name = Karun
native_name = كارون
image_size = 200px
image_caption = Karun River passing the Iranian city of
country = Iran
state = Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari
state1 = Khuzestan
city = Shushtar
city1 = Ahvaz
city2 = Khorramshahr
state_type = Provinces
length = 950
source_name = Zard Kuh
source_location = Zagros
mouth_name = Arvand Rud /
The Karūn (also spelled as Karoun) is
Iran's most effluent, and the only navigable, river. It is 450 miles (720 km) long. It rises in the Zard Kuhmountains of the Bakhtiaridistrict in the Zagrosrange, receiving many tributaries, such as the Dezand the Kuhrang, before passing through the capital of the Khuzestanprovince of Iran, the city of Ahvaz.
The Karun continues toward the
Persian Gulf, forking into two primary branches on its delta: the Bahmanshirand the Haffarthat joins the Shatt al-Arab("Arvand Rud" in Persian), emptying into the Persian Gulf. The important Island of Abadanis located between these two branches of the Karun. The port city of Khorramshahris divided from the Island of Abadan by the Haffar branch.
In two of several competing theories about the origins and location of the
Garden of Edenthe Karun is presumed to be the Gihon River that is described in the Biblical book of "Genesis". ["And the name of the second river is Gihon: the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Cush." (Genesis, 2:13)] The strongest of these theories propounded by archeologist Juris Zarinsplaces the Garden of Eden at the northern tip of the Persian Gulf, fed by the four rivers Tigris, Euphrates, GihonKarun and Pishon( Wadi Al-Batin).
The name of the river is derived from the mountain peak--
Kuhrang, that serves as its source.
Famous silent film documentary "" (1925) tells the story of Bakhtiari tribe crossing this river with 50,000 people and 500,000 animals.
It was here during the
Iran–Iraq Warthat the Iranians stopped the early Iraqi advance. With its limited military stocks, Iran unveiled its " human wave" assaults which used thousands of Basij(Popular Mobilization Army or People's Army) volunteers.
Several dams were built or are under construction on Karun river such as:
Shahid Abbaspour dam
Masjed Soleyman dam
* "Karun-3, Dam and Hydroelectric Power Plant", [http://www.karun3.com/history/?item=1 History] .
* N. Jafarzadeh, S. Rostami, K. Sepehrfar, and A. Lahijanzadeh, "Identification of the Water Pollutant Industries in Khuzastan Province", Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 36-42 (2004). [http://www.bioline.org.br/request?se04014]
* "Pasitigris (Karun)", Photos from Iran, [http://www.livius.org/a/iran/karun/pasitigris.html "Livius"] .
* "Karun river marshes", Factsheet, [http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/sites/index.html?action=SitHTMDetails.asp&sid=8122&m=0 BirdLife International] .
* "Karun-3, Dam and Hydroelectric Power Plant", [http://www.karun3.com/home.asp Home] . [http://www.karun3.com/pictures/ Album] .
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