Declaration of Arbroath

The Declaration of Arbroath is a declaration of Scottish independence, made in 1320. It is in the form of a letter submitted to Pope John XXII, dated 6 April 1320, intended to confirm Scotland's status as an independent, sovereign state and defending Scotland's right to use military action when unjustly attacked.

Generally believed to have been written in the Arbroath Abbey by Bernard of Kilwinning, then Chancellor of Scotland and Abbot of Arbroath,[1] and sealed by fifty-one magnates and nobles, the letter is the sole survivor of three created at the time. The others were a letter from the King of Scots, Robert I, and a letter from four Scottish bishops which all presumably made similar points.

Contents

Overview

The Declaration was part of a broader diplomatic campaign which sought to assert Scotland's position as a kingdom,[2] rather than being a feudal land controlled by England's Norman kings, as well as lift the excommunication of Robert the Bruce.[3] The Pope had recognised Edward I of England's claim to overlordship of Scotland in 1305 and Bruce was excommunicated by the Pope for murdering John Comyn on the altar in Greyfriars Church in Dumfries in 1306.[3]

The Declaration made a number of much-debated rhetorical points: that Scotland had always been independent, indeed for longer than England; that Edward I of England had unjustly attacked Scotland and perpetrated atrocities; that Robert the Bruce had delivered the Scottish nation from this peril; and, most controversially, that the independence of Scotland was the prerogative of the Scots people, rather than the King of Scots. In fact it stated that the nobility would choose someone else to be king if the current one did anything to threaten Scotland's independence. Some have interpreted this last point as an early expression of 'popular sovereignty'[4] – that kings could be chosen by the population rather than by God alone.

It has also been argued that the Declaration was not a statement of popular sovereignty (and that its signatories would have had such a concept)[5] but a statement of royal propaganda supporting Bruce's faction.[6] [7] A justification had to be given for the rejection of King John in whose name William Wallace and Andrew de Moray rebelled in 1297. The reason given in the Declaration is that Bruce was able to defend Scotland from English aggression whereas, by implication, King John could not.[8]

To this man, in as much as he saved our people, and for upholding our freedom, we are bound by right as much as by his merits, and choose to follow him in all that he does.

Whatever the true motive, the idea of a contract between King and people was advanced to the Pope as an excuse for Bruce's coronation whilst John de Balliol still lived in Papal custody.[2]

There are 39 names (eight earls and thirty one barons) at the start of the document, all of whom may have had their seals appended, probably over the space of some weeks and months, with nobles sending in their seals to be used. (On the extant copy of the Declaration there are only 19 seals, and of those 19 people only 12 are named within the document. It is thought likely that at least 11 more seals than the original 39 might have been appended.)[9] The Declaration was then taken to the papal court at Avignon by bishop Kininmund, Sir Adam Gordon and Sir Odard de Maubuisson.[2]

The Pope heeded to the arguments contained by the Declaration, influenced by the offer of support for his long-desired crusade from the Scots if they no longer had to be wary of English invasion, and exhorted Edward II in a letter to make peace with the Scots, but the following year he was again persuaded by the English to take their side and issued six bulls to that effect.[10] It was only in October 1328, after a short-lived peace treaty between Scotland and England, the Treaty of Northampton (which renounced all English claims to Scotland and was signed by the new English king, Edward III, on the 1 March 1328), that the interdict on Scotland and the excommunication of its king were finally removed.[11]

The original copy of the Declaration that was sent to Avignon is lost. A copy of the Declaration survives among Scotland's state papers, held by the National Archives of Scotland in Edinburgh.[12] The most widely known English language translation was created by Sir James Fergusson, formerly Keeper of the Records of Scotland, from text that he reconstructed using this extant copy and early copies of the original draft. One passage in particular is often quoted from the Fergusson translation:

...for, as long as but a hundred of us remain alive, never will we on any conditions be brought under English rule. It is in truth not for glory, nor riches, nor honours that we are fighting, but for freedom – for that alone, which no honest man gives up but with life itself.

See also

References

  1. ^ Ronald McNair Scott: Robert the Bruce, King of Scots, Canongate 1996, p 196, ISBN 0-86241-616-7
  2. ^ a b c Robert the Bruce and the Scottish Identity, G.Barrow, 1984
  3. ^ a b Scotland: A New History, M. Lynch, 1992
  4. ^ McLean, Iain; Alistair McMillan (2005). State of the Union: Unionism and the Alternatives in the United Kingdom Since 1707. Oxford University Press. p. 247. ISBN 978-0199258208. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=H2u9uOEYruYC&pg=PA247&dq=Declaration+of+Arbroath+not+%22popular+sovereignty%22#v=onepage&q=Declaration%20of%20Arbroath%20not%20%22popular%20sovereignty%22&f=false. 
  5. ^ Kellas, James G. (1998). The politics of nationalism and ethnicity. Palgrave. p. 35. ISBN 978-0312215538. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=m542R9ygB3QC&pg=PA147&dq=Declaration+of+Arbroath+%22popular+sovereignty%22#v=onepage&q=Declaration%20of%20Arbroath%20%22popular%20sovereignty%22&f=false. 
  6. ^ Fugelso, Karl (2007). Memory and medievalism. D.S. Brewer. p. 138. ISBN 978-1843841159. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=m542R9ygB3QC&pg=PA147&dq=Declaration+of+Arbroath+%22popular+sovereignty%22#v=onepage&q=Declaration%20of%20Arbroath%20%22popular%20sovereignty%22&f=false. 
  7. ^ McCracken-Flesher, Caroline (246). Culture, nation, and the new Scottish parliament. Bucknell University Press. ISBN 978-0838755471. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=YInDkqRVQOwC&pg=PA246&dq=Declaration+of+Arbroath+not+%22popular+sovereignty%22#v=onepage&q=Declaration%20of%20Arbroath%20not%20%22popular%20sovereignty%22&f=false. 
  8. ^ The New Penguin History of Scotland, edited by R.A. Houston and W.W.J. Knox, “Medieval Scotland”, D. Ditchburn and A.J. MacDonald, 2001
  9. ^ "The seals on the Declaration of Arbroath". National Archives of Scotland. http://www.nas.gov.uk/about/doaSeals.asp. Retrieved 2 September 2011. 
  10. ^ Ronald McNair Scott: Robert the Bruce, King of Scots, Canongate 1996, p 197, ISBN 0-86241-616-7
  11. ^ Ronald McNair Scott: Robert the Bruce, King of Scots, Canongate 1996, p 225, ISBN 0-86241-616-7
  12. ^ National Archives of Scotland website feature

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Declaration of Arbroath — Arbroath Abbey, 2004 Skulptur des schotti …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Declaration d'Arbroath — Déclaration d Arbroath La déclaration d Arbroath est une déclaration d indépendance écossaise, écrite dans le but de confirmer le statut de l Écosse en tant que nation indépendante et souveraine et de justifier le recours aux forces armées si… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Déclaration d'Arbroath — La déclaration d Arbroath est une déclaration d indépendance écossaise, écrite en latin sous le règne de Robert Bruce dans le but de confirmer le statut de l Écosse en tant que nation indépendante et souveraine et de justifier le recours aux… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Declaration of independence — Unilateral declaration of independence redirects here. For the specific Rhodesian document, see Unilateral Declaration of Independence. This article is about the type of document. For the first document to be generally called such, see United… …   Wikipedia

  • United States Declaration of Independence — Declaration of Independence redirects here. For the type of document generally, see Declaration of independence. For the painting, see Trumbull s Declaration of Independence. United States Declaration of Independence …   Wikipedia

  • Arbroath Abbey — was founded in 1178 by King William the Lion for a group of Tironensian Benedictine monks from Kelso Abbey. It was consecrated in 1197 with a dedication to the deceased Saint Thomas Becket, whom the king had met at the English court. It was… …   Wikipedia

  • Arbroath — Koordinaten 56° 34′ N, 2° 35′ W …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Arbroath —   [ɑ ːbrəʊθ], Stadt in der Tayside Region, Schottland, 23 500 Einwohner; Fremdenverkehrszentrum;   Wirtschaft:   Maschinenbau, Schiffbau; Fischereihafen.   Geschichte:   In der 1178 vom schottischen König …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Arbroath — infobox UK place country = Scotland official name= Arbroath latitude= 56.56 longitude= 02.58 gaelic name= Obair Bhrothaig scots name= Aiberbrothock population= 22,785 [http://www.scrol.gov.uk/scrol/browser/profile.jsp?profile=Population… …   Wikipedia

  • Arbroath — ▪ Scotland, United Kingdom       royal burgh (town), North Sea fishing port, and holiday resort, Angus council area and historic county, Scotland. Arbroath Abbey, once the richest in Scotland, was founded in 1178 by King William I (the Lion) of… …   Universalium

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”