Lewis


Lewis

Infobox UK place
official_name= Lewis
gaelic_name= Leòdhas
map_type= nomap
static_

static_image_caption= "Lewis shown within the Outer Hebrides" | population= 18,489
latitude= 58.220163
longitude= -6.38301
country= Scotland
os_grid_reference= NB426340
post_town= STORNOWAY
ISLE OF LEWIS
postcode_area= HS
postcode_district= HS1, HS2
dial_code= 01851
constituency_westminster= Na h-Eileanan an Iar
scots_name=
unitary_scotland= Na h-Eileanan Siar
lieutenancy_scotland= Western Isles
constituency_scottish_parliament= Western Isles
language= Scottish Gaelic
language1= English
area_total_sq_mi= 859
edinburgh_distance=

Lewis ( _gd. Leòdhas pronounced|ʎɔː.ɣəs̪) (Norse: Ljoðhús, "home of the poet") or the Isle of Lewis (" _gd. Eilean Leòdhais" pronounced|elan ʎɔː.ɣəʃ), is the northern part of the largest island of the Western Isles (" _gd. Na h-Eileanan Siar") or Outer Hebrides of Scotland. Another name usually used in a cultural or poetic context is "Eilean an Fhraoich" (pronounced|elan ən̴̪ ɾɯːx), " _en. The Heather Isle". The southern part of the island is called Harris (" _gd. Na Hearadh"). The two names however refer to the two parts of the same island despite the use of the terms "Isle of Lewis" and "Isle of Harris".

Lewis is, in general, the lower lying part of Lewis and Harris, with Harris being more mountainous. The flatter, more fertile land means Lewis contains the only town, Stornoway, and three-quarters of the population of the Western Isles. Beyond human habitation, the island's diverse habitats are home to an assortment of flora and fauna, such as the golden eagle, red deer and seals and are recognised in a number of conservation areas.

Lewis is of Presbyterian tradition with a rich history, having once been part of the Norse Kingdom of Mann and the Isles. Today, life is very different to elsewhere in Scotland with Sabbath observance, the Gaelic language and peat cutting retaining more importance than elsewhere. Lewis has a rich cultural heritage as can be seen from its myths and legends as well as the local literary and musical traditions.

History

The first evidence of human habitation on Lewis is found in peat samples which indicate that about 8,000 years ago, much of the native woodland was torched to make way for grassland to allow deer to graze. The earliest archaeological remains date from about 5,000 years ago. At that time, people began to settle in permanent farms rather than following their herds. The small houses of these people have been found throughout the Western Isles, in particular, at Dail Mhor, Carloway. .

About 500 BC, island society moved into the Iron Age. The buildings became larger and more prominent, culminating in the brochs – circular, dry-stone towers belonging to the local chieftains – testifying to the uncertain nature of life then. The best remaining example of a broch in Lewis is at Dun Charlabhagh. The Scots are recorded as arriving from around 1AD, bringing the Gaelic language with them.Macdonald, D. (1978). "Lewis: A History of the Island". Edinburgh: Gordon Wright] As Christianity began to spread through the islands in the sixth and later centuries, following Columban missionaries, Lewis was inhabited by the Picts.Macdonald, D. (1978). "Lewis: A History of the Island". Edinburgh: Gordon Wright]

, the ‘Foreigner Gaels', reflecting their mixed Scandinavian/Gaelic background, and probably their bilingual speech. [http://www.cne-siar.gov.uk/factfile/cultureheritage/history/index.htm Local Authority Web Site] ] The Norse language persists in many island placenames and some personal names to this day, although the latter are fairly evenly spread across Scottish Gaeldom.

Lewis(and the rest of the Western Isles) became part of Scotland once more in 1266 following the Treaty of Perth when it was ceded by the Kingdom of Norway. Under Scottish rule, the Lordship of the Isles emerged as the most important power in north-western Scotland by the 14th century. The Lords of the Isles were based on Islay, but controlled all of the Hebrides. They were descended from Somerled (Somhairle) Mac Gillibride, a Gall-Gaidheil lord who had held the Hebrides and West Coast two hundred years earlier. Control of Lewis itself was initially exercised by the Macleod clan but after years of feuding and open warfare between and even within local clans, the lands of Clan MacLeod were forfeited to the crown in 1597 and were awarded by King James VI to a group of Lowland colonists known as the Fife adventurers in an attempt to anglicise the islands. However the adventurers were unsuccessful and possession eventually passed to the Mackenzies of Kintail in 1609 when Coinneach, Lord MacKenzie, bought out the lowlanders.Macdonald, D. (1978). "Lewis: A History of the Island". Edinburgh: Gordon Wright]

in 1844, but subsequent famine and land reform forced vast numbers off their lands, and increased again the flood of emigrants. Lewis was the site of numerous 'land struggles' which have recently been commemorated in modern cairn-style monuments in various villages.Macdonald, D. (1978). "Lewis: A History of the Island". Edinburgh: Gordon Wright]

During the First World War, thousands of islanders served in the forces, many losing their lives, including over 200 naval reservists from the island who were returning home after the war when the Admiralty yacht "HMY Iolaire", sank within sight of Stornoway harbour. Many servicemen from Lewis served in the Royal and Merchant Navy during the Second World War and again, many lives were lost. Following the war, many more inhabitants emigrated to the Americas and mainland Scotland.

Historical sites

The Isle of Lewis has a variety of locations of historical and archaeological interest including:
* Callanish Stones;
* Dun Carloway Broch;
* Iron Age houses near Bostadh (Great Bernera);
* The Garenin Blackhouse Village in Carloway and the Black House at Arnol;
* Bragar whale bone arch;
* St. Columba's church in Aignish;
* Teampull Mholuaidh in Ness;
* Clach an Truiseil monolith;
* Clach Na Thursa, Carloway
* Bonnie Prince Charlie's Monument, Arnish;
* Lews Castle;
* Butt of Lewis cliffs and lighthouse;
* Dùn Èistean, a small island which is the ancestral home of the Lewis Morrisons.There are also numerous 'lesser' stone circles and the remains of five further brochs.

Geography and geology

A cross-section of Lewis would see mostly sandy beaches backed by dunes and machair on the east coast, giving way to an expansive peat covered plateau in the centre of the island. The Atlantic coastline is markedly more rugged and is mostly rocky cliffs broken by small coves and beaches. The more fertile nature of the eastern side led to the majority of the population settling there, including the largest (and only) town, Stornoway. Aside from the village of Achmore in the centre of the island, all settlements are on the coast.Pankhurst R.J. & Mullin, J.M. (1991) "Flora of the Outer Hebrides", London: HMSO]

Compared to Harris, Lewis is relatively flat, save in the south-east, where Ben More reaches convert|1874|ft|m|abbr=on, and in the south-west, where Mealasbhal at convert|1885|ft|m|abbr=on is the highest point; but there are only eleven peaks exceeding convert|1000|ft|m|abbr=on in height. [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Lewis-With-Harris 1911 Britannica] ] Southern Lewis also has a large number of freshwater lochs compared to the north of the island.

South Lewis, Harris and North Uist collectively is a National Scenic Area, and there are 4 geographical Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) on Lewis - Glen Valtos, Cnoc a' Chapuill, Port of Ness and Tolsta Head. [http://gateway.snh.gov.uk/ Scottish National Heritage - Protected Areas] ]

The coastline is severely indented into a number of large sea lochs, such as Lochs Resort and Seaforth which form part of the border with Harris, Loch Roag surrounding the island of Great Bernera and Loch Erisort. The principal capes are the Butt of Lewis, in the extreme north, where the cliffs are nearly convert|150|ft|m|abbr=on high and crowned with a lighthouse, the light of which is visible for 19 m.; Tolsta Head, Tiumpan Head and Cabag Head, on the east; Renish Point, in the extreme south; and, on the west, Toe Head and Gallon Head. [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Lewis-With-Harris 1911 Britannica] ] The largest island associated with Lewis is Bernera or Great Bernera in the district of Uig and is linked to the mainland of Lewis by a bridge opened in 1953.

Geology

at Stornoway, Tong, Vatisker and Carloway. [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Lewis-With-Harris 1911 Britannica] ] Sedimentary rocks cover some low-lying areas around the Broad Bay area as well.Pankhurst R.J. & Mullin, J.M. (1991) "Flora of the Outer Hebrides", London: HMSO]

Climate

Exposure to the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf Stream lead to a cool, moist climate on Lewis. There is little temperature difference between summer and winter, along with significant rainfall and frequent high winds, particularly during the autumn equinox. These winds have led to Lewis being designated a potential site for a significant wind-farm which has caused much controversy amongst the population.

Nature

There are 15 SSSIs on Lewis in the biology category, spread across the island. Additionally, the Lewis Peatlands are recognised by Scottish Natural Heritage as a Special Protection Area, Special Area of Conservation and a Ramsar site, showing their importance as a wetland habitat for migratory and resident bird life. [http://gateway.snh.gov.uk/ Scottish National Heritage - Protected Areas] ]

Birds

Many species of seabirds inhabit the coastal areas of Lewis, such as shag, gannets, fulmars, kittiwakes, guillemots and the ubiquitous seagulls.

In the Uig hills, it is possible to spot golden eagles; it has also been claimed that white-tailed eagles have been seen in the area. [http://www.isle-of-lewis.com/ Isle-of-Lewis.com] ] In the Pairc area, it is possible to see feeding oyster catchers and curlews. A few pairs of peregrine falcons survive on coastal cliffs and merlin and buzzard are not uncommon anywhere on hill and moor. An important feature of the winter bird life is the great diversity of wildfowl. A variety of duck, such as eider and long-tailed are found in the shallow water around Lewis. [http://www.cne-siar.gov.uk/factfile/environment/wildlife.htm Local Authority Web Site] ]

Marine life

.

Offshore, it is common to see seals, particularly in Stornoway harbour, and with luck, dolphins, porpoises, sharks and even the occasional whale can be encountered.

Land mammals

There are only two native land mammals in the Western Isles, red deer and otter. The rabbit, blue hare, hedgehog, brown and black rat, feral cat, mink and polecat were introduced by man. The origin of mice and voles is uncertain. [http://www.cne-siar.gov.uk/factfile/environment/wildlife.htm Local Authority Web Site] ]
American mink are another introduced species (escapees from fur farms) and cause problems for native ground-nesting birds, the local fishing industry and poultry farmers. [http://www.snh.org.uk/scottish/wisles/species.asp SNH - Hebridean Mink Project] ] Due to this impact and following a successful eradication [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/highlands_and_islands/5306182.stm BBC News] ] of the species from the Uists and Barra, the second and ongoing phase of the Hebridean Mink Project aims to rid mink from Lewis and Harris in similar fashion. [ [http://www.snh.org.uk/scottish/wisles/intro.asp Hebridean Mink Project] ]

There are claims that the Stornoway castle grounds are home to bats. [http://www.echoesecology.co.uk/documents/AnIntroductionToTheBatsofScotlandEdition1Dec2006_002.pdf An Introduction to the Bats of Scotland] ] In addition, there are farmed animals such as sheep, cattle and a few pigs.

Reptiles and amphibians

present are introduced species. [http://www.cne-siar.gov.uk/factfile/environment/wildlife.htm Local Authority Web Site] ]

Insects

The island's most famous insect resident is the Scottish midge which is ever-present near water at certain times of the year.

During the summer months, several species of butterflies and dragon flies can be found, especially outwith Stornoway.

The richness of insect life in Lewis is evident from the abundance of carnivorous plants that thrive in parts of the island.

Plant life

for "The Heather Isle". [http://news.scotsman.com/gaelic.cfm?id=140952005 Scotsman piece with 'Eilean an Fhraoich' translation] ]

Lewis was once covered by woodland, but the only natural woods remaining are in small pockets on inland cliffs and on islands within lochs, away from fire and sheep. In recent years, Forestry Commission plantations of spruce and pine were planted, although most of the pines were destroyed by moth infestation. The most important mixed woods are those planted around Lews Castle in Stornoway, dating from the mid 19th century. [http://www.cne-siar.gov.uk/factfile/environment/flora.htm Local Authority Web Site] ]

Politics and government

, its remit covers the whole of the Outer Hebrides and its headquarters are in Stornoway.

Lewis is home to the majority of the Western Isles electorate and 6 of the 9 multi-member council wards are within Lewis and one is shared with Harris. 22 councillors are effectively elected by Lewis residents using the Single Transferable Vote system, and following the 2007 elections 19 are independents, 1 has Labour and 2 SNP party affiliation. [http://www.cne-siar.gov.uk/members/members.htm Comhairle nan Eilean Siar - Council Members] ]

The Isle of Lewis is in the Highlands electoral region and is part of the identical Western Isles Scottish Parliamentiary and Na h-Eileanan an Iar Westminster constituencies, both currently represented by members of the Scottish National Party (SNP) and previously held by members of the Labour Party before the respective elections.

Current representatives

* Scottish Parliament: Alasdair Allan MSP (SNP), succeeding Alasdair Morrison (Labour)
* UK Parliament: Angus MacNeil MP (SNP), succeeding Calum MacDonald (Labour)

Demographics

Lewis' main settlement, the only burgh on the Outer Hebrides, is Stornoway ("Steòrnabhagh"), from which ferries sail to Ullapool on the Scottish mainland. In the 2001 census Lewis had a usually resident population of 18,489.

The island's settlements are on or near the coasts or sea lochs, being particularly concentrated on the north east coast. The interior of the island is a large area of moorland from which peat was traditionally cut as fuel, although this practice has become less common. The southern part of the island, adjoining Harris, is more mountainous with inland lochs.

Parishes and districts of Lewis

* There are four parishes: Barvas ("Barabhas"), Lochs ("Na Lochan"), Stornoway ("Steòrnabhagh"), and Uig on which the original civil registration districts were based. The district of Carloway (after the village of that name) which hitherto had fallen partly within the parishes of Lochs and Uig, became a separate civil registration district in 1859 .
* The districts of Lewis are Ness ("Nis"), Carloway ("Càrlabhagh"), Back, Lochs ("Na Lochan"), Park (" _gd. A' Phàirc"), Point (" _gd. An Rubha"), Stornoway, and Uig. These designations are traditional and in use by the entire population.
* For civil registration purposes Lochs (" _gd. Na Lochan") is nowadays split into North Lochs (" _gd. Na Lochan a Tuath") and South Lochs (" _gd. Na Lochan a Deas").
* The West Side is a generic designation for the area covering the villages from Borve to Shawbost (" _gd. Siabost").

It is claimed that the site of the Stornoway War Memorial was chosen as it would be visible from at least one location in each of the four parishes; therefore, it may be possible to see all four parishes of Lewis from the top of the monument. [http://www.stornowayhistoricalsociety.org.uk/features/warmem/ Stornoway Historical Society] .]

Settlements

While Lewis has only one town, Stornoway, with a population of approx 8,000, there are also several large villages and groupings of villages on Lewis, such as North Tolsta, Carloway and Leurbost with significant populations. Near Stornoway, Laxdale, Sandwick and Holm, although still de-facto villages, have now become quasi-suburbs of Stornoway. The population of the greater-Stornoway area including these (and other) villages would be nearer 12,000.

The following is a non-exhaustive list of villages in Lewis according to their location:

Economy

Industry

. Though historically important they are currently in decline and crofting in particular is little more than a subsistence venture today.

Despite the name the Harris tweed industry is today focused in Lewis with the major finishing mills in Shawbost and Stornoway. Every length of cloth produced is stamped with the official Orb symbol, trademarked by the Harris Tweed Association in 1909, when Harris Tweed was defined as "hand-spun, hand-woven and dyed by the crofters and cottars in the Outer Hebrides"; Machine-spinning and vat dyeing have since replaced hand methods, and only weaving is now conducted in the home, under the governance of the Harris Tweed Authority, established by an Act of Parliament in 1993. Harris Tweed is now defined as "hand woven by the islanders at their homes in the Outer Hebrides, finished in the islands of Harris, Lewis, North Uist, Benbecula, South Uist and Barra and their several purtenances (The Outer Hebrides) and made from pure virgin wool dyed and spun in the Outer Hebrides." [ [http://www.harristweed.org/fabric_hist.htm Harris Tweed Authority, "Fabric History"] , retrieved 21 May 2007.]

Aside from the concentration of industry and services in the Stornoway area many of the historical sites have associated visitor centres, shops or cafes. [http://www.calanaisvisitorcentre.co.uk/ Calanais Stones Visitor Centre] ] There is a pharmaceutical plant near Breasclete which specialises in fatty acid research. [http://apps.scottish-enterprise.com/SupplierDirectory/ViewSupplierInContext.aspx?SupplierGuid=affbf28b-44cd-45c5-aa05-0eaf00a5312b&displayID=3483 Scottish Enterprise - Life Sciences Directory] ]

The main fishing fleet (and associated shoreside services) in Stornoway is somewhat reduced from its heyday, but many smaller boats perform inshore creel fishing and operate from smaller, local harbours right around Lewis. Fish farms are present in many of the sea lochs and along with the onshore processing and transportation required the industry as a whole is a major employer.

Commerce

Stornoway is the commercial centre of Lewis, there are several national chains with shops in the town as well as numerous local businesses. Outwith Stornoway, many villages have an all-purpose shop (often combined with a post-office). Some villages have more than one, with these usually being specialist stores such as pharmacies or petrol stations.

Itinerant, travelling shops also tour the island visiting some of the more remote locations. The ease of transport to Stornoway and the advent of the internet have led to many of the village shops closing in recent times.

Transport

.

Suggestions for the possibility of an undersea tunnel linking Lewis to the Scottish mainland were raised in early 2007. One of the possible routes, between Stornoway and Ullapool, would be over convert|40|mi|km long and hence become the longest road tunnel in the world; [http://www.stornowaytoday.co.uk/ViewArticle2.aspx?SectionID=2629&ArticleID=2019367 Stornoway Today] ] [http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/transport/article2245144.ece "The Independent"] ] however, shorter routes would be possible.

Stornoway is the public transport hub of Lewis with bus service links to Point, Ness, Back and Tolsta, Uig, the West Side, Lochs and Tarbert, Harris. These services are provided by the local authority and several private operators as well as some community-run organisations.

Stornoway Airport is convert|2|mi|km away from the town itself, and is located next to the village of Melbost. From here services operate to Aberdeen, Benbecula, Edinburgh, Inverness and Glasgow, with flights from British Airways franchisee Loganair, Eastern Airways and Highland Airways. The airport is also the base of a HM Coastguard Search & Rescue Sikorsky S-92 helicopter, and was previously home to RAF Stornoway.

Peats

is still cut as a fuel in many areas of Lewis. Peat is usually cut in late spring with a tool called a peat knife or tosg (sometimes "toirsgian", or "tairsgeir") which has a long wooden handle with an angled blade on one end. The peat bank is first cleared of heather turfs. The peat, now exposed, is cut using the peat knife and the peats thrown out on the bank to dry. A good peat cutter can cut 1000 peats in a day. [http://www.ambaile.org.uk/en/education/crofting/src8.jsp Am Baile Education - Crofting] ]

Once dried,the peats are carted to the croft and built into a large stack. These often resembled the shape of the croft house - broad, curved at each end and tapered to a point about 2 metres high. They varied in length from about 4 to 14 metres. Peat stacking also follows local customs and a well built peat stack can be a work of art. Peat stacks provide additional shelter to houses. A croft can burn as many as 15,000 - 18,000 peats in a year. [http://www.ambaile.org.uk/en/education/crofting/src8.jsp Am Baile Education - Crofting] ]

The odour of the peat-smoke, especially in winter time, can add to the general atmosphere of the island. While peat burning still goes on, there has been a significant decline in recent years as people move to other, less labour-intensive forms of heating; however, it remains an important symbol of island life. In 2008, with the large increase in the price (and theft) of LPG and heating oil, there are signs that there may be a return to peat cutting.

Religion

kingdom hall all present in Stornoway.

The Christian religion has deep roots in the Western Isles, but owing mainly to the different allegiances of the clans in the past, the people in the northern islands (Lewis, Harris, North Uist) have historically been predominantly Protestant, and those of the southern islands (Benbecula, South Uist, Barra) predominantly Roman Catholic. There are also small Episcopalian congregations in Lewis, though many of their members originate outside the islands.

The northern parts of the Western Isles (particularly Lewis and Harris) have been described as the last bastion of fundamentalist Calvinism in Britain [http://www.guardian.co.uk/religion/Story/0,,1750597,00.html Guardian] ] with large numbers of inhabitants belonging to the Free Church of Scotland or the still more conservative Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland. Services in the Free Church, the Free Presbyterian Church and some congregations of the Church of Scotland do not use instrumental music or any songs other than the metrical psalms.

It has also generally been considered unacceptable for people to appear in church improperly dressed, although this is slowly changing. Violations of this nature might include the failure by women to wear a hat, or trousers being worn instead of a skirt, or the wearing of informal clothing such as jeans. In December 2005 the local council refused to conduct ceremonies for same-sex couples wishing to register under the Civil Partnerships Act 2004. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/4543274.stm BBC] ]

Education

School education in Lewis is under the remit of Comhairle nan Eilean Siar, there are a total of 23 schools covering the 5-18 age range. [http://www.cne-siar.gov.uk/education/lewisaddresses.htm Local Authority Education Dept.] ] Unusual features are the prevalence of Gaelic medium education (offered in 15 of 22 primary schools) [http://www.cne-siar.gov.uk/gme/stats.html Local Authority - Gaelic Medium] ] and the five 2-year secondary schools in communities outside Stornoway. Pupils who attend the rural 2-year secondaries then move to the Nicolson Institute, the only six-year secondary school on the island. The large number of village schools lead to necessarily small rolls, and further recent falls in pupil numbers have led to plans being drawn up for closures including all of the rural secondary departments. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/highlands_and_islands/6960478.stm BBC News] ] The closure plans have been deferred pending a full review [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/highlands_and_islands/6964894.stm BBC News] ] , but upcoming changes to the curriculum (a change to a 3 year junior secondary structure) would seem to place the rural secondaries under threat of change if nothing else.

Stornoway is home to a small campus of the University of Stirling, teaching nursing, which is based in "Ospadal nan Eilean" (Western Isles Hospital). There is also a further education college, Lews Castle College, which is part of the UHI Millennium Institute. The college is the umbrella organisation for other vocational and community education, offered in several rural learning centres as well as on the main campus and covering subjects such as basic computer skills, Gaelic language classes and maritime qualifications. [http://www.lews.uhi.ac.uk/centres/index.html Lews Castle College - Learning Centres] ]

Culture and sport

Language

) is very common. [http://www.linguae-celticae.org/dateien/Gaidhlig_Local_Studies_Vol_15_Steornabhagh_Ed_II.pdf Linguae-Celticae.Org] ] As a result of the Gaelic influence, the Lewis accent is frequently considered to sound more Irish or Welsh than stereotypically Scottish in some quarters. The Gaelic culture in the Western Isles is more prominent than in any other part of Scotland. Gaelic is still the language of choice amongst many islanders and around 60% of islanders speak Gaelic, whilst 70% of the resident population have some knowledge of Gaelic (including reading, writing, speaking or a combination of the three). Most signposts on the islands are written in both English and "Gàidhlig" and much day-to-day business is carried out in the Gaelic language. [http://www.cne-siar.gov.uk/factfile/cultureheritage/index.htm Local Authority Web Site] ] Almost all of the Gaelic speakers are bilingual.

Most of the place names in Lewis and Harris come from Old Norse. The name Lewis is the English spelling of the Gaelic "Leòdhas" which comes from the Old Norse "Ljóðhús", as Lewis is named in medieval Norwegian maps of the island. "Ljóðhús" translates from Old Norse to English as "Home of the Poet" (Ljóð = Poet, hús = house). The 12th century ruler of the Island, "Leod", taking his name from the Norse word for Poet.Fact|date=October 2007

Media and the arts

Lewis has been home to, or inspired, many writers. As well as regularly playing host to the Royal National Mod, there are annual local mods. Stornoway Castle Green hosts the annual 3 day Hebridean Celtic Festival in July, attracting over 10,000 visitors. The festival includes events such as ceilidhs, dances and special concerts featuring storytelling, song and music with performers from all round the Isles and beyond.

The radio station Isles FM is based in Stornoway and broadcasts on 103FM, featuring a mixture of Gaelic and English programming. The town is also home to a studio operated by BBC Radio nan Gàidheal, and Studio Alba, an independent television studio from where the Gaelic TV channel TeleG is broadcast.

The "Stornoway Gazette" is the main local paper, covering Lewis and beyond and is published weekly. "The Hebridean" is a sister paper of the Gazette and also provides local coverage. [ [http://www.jptalk.co.uk/termsandconditions.aspx Johnston Press - Publishers] ] Some community organisations in the rural districts have their own publications with news and features for these particular areas, such as the "Rudhach" for the Point district. [ [http://www.rudhach.com/ Rudhach - Community Newspaper] ] [ [http://www.breasclete.com/Community_Newsletter.html - Breasclete Community Newspaper] ]

Sport

are popular.

* Football is the most popular amateur sport in Lewis with Goathill Park in Stornoway hosting special matches involving select teams and visiting clubs and other organisations. Local teams currently participate in the Lewis and Harris Football League .

* Shinty is not as popular as in the rest of the West of Scotland, but the Lewis Camanachd team is based around the town.

* Attached to the Nicolson Institute School is the Ionad Spors Leòdhas (Lewis Sports Centre), an all-weather pitch and running track.

* The Lews Castle Grounds is the home of Stornoway Golf Club (the only 18-hole golf course in the Outer Hebrides).

* Angling is a very popular pass-time in Lewis as there are several good lochs and rivers for fishing.

* As Lewis is an island, various water sports, such as surfing are popular activities.

* Lewis has a terrain very suited to hillwalking, particularly in Uig and near the "border" with Harris.

Myths and legends

The Isle of Lewis has a rich folklore, including:

* The Blue Men of the Minch (also known as storm kelpies), who occupy the stretch of water between Lewis and mainland Scotland, looking for sailors to drown and stricken boats to sink.
* Kelpies were said to occupy several lochs, including one at Leurbost.
* "Seonaidh" - a water-spirit who had to be offered ale in the area of Teampull Mholuaidh in Ness.
* "Searrach Uisge" - a monster who was said to occupy Loch Suainbhal. Resembling a capsized boat, this creature has been reported swimming around for one and a half centuries. Locals say lambs were once offered annually to the creature. [http://www.paranormaldatabase.com/islands/outedata.php Paranormal Database, Outer Hebrides Pages] ] Other such creatures have been reported in several other lochs, including Loch Urubhal.
* A family of werewolves were said to occupy an island on Loch Langavat. Although long deceased, they promised to rise if their graves were disturbed.
* Various sea monsters have been reported off the shores of Lewis over the years, including a sighting reported in 1882 by a German ship off the Butt of Lewis. The ship, 15 kilometres off the coast, reported a sea serpent around 40 metres in length, several bumps protruding from the water, along its back. Sea serpents have also been reported at the southern side of the island. [http://www.paranormaldatabase.com/islands/outedata.php Paranormal Database, Outer Hebrides Pages] ]
* Glowing Balls have been reported in the area of Sandwick. The lights that float around the area normally announce approaching death for a local. Some say the light belongs to an Irish merchant who was robbed and murdered on the island. [http://www.paranormaldatabase.com/islands/outedata.php Paranormal Database, Outer Hebrides Pages] ]

Gastronomy

* Each year, men from Ness go out to the island of Sula Sgeir in late August for two weeks to harvest young gannets known locally as Guga, which are a local delicacy.

* Lewis has many hotels and restaurants serving varied menus from the more remote locations to the centre of Stornoway. In the town, there are Chinese, Thai and Indian restaurants as well as numerous establishments with authentic Scottish menus. Chefs use local produce as much as possible, and the crofting and fishing industry on the islands ensures they have a wide range of high quality ingredients from which to choose. Naturally, fresh seafood is featured heavily with the catch landed that morning, often put straight into the pot.

People with Lewis connections

* Sheilagh M. Kesting, first woman minister to be nominated to be Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland.
*Angus MacAskill, the strongest man to have ever lived - born in Berneray and briefly lived in Stornoway before emigrating to Canada.
* Cathy MacDonald, TV presenter
* Alexander MacKenzie, explorer, after whom the Mackenzie River in Canada is named
* Colin Mackenzie, 1st Surveyor-General of India
* Anne MacKenzie, BBC current affairs presenter and radio presenter
* Ken MacLeod, science fiction writer
* Hans Matheson, plays the title role in Granada's £8.5m serialisation of Boris Pasternak's novel, "Doctor Zhivago".
* Campbell Morrison, world famous entrepreneur related to John Wayne and Jim Morrison.
* Donald Stewart, politician
*Donald Trump, American billionaire, whose mother came from Tong, a village four miles (6 km) from Stornoway.
*Derick Thomson, Scottish Gaelic poet, born on Lewis, and educated in Stornoway.
*Alistair Darling, Chancellor of the Exchequer and MP for Edinburgh Central has a house in the village of Breacleit.

See also


* Lewis and Harris
* History of the Outer Hebrides
* Hebridean Myths and Legends
* Seonaidh
* Gannet
* Lewis Camanachd

References

External links

* [http://www.isle-of-lewis.com/ Visitor's guide for the Island of Lewis]
* [http://www.hebrides.ca hebrides.ca] Home of the Quebec-Hebridean Scots who were cleared from Lewis to Quebec 1838-1920's
* [http://www.cne-siar.gov.uk/ Website of the Western Isles Council with links to other resources]
* [http://robinwilson.net/lewis.html Panoramas of the Island] (QuickTime required)
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/5205430.stm Wind power dilemma for Lewis ]
* [http://www.spanglefish.com/AccessLewis/ Disabled access to Lewis for residents and visitors]
* [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Lewis-With-Harris 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica article on Lewis and Harris]
* [http://www.hebridean-life.com/ A Guide to living in the Outer Hebrides, with most information pertaining to Lewis]


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