological structure." [Ioanid, "The Sacralised Politics of the Romanian Iron Guard".] The Guard differed from other fascist movements in that it had its mass base among the peasantry and students. However, it shared the fascist penchant for violence, up to and including political assassinations.
Para-fascism and commonly alleged fascist ideologies
A number of states and movements have had various characteristics that are similar to fascism, but which most scholars have denied being affiliated to fascism.
Para-fascism is a term sometimes used to describe authoritarian regimes which appear like fascism on the surface but some scholars claim differ substantially from true fascism when a more than superficial examination is done. [Davies, Peter Jonathan and DerekLynch [http://books.google.com/books?id=guUWv8FJ8wMC&dq The Routledge Companion to Fascism and the Far Right] . p. 3, 2002 Routledge] Roger Griffin uses the term whereas Stanley Payne uses the term "Radical Right". The consensus among scholars rejects these many anti-liberal, anti-communist
inter-warmovements which lacked fascism's revolutionary goal to create a new national character as fascist. [Griffin, Roger and Matthew Feldman [http://books.google.com/books?id=2SlXXndbbCEC&dq Fascism: Critical Concepts in Political Science] p.8, 2004 Taylor and Francis] Para-fascists typically eschewed radical change and viewed genuine fascists as a threat. [Davies, Peter Jonathan and DerekLynch [http://books.google.com/books?id=guUWv8FJ8wMC&dq The Routledge Companion to Fascism and the Far Right] . p. 326, 2002 Routledge] Parafascist states were often unwillingly the home of genuine fascist movements which they eventually suppressed or co-opted. [Griffin, Roger and Matthew Feldman [http://books.google.com/books?id=2SlXXndbbCEC&dq Fascism: Critical Concepts in Political Science] p.8, 2004 Taylor and Francis]
Besides Parafascism there are also other (not nescessary inter-war) regimes and movements that have had simliaries to fascism.
Austrian Fatherland Front
"Austrofascism" is a controversial category encompassing various para-fascist and semi-fascist movements in Austria in the 1930s. [Davies, Peter Jonathan and Derek Lynch [http://books.google.com/books?id=guUWv8FJ8wMC&dq The Routledge Companion to Fascism and the Far Right] . p. 255, 2002 Routledge] Especially referring to the Fatherland Front which became Austria's sole legal political party in 1934. The Fatherland Front's ideology was partly based on a fusion of Italian fascism, as expounded by Gentile, and Austria's Political Catholicism.Fact|date=August 2008 It had an ideology of the "community of the people" (Volksgemeinschaft) that was different from that of the Nazis. They were similar in that both served to attack the idea of a class struggle by accusing leftism of destroying individuality, and thus help usher in a totalitarian state. Engelbert Dollfuß claimed he wanted to "over-Hitler" (überhitlern) Nazism.
ethnic nationalismpromoted by Italian Fascists and Nazis, the Fatherland Front focused entirely on cultural nationalism such as Austrian identity and distinctness from Germany, such as extolling Austria's ties to the Roman Catholic Church. According to this philosophy, Austrians were "better Germans" (by this time, the majority of the German population was Protestant). The monarchy was elevated to the ideal of a powerful and far-reaching state, a status which Austria lost after the Treaty of Saint-Germain. The notion of the Fatherland Front being fascist was claimed due to the regime's support and similar ideology of Fascist Italy.
The Estado Novo was an authoritarian regime with an integralist orientation, which differed from
fascistregimes by its lack of expansionism, lack of a charismatic leader, lack of party structure and more moderate use of state violence. [Kallis, Aristotle A. [http://books.google.com/books?id=tP2wXl5nzboC&pg=PA313&lpg=PA313&dq=estado+novo+fascit&source=web&ots=loM9xsNU7r&sig=TSgWomLAR3hTFq2XstvYIlQJC94#PPA313,M1 Fascism Reader] p. 313-317 2003Routledge] However it incorporated the same principles for its military from Mussolini's system. Its founder in Portugal, António de Oliveira Salazar, was a Catholic traditionalist who believed in the necessity of control over the forces of economic modernisation in order to defend the religious and rural values of the country, which he perceived as being threatened. One of the pillars of the regime was the PIDE, the secret police. Many political dissidents were imprisoned at the Tarrafal prison in the African archipelago of Cape Verde, on the capital island of Santiago, or in local jails. Strict state censorship was in place.
Another authoritarian government, installed in Brazil by President
Getúlio Dornelles Vargas, lasted from 1937 to 1945. It was modelled on the Portuguese Estado Novo regime and even took its name.
4th of August Regime
From 1936 to 1941,
Greecewas ruled by an authoritarian regime under the leadership of General Ioannis Metaxasakin to that of Franco's Spain. Historians of this period in Greek history, such as Richard Clogg, John Hondros, William McNeill, C. M. Woodhouse and others, all strongly contend that the state was not "fascist" but authoritarian with fascist "leanings".Fact|date=December 2007 The Metaxas regime differed from regimes such as Mussolini's and Hitler's in many notable ways: it was relatively nonviolent, did not pursue an expansionist agenda, it did not institute anti-semitic programs, and it lacked a mass political movement.Fact|date=September 2008
"Nouvelle Droite", also called the "New Right", is a school of political thought founded largely on the works of
Alain de Benoistand GRECE (Research and Study Group on European Culture). It has been identified as a new or sanitized form of neo-fascism, or an ideology of the extreme right that significantly draws from fascism. [see for example: Laqueur, 1996; and Lee, 1997] "Nouvelle Droite" arguments can be found in the rhetoric of many major radical rightand far-rightparties in Europe such as the National Front in France, the Freedom Party in Austriaand Vlaams Belangin Flanders( Belgium). This, despite the fact that Alain de Benoist and certain other ideologues of the "Nouvelle Droite", since the late 80s, had issued statements against some populist far-right movements. Fact|date=September 2008
The rule of
Mobutu Sese Sekoand the ideology of Mobutismwithin the Popular Movement of the Revolution("Mouvement Populaire de la Revolution", MPR) political party in the former Zairehas been accused by opponents and critics as being fascist [Griffen, G. Edward. 1964 "The Fearful Master: A Second Look at the United Nations." Western Island Publishers. [http://books.google.com/books?id=I81BAAAAIAAJ&q=mobutu+fascist&dq=mobutu+fascist&lr=&pgis=1] ] such as former Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Patrice Lumumbawho was deposed by Mobutu, said "...Mobutu is an imperialist, a fascist..." [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,871759-1,00.html] Rosa Coutinowho called Mobutu a "black fascist" [http://books.google.com/books?id=sp2mivjmm7IC&pg=PA102&dq=mobutu+fascist&sig=ACfU3U2kpXavfblMuhWYD70fDgAa8KX0EA] , United Statesleft-wing black nationalist Huey P. Newtonwho referred to Mobutu as "Fascist Mobutu of Zaire" [http://books.google.com/books?id=P1HnXObckeAC&pg=PA85&dq=mobutu+fascist&sig=ACfU3U3BAdXOh7lGt6g9nvYPzN6wCPmh2w] and historian Robert Carrwho considers Mobutu a "fascist dictator" [http://books.google.com/books?id=IHJDaepcRwMC&pg=PA338&dq=mobutu+fascist&lr=&sig=ACfU3U1s5gnh5T-Oj8j47cMX2w5AbEgugA] . Mobutism had a totalitaran and revolutionary nationalist nature, radically altering Zairian society, promoting Zairian culture while purging culture of white colonial and western influences such as intiating censorship on western culture [http://books.google.com/books?id=aowvjFQod9IC&pg=PA188&dq=mobutu+fascist&lr=&sig=ACfU3U1vLJhGJUe7kbYiURT8XGomHf7YOg] , banning Christian names while promoting the use of local names and local language. Mobutism like fascism promoted a single-party statewith Mobutu as the country's dictatorand the MPR and Mobutist ideology was officially enshrined in the constitution of Zaire; [Crawford Young and Thomas Turner, The Rise and Decline of the Zairian State, p. 70] developed a personality cultaround Mobutu as the "Father of the Nation" and promoted the indoctrinationof society to support the MPR such as creating by youth organizations in the MPR; was militarist; officially opposed both capitalismand communism; [Crawford Young and Thomas Turner, p. 210] supported economic planningand nationalized certain corporations [http://books.google.com/books?id=q8BxTS7gZdsC&pg=PA227&dq=mobutu+nationalization&sig=ACfU3U2n-4k1K-_6gbA407CaRoWTwNGkLQ] along with attempting to garner support from workers for his regime by solidifying all trade unions into a single trade union loyal to the regime called the National Union of Zairian Workerswhile banning independent trade unions. Others have claimed that Mobutu's rule of Zaire was largely just a kleptocracy, serving to allow him to amass enormous wealth.
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Alfred Sohn-Rethel"Economy and Class Structure of German Fascism",London, CSE Bks, 1978 ISBN 0906336007
* Kallis, Aristotle A. ," To Expand or Not to Expand? Territory, Generic Fascism and the Quest for an 'Ideal Fatherland'" Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 38, No. 2. (Apr., 2003), pp. 237-260.
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Liberal Fascism". New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0385511841
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*Sauer, Wolfgang "National Socialism: totalitarianism or fascism?" pages 404-424 from "The American Historical Review", Volume 73, Issue #2, December 1967.
* Sternhell, Zeev with
Mario Sznajderand Maia Asheri.  1994. "The Birth of Fascist Ideology, From Cultural Rebellion to Political Revolution.", Trans. David Maisei. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
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* Weber, Eugen.  1985. "Varieties of Fascism: Doctrines of Revolution in the Twentieth Century," New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, (Contains chapters on fascist movements in different countries.)
* [http://www.worldfuturefund.org/wffmaster/Reading/Germany/mussolini.htm The Doctrine of Fascism]
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