List of states with limited recognition
  Not recognised by any state
  Recognised by UN non-members only
  UN non-members recognised by at least one member
  UN member states, not recognised by at least one other member

Some contemporary geopolitical entities that wish to be recognised as de jure sovereign states have been hindered by a lack of diplomatic recognition. In the past, similar entities have existed, and there are now entities claiming independence, often with de facto control of their territory, with recognition ranging from almost all other recognised states to no states at all.

There are two traditional doctrines that provide interpretations of when a de jure sovereign state should be recognised as a member of the international community. The "declarative" theory defines a state as a person in international law if it meets the following criteria: 1) a defined territory; 2) a permanent population; 3) a government and 4) a capacity to enter into relations with other states. According to declarative theory, an entity's statehood is independent of its recognition by other states. By contrast, the "constitutive" theory defines a state as a person of international law if it is recognised as such by another state that is already a member of the international community.[1]

Several entities reference either or both doctrines in order to legitimise their claims to statehood. There are, for example, entities which meet the declarative criteria (with de facto complete or partial control over their claimed territory, a government and a permanent population), but their statehood is not recognised by one or more other states. Non-recognition is often a result of conflicts with other countries that claim those entities as integral parts of their territory. In other cases, two or more partially recognised entities may claim the same territorial area, with each of them de facto in control of a portion of it (as have been the cases of the Republic of China and People's Republic of China, and North and South Korea). Entities that are only recognised by a minority of the world's states usually reference the declarative doctrine to legitimise their claims.

In many situations, international non-recognition is influenced by the presence of a foreign military force in the territory of the presumptive, self-declaring independent entity, so to make problematic the description of the country de facto status. The international community can judge this military presence too intrusive, reducing the entity to a puppet state where effective sovereignty is retained by the foreign power. Historical cases in this sense can be seen in Japanese-led Manchukuo or German-created Slovakia and Croatia before and during World War II. In 1996-case Loizidou vs. Turkey, the European Court of Human Rights judged Turkey for having exercised authority in the territory of Northern Cyprus.

There are also entities which do not have control over any territory or do not unequivocally meet the declarative criteria for statehood but have been recognised to exist de jure as sovereign entities by at least one other state. Historically this has happened in the case of the Holy See (1870–1929), Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania (during Soviet annexation), among other cases. The recognition of the State of Palestine by over one hundred states is a contemporary example. See list of governments in exile for unrecognised governments without control over the territory claimed.

Contents

Criteria for inclusion

The criteria for inclusion means a polity must claim statehood, lack recognition from at least one state, and either:

  • have de facto control over a territory, a population, a government, a capacity to enter into relations with other states, or
  • be recognised as a state by at least one other state.

Background

Some states do not establish relations with new nations quickly and thus do not recognise them despite having no dispute and sometimes favorable relations. These are excluded from the list. Some countries fulfill the declarative criteria, are recognised by the large majority of other nations and are members of the United Nations, but are included in the list here because one or more other states do not recognise their statehood, due to territorial claims or other conflicts. Currently there are 193 United Nations (UN) member states. The Holy See holds observer status in the United Nations.[2]

Some states maintain informal (officially non-diplomatic) relations with states that do not officially recognise them. The Republic of China (Taiwan) is one such state, as it maintains unofficial relations with many other states through its Economic and Cultural Offices, which allow regular consular services. This allows the ROC to have economic relations even with states that do not formally recognise it. A total of 56 states, including Germany,[3] Italy,[4] the United States,[5] and the United Kingdom,[6] maintain some form of unofficial mission in the ROC. Kosovo,[7] the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic,[8] Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus,[9] Abkhazia,[10] Transnistria,[10] Sahrawi Republic,[11] Somaliland,[12] and Palestine[13] also host informal diplomatic missions, and/or maintain special delegations or other informal missions abroad. In the U.S., such offices by unrecognized entities are required to be registered as foreign lobbyist organizations under the Foreign Agent Registration Act (FARA) and act as regular lobbyists.

Present geopolitical entities by level of recognition

Non-UN member states not recognised by any state

Name Status Other claimants Further information References
 Somaliland Somaliland was granted independence by the United Kingdom in 1960 after the decolonisation of British Somaliland and merged with Italian Somaliland a few days later to form Somalia. It declared its independence and withdrew from Somalia in 1991. Currently, no state recognises it.  Somalia claims Somaliland as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to) [14]

Non-UN member states recognised only by non-UN members

Name Status Other claimants Further information References
 Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Nagorno-Karabakh declared its independence in 1992. It is currently de facto recognised by three UN non-members: Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Transnistria.[15]  Azerbaijan claims Nagorno-Karabakh as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to) [16][17][18][19]
 Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (Transnistria) Transnistria declared its independence in 1990. It is currently recognised by two UN non-members: Abkhazia and South Ossetia.[19]  Moldova claims Transnistria as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition, Disputed status
[20]

Non-UN member states recognised by at least one UN member

Name Status Other claimants Further information References
 Republic of Abkhazia Abkhazia declared its independence in 1999.[21] It is currently recognised by 6 UN member states (Russia, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Nauru, Vanuatu and Tuvalu), and two UN non-member states (South Ossetia and Transnistria),[15][22][23][24][25][26][27][28]  Georgia claims Abkhazia as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition
[29][30][31][32]
 Republic of China (Taiwan) The Republic of China (ROC, commonly known as Taiwan), constitutionally formed in 1912, is recognised as a state by 22 UN members and the Holy See as of 2011. All other UN member states do not officially recognise the ROC as a state; some of them regard its controlled territory as de jure part of the People's Republic of China (PRC) while some others have used careful diplomatic language to avoid taking a position as to whether the territory of the ROC is part of the PRC.[Note 1]. Throughout the years, the ROC has adopted differing positions towards simultaneous recognition of the ROC and the PRC by other countries.[34]  People's Republic of China claims that the Republic of China no longer exists and claims all of the territory under ROC jurisdiction as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
Political status
[35]
 Republic of Kosovo Kosovo declared its independence in 2008. As of 11 October 2011, it is recognised by 85 UN members and one UN non-member state, the Republic of China (Taiwan), although Kosovo does not recognise the ROC. The United Nations, as stipulated in Security Council Resolution 1244, has administered the territory since 1999 through the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo, with cooperation from the European Union since 2008. It is a member of the International Monetary Fund and World Bank Group.  Serbia claims Kosovo as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition, Political status
[36][37]
 Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus declared its independence in 1983. It is currently recognised by one UN member, Turkey. The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation has granted Northern Cyprus observer status under the name "Turkish Cypriot State". United Nations Security Council Resolution 541 defines the declaration of independence of Northern Cyprus as legally invalid.[38]  Cyprus claims Northern Cyprus as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
Cyprus dispute
[39]
 State of Palestine The Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) declared the State of Palestine in Algiers in 1988. At the time the PLO had no control over any part of the proclaimed territory.[40] Today the PLO executes certain administrative tasks of self-government in most parts of the territories through the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) established in 1994 according to the Oslo Accords and the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement.[41] The PLO participates in the United Nations as a non-state entity with observer status and is designated "Palestine".[42][43]The State of Palestine has membership in the Arab League and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. It is currently recognised by 127 UN member states,[44] as well as the SADR.[45]  Israel does not recognise the state of Palestine and currently occupies the area,[41] All Israeli governments since 1992 have agreed to the creation of a Palestinian state in the West Bank and Gaza Strip with mutually agreed land swaps. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
Proposals for a Palestinian state
[59][60][61][62][63][64][65]
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Both the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) and Morocco claim sovereignty over the territory of Western Sahara. The SADR, which declared its independence in 1976, has been recognised by 84 UN members and is a member state of the African Union. Several states, however, have since retracted or suspended recognition, pending the outcome of a referendum on self-determination, with 57 retaining diplomatic ties.[66][67] Western Sahara is not recognized as part of Morocco by any states, but some states support Moroccan autonomy plan. Moroccan "territorial integrity" is favoured by the Arab League. United Nations General Assembly Resolution 34/37 recognised the right of the Western Sahara people to self-determination and independence and recognised also the Polisario Front as the representative of the Western Sahara people. Western Sahara is currently listed on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.  Morocco claims Western Sahara as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
Legal status
[68]
 Republic of South Ossetia South Ossetia declared its independence in 1991. It is currently recognised by 5 UN member states (Russia, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Tuvalu and Nauru), and three UN non-member states (Abkhazia, Nagorno-Karabakh and Transnistria).[15][22][69]  Georgia claims South Ossetia as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition
[30][31][70]

Partially unrecognised UN member states

Name Status Other claimants Further information References
 Armenia Armenia, independent since 1991, is currently not recognised by one UN member, Pakistan, as Pakistan has a position of supporting Azerbaijan in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
[71][72]
 People's Republic of China (PRC) The People's Republic of China (PRC), proclaimed in 1949, is currently not recognised by one UN non-member, the Republic of China (ROC, commonly known as Taiwan). The PRC does not accept diplomatic relations with states that recognise the ROC (22 UN members and the Holy See as of 2011). Most of these states do not officially recognise the PRC as a state, though some states have established relations with the ROC while stating they do not intend to stop recognising the PRC (Kiribati, Nauru).[73][74] Some states which currently only recognise the PRC have attempted simultaneous recognition and relations with the ROC and the PRC in the past (Liberia, Vanuatu).[75][76][77] According to United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758, the PRC is the only legitimate representative of China to the United Nations.[Note 1]  Republic of China considers itself the sole legal government over all of China. Foreign relations, missions (of)
PRC's diplomatic relations dates of establishment
[78]
 Cyprus Cyprus, independent since 1960, is currently not recognised by one UN member (Turkey) and one non-member (Northern Cyprus), due to the ongoing civil dispute over the island.  Northern Cyprus claims part of the island of Cyprus Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
[79][80][81][82]
 Israel Israel, independent since 1948, is not recognised by 33 UN members and one UN non-member, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic[citation needed] (see Arab-Israeli conflict). It is recognised by the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), which was recognized by Israel in 1993 as the sole, legitimate representative of the Palestinian people.  State of Palestine, represented by the PLO, which has agreed with Israel in principle that a Palestinian state should be established within the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
[83][84][85][86][87]
 North Korea North Korea, independent since 1948, is not recognised by two UN members: Japan and South Korea.[88]  South Korea claims to be the sole legitimate government of Korea. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
[88][89][90]
 South Korea South Korea, independent since 1948, is not recognised by one UN member, North Korea.  North Korea claims to be the sole legitimate government of Korea. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
[91][92]

Excluded entities

  • Sovereign Military Order of Malta is a non-state sovereign entity and is not included as it claims neither statehood nor any territory.[93][94][95][96][97] It has established full diplomatic relations with 104 sovereign states as a sovereign subject of international law [98] and participates in the United Nations as an observer entity, but is not recognised as a subject of international law by at least one state: France.[99] SMOM maintains only official, but no diplomatic relations with France and five other states: Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, Luxembourg and Canada.[100] Five more states maintain no relations with SMOM and do not recognise its passports: Netherlands, Finland, Sweden, Iceland, Greece.[101]
  • By definition, the list does not include uncontacted peoples who exercise varying degrees of de facto sovereignty over the areas under their control, but either live in societies that cannot be defined as states or whose status as such are currently too data deficient to be definitively known.
  • Entities considered to be micronations are not included.[Note 2] Even though micronations generally claim to be sovereign and independent, it is often up to debate whether a micronation truly controls its claimed territory.[Note 3] Micronations are usually not considered of geopolitical relevance.[Note 3] For a complete list, see list of micronations.
  • Those of the current civil wars and other situations with problem over government succession, regardless of temporary alignment with the inclusion criteria (by having control over permanently populated territory or by receiving recognition as state or legitimate government), where the conflict is still in its active phase, the situation is too rapidly changing and no relatively stable rump states have emerged yet.
  • Those of the current irredentist movements and governments in exile that don't satisfy the inclusion criteria by simultaneously not having control over permanently populated territory and not been recognised as state or legitimate government by any other state.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Both the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China claim sovereignty over the whole of China, stating China is de jure a single sovereign entity encompassing both the area currently controlled by the PRC and the area currently controlled by the ROC. The position of individual states on this matter varies. Several states fully accept that the PRC's position that there is only one China and that the PRC is the sole legitimate representative of China. Other states merely acknowledge this position, while only recognising the PRC as a state. Some states only recognise the ROC as a state, but have expressed an interest in recognition and relations with both the ROC and the PRC.[33]
  2. ^ Micronations are not included even if they are recognised by another micronation, such as the "BjornSocialist Republic" that claims sovereignty over six square metres of Swedish territory, and is recognised by Ladonia, another micronation which claims one square kilometer of Swedish territory.
  3. ^ a b It is debatatable whether micronations have sovereign control over their claimed territories, that are of minuscule size, or the state from which the micronation claims to have seceded simply doesn't deem such declaration (and other acts of the micronation) important enough to react in any way and considers the micronation to be a combination of unofficial private announcements of individuals and a private property, where the individuals remain its (of the state that the micronation claims to have seceded from) citizens and the property remains part of its territory and both remain subject to its laws.

References

  1. ^ Thomas D. Grant, The recognition of states: law and practice in debate and evolution (Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 1999), chapter 1.
  2. ^ "Non-member State". Un.org. http://www.un.org/members/nonmembers.shtml. Retrieved 2010-06-25. 
  3. ^ "Germany - Countries A to Z". Auswaertiges-amt.de. http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/diplo/en/Laenderinformationen/LaenderReiseinformationenA-Z.jsp. Retrieved 2010-06-25. 
  4. ^ "Ambasciate Consolati e Uffici di promozione". Esteri.it. http://www.esteri.it/MAE/Templates/SediTemplate.aspx?NRMODE=Published&NRNODEGUID=%7b6C0DE2BB-8FE9-4C72-954B-CEB68F413EA9%7d&NRORIGINALURL=%2fMAE%2fIT%2fMinistero%2fServizi%2fItaliani%2fRappresentanze%2f&NRCACHEHINT=Guest. Retrieved 2011-04-29. 
  5. ^ U.S. Department of State Websites of U.S. Embassies, Consulates, and Diplomatic Missions Retrieved 2011-02-03
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  7. ^ "Foreign Missions in Kosovo". Government of Kosovo, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. http://www.mfa-ks.net/?page=2,50. Retrieved 2010-11-04. 
  8. ^ "Permanent Representations". Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. http://www.nkr.am/en/permanent-representations/104/. Retrieved 2010-11-04. 
  9. ^ "Representative Offices Abroad". Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, Public Information Office. http://www.trncpio.org/trncpio/en/index.asp?sayfa=cms&dmid=0&cmsid=170&ssid=256489879. Retrieved 2010-11-04. 
  10. ^ a b "Embassies & Representatives of Abkhazia". Government of Abkhazia, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. http://www.mfaabkhazia.net/en/policy#Ambassadors. Retrieved 2010-11-04. 
  11. ^ Embassies and representative offices
  12. ^ "Contacts and addresses of the Somaliland Representative Offices around the world". Government of Somaliland. http://www.somalilandgov.com/contacts.htm. Retrieved 2010-11-04. 
  13. ^ "Embassies, Missions, General and Special Delegations of Palestine abroad". WebGaza.net. http://www.webgaza.net/resources/Embassies_of_Palestine.htm. Retrieved 2010-11-04. 
  14. ^ BBC Country Profiles: Regions and territories: Somaliland. Retrieved 2009-09-14.
  15. ^ a b c (Russian) Вице-спикер парламента Абхазии: Выборы в НКР соответствуют всем международным стандартам: "Абхазия, Южная Осетия, НКР и Приднестровье уже давно признали независимость друг друга и очень тесно сотрудничают между собой", - сказал вице-спикер парламента Абхазии. ... "...Абхазия признала независимость Нагорно-Карабахской Республики..." - сказал он." English language translation from Microsoft Translator
  16. ^ BBC Country Profiles: Regions and territories: Nagorno-Karabakh. Retrieved 2009-09-14.
  17. ^ (Russian) Transnistria wants to join Russia (translated title), September 2008.
  18. ^ (Russian) Moldova, September 2008.
  19. ^ a b "In detail: The foreign policy of Pridnestrovie". Pridnestrovie.net. http://pridnestrovie.net/foreignpolicy_full.html. Retrieved 2010-06-25. 
  20. ^ "Abkhazia: Ten Years On". BBC 2. 2001. http://video.acasa.ro/view_video/1cbc0583298a23831612/transnistria-europe-s-black-hole-2-4.html. Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  21. ^ "Regions and territories: Abkhazia". BBC news. 8 February 2011. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3261059.stm. Retrieved 31 March 2011. 
  22. ^ a b "South Ossetia opens embassy in Abkhazia" The Tiraspol Times
  23. ^ Government of Tuvalu (20 September 2011). "On the establishment of diplomatic relations between Republic of Abkhazia and Tuvalu". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. http://www.mfaabkhazia.net/en/node/1082. Retrieved 2011-09-24. 
  24. ^ Government of Vanuatu (17 June 2011). "Vanuatu’s recognition to the Republic of Abkhazia". http://www.governmentofvanuatu.gov.vu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=95&Itemid=65. Retrieved 2011-09-24. 
  25. ^ Vanuatu's initial recognition was invalidated after the Kilman government was annulled by the Supreme Court. Kilman was subsequently re-elected and its recognition was re-confirmed by its Foreign Minister in July 2011: Natapei withdraws recognition of Abkhazia, Vanuatu Daily Post, June 19, 2011
  26. ^ Vanuatu official denies Abkhazia recognition, Solomon Star newspaper, 06 JUNE 2011
  27. ^ Transparency International Vanuatu press release on recognition of Abkhazia, 08 August 2011
  28. ^ "Vanuatu annuls recognition of Abkhazia - report". Radio New Zealand International. 19 June 2011. http://www.rnzi.com/pages/news.php?op=read&id=61283. Retrieved 15 October 2011. 
  29. ^ Clogg, Rachel (2001). "Abkhazia: Ten Years On". Conciliation Resources. http://www.c-r.org/resources/occasional-papers/abkhazia-ten-years-on.php. Retrieved 2008-02-26. 
  30. ^ a b Russia recognises Georgian rebels - BBC, 2008-08-26 [1]
  31. ^ a b "Venezuela's Chavez draws closer to Moscow". Reuters. 2009-09-10. http://www.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idUSTRE5895PF20090910. Retrieved 2009-10-20. 
  32. ^ John Pike. "Georgia mocks Nauru's recognition of Abkhazia". Globalsecurity.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/news/2009/12/mil-091215-rianovosti11.htm. Retrieved 2010-06-25. 
  33. ^ Taiwan cuts ties with Costa Rica over recognition for China
  34. ^ Bush III, Richard C. "The Role of the United States in Taiwan-PRC Relations", Taiwan: Beyond the Economic Miracle M.E. Sharpe, Inc. ISBN 0-87332-879-5 p. 358 Online version available at Google Books
  35. ^ Global Investment and Business Center, Inc. Staff Taiwan Foreign Policy and National Security Yearbook 2011 Second Edition International Business Publications, USA ISBN 0-7397-3660-4 Online version available at Google Books
  36. ^ "Kosovo MPs proclaim independence". BBC News. 2008-02-17. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/7249034.stm. Retrieved 2008-02-28. 
  37. ^ "Kosovo" (PDF). http://www.unmikonline.org/press/reports/N9917289.pdf. Retrieved 2010-06-25. 
  38. ^ "Security Council resolution 220 (1966) on Cyprus". Un.int. http://www.un.int/cyprus/scr541.htm. Retrieved 2010-06-25. 
  39. ^ Hadar, Leon (2005-11-16). "In Praise of 'Virtual States'". AntiWar. http://antiwar.com/hadar/?articleid=8042. Retrieved 2008-02-28. 
  40. ^ a b Staff writers (20 February 2008). "Palestinians 'may declare state'". BBC News (British Broadcasting Corporation). http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7254434.stm. Retrieved 2011-01-22. :"Saeb Erekat, disagreed arguing that the Palestine Liberation Organisation had already declared independence in 1988. "Now we need real independence, not a declaration. We need real independence by ending the occupation. We are not Kosovo. We are under Israeli occupation and for independence we need to acquire independence".
  41. ^ a b Israel allows the PNA to execute some functions in the Palestinian territories, depending on special area classification. Israel maintains minimal interference (retaining control of borders: air,[46] sea beyond internal waters,[46][47] land[48]) in the Gaza strip and maximum in "Area C".[49][50][51][52][53] See also Israeli-occupied territories.
    [40][54][55][56][57][58]
  42. ^ "UN General Assembly Resolution 3237". Thejerusalemfund.org. http://www.thejerusalemfund.org/www.thejerusalemfund.org/carryover/documents/resolution3237.html. Retrieved 2010-12-05. 
  43. ^ UN observers: Non-member States and Entities
  44. ^ Bannoura, Saed (28 August 2011). "124 Out Of 193 Countries Recognize Palestinian Independence". IMEMC News (International Middle East Media Center). http://www.imemc.org/article/61902. Retrieved 2011-08-28. 
  45. ^ Shelley, Toby (1988). "Spotlight on Morocco". West Africa (London: West Africa Publishing Company Ltd) (3712–3723: December 5–31): 2282.  "...the SADR was one of the first countries to recognise the state of Palestine."
  46. ^ a b Israel's control of the airspace and the territorial waters of the Gaza Strip
  47. ^ Map of Gaza fishing limits, "security zones"
  48. ^ Israel's Disengagement Plan: Renewing the Peace Process: "Israel will guard the perimeter of the Gaza Strip, continue to control Gaza air space, and continue to patrol the sea off the Gaza coast. ... Israel will continue to maintain its essential military presence to prevent arms smuggling along the border between the Gaza Strip and Egypt (Philadelphi Route), until the security situation and cooperation with Egypt permit an alternative security arrangement."
  49. ^ Gold, Dore; Institute for Contemporary Affairs (26 August 2005). "Legal Acrobatics: The Palestinian Claim that Gaza is Still "Occupied" Even After Israel Withdraws". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 5, No. 3. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. http://www.jcpa.org/brief/brief005-3.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  50. ^ Bell, Abraham (28 January 2008). "International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 7, No. 29. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. http://www.jcpa.org/brief/brief005-3.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  51. ^ "Address by Foreign Minister Livni to the 8th Herzliya Conference" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Israel. 22 January 2008. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Government/Speeches+by+Israeli+leaders/2008/Address+by+FM+Livni+to+the+8th+Herzliya+Conference+22-Jan-2008.htm?DisplayMode=print. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  52. ^ Salih, Zak M. (17 November 2005). "Panelists Disagree Over Gaza’s Occupation Status". University of Virginia School of Law. http://www.law.virginia.edu/html/news/2005_fall/gaza.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  53. ^ "Israel: 'Disengagement' Will Not End Gaza Occupation". Human Rights Watch. 29 October 2004. http://www.hrw.org/english/docs/2004/10/29/isrlpa9577.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  54. ^ Gold, Dore; Institute for Contemporary Affairs (26 August 2005). "Legal Acrobatics: The Palestinian Claim that Gaza is Still "Occupied" Even After Israel Withdraws". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 5, No. 3. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. http://www.jcpa.org/brief/brief005-3.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  55. ^ Bell, Abraham (28 January 2008). "International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 7, No. 29. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. http://www.jcpa.org/brief/brief005-3.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  56. ^ "Address by Foreign Minister Livni to the 8th Herzliya Conference" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Israel. 22 January 2008. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Government/Speeches+by+Israeli+leaders/2008/Address+by+FM+Livni+to+the+8th+Herzliya+Conference+22-Jan-2008.htm?DisplayMode=print. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  57. ^ Salih, Zak M. (17 November 2005). "Panelists Disagree Over Gaza’s Occupation Status". University of Virginia School of Law. http://www.law.virginia.edu/html/news/2005_fall/gaza.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  58. ^ "Israel: 'Disengagement' Will Not End Gaza Occupation". Human Rights Watch. 29 October 2004. http://www.hrw.org/english/docs/2004/10/29/isrlpa9577.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  59. ^ Official website of the Palestinian National Authority. The PNA has publicly acknowledged recognition from 94 states, including the former Yugoslavia.
  60. ^ Venezuela Pledges Support for Palestinian Statehood during Abbas Visit, November 2009.
  61. ^ "Costa Rica Recognizes 'Palestine'", The Journal of Turkish Weekly 26 February 2008 Retrieved 2011-02-07
  62. ^ "South African Representative Office to the Palestinian National Authority". Sarep.org. http://www.sarep.org/. Retrieved 2010-06-25. 
  63. ^ "Embassy of the State of Palestine to the Republic of Uzbekistan, Central Asia and Azerbaijan". Palestineuzbek.com. http://palestineuzbek.com/english.php?action=4. Retrieved 2010-06-25. 
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  65. ^ "Embassy of the State of Palestine in Bratislava". Palestine.sk. http://www.palestine.sk/about.html. Retrieved 2010-06-25. 
  66. ^ "Here the states which recognize the SADR. It is a non official list, with dates of recognition and cancelation:". ARSO. http://www.arso.org/03-2.htm. Retrieved 2011-02-07. 
  67. ^ "About Western Sahara". Australia Western Sahara Association. November 2006. http://awsa.org.au/?page_id=4. Retrieved 2010-01-04. 
  68. ^ Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (1976-02-27). "Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic". Western Sahara Online. http://www.wsahara.net/sadr.html. Retrieved 2008-02-28. 
  69. ^ (Russian) "Республика Науру признала независимость Южной Осетии" 16 December 2009 Retrieved 2011-02-03 "Republic of Nauru recognizes the independence of South Ossetia" English language translation from Microsoft Translator
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