- Honorifics for the dead in Judaism
Among the honorifics in Judaism, there are several traditional honorifics for the dead which are used when naming and speaking of the deceased. Different honorifics might be applied depending on the particular status of the deceased. These honorifics are frequently found on gravestones, on memorial walls inside the sanctuary of synagogues, in speeches, and in writing such as in obituaries.
In writing, it is most common to use the name followed by an abbreviation of an honorific either in Hebrew or English. For examples, see chart.
The following chart shows different honorifics used, along with their abbreviation in Hebrew and English, their translation, the masculine and feminine forms, the type of person which the honorific is applied to, and examples.
Full phrase in Hebrew English translation When used Example For a man For a woman Z"L ז״ל זיכרונו לברכה
of blessed memory; or
may his/her memory be for blessing
David Randomberg Z"L or David Randomberg ז״ל A"H ע״ה עליו השלום
may peace be upon him/her Joshua Randomstein A"H or Joshua Randomstein ע״ה ZT"L
זצ״ל זכר צדיק לברכה
zekher tzadik livrakha
may the memory of
the righteous be for blessing
a holy or a
Rabbi Moshe Feinstein ZT"L or Rabbi Moshe Feinstein ZTz"L or Rabbi Moshe Feinstein זצ״ל ZK"L זק״ל זכר קדוש לברכה
zekher kadosh livrakha
may the memory of
the saintly be for blessing
(including those murdered by enemies of the Jews)
Rabbi Avraham Yitzchak Bloch ZK"L or Rabbi Avraham Yitzchak Bloch זק״ל n/a זצוקללה״ה זכר צדיק וקדוש לברכה
לחיי העולם הבא
zekher tzadik v'kadosh livrakha,
l'chayei ha'olam ha-ba
may the memory of
the righteous and
saintly be for blessing
for the world to come
select group of
Avraham Avinu (may the memory of the righteous and saintly be for blessing for the world to come) or Avraham Avinu זצוקללה״ה HY"D הי״ד השם יקום דמו
Hashem yikom damo
השם יקום דמה
Hashem yikom dama
May Hashem avenge his / her blood Martyred Jews or Jews killed by anti-Semites Hana "Hanička" Bradyová HY"D or Hana "Hanička" Bradyová הי״ד
Some honorifics may be used for any individual. These honorifics are generally not used for rabbis or other special persons, since the specific honorifics for those people are used instead, as a sign of honor and respect. See below.
Of blessed memory
The most common honorific is "of blessed memory," a the Hebrew transliteration is "zikhrono livrakha" (m.) / "zikhronah livrakha" (f.) (Hebrew: (f.) "זיכרונה לברכה" \ (m.) "זיכרונו לברכה"). It is often abbreviated in English both as OBM and as "Z"L" The Hebrew abbreviation is "ז״ל."
Peace be upon him/her
An alternative honorific is "Peace be upon him/her." The Hebrew version is "alav ha-shalom" (m.) / "aleha ha-shalom" (f.) (Hebrew: (m.) "עליה השלום" \ (f.) "עליו השלום"). It is abbreviated in English as "A"H." The Hebrew abbreviation is "ע״ה."
This phrase is the same as (i.e. is cognate to) the Islamic honorific "peace be upon him" (which is used for all prophets of Islam). However, the English abbreviation "PBUH" is not commonly used for the Jewish honorific.
The above two may be used interchangeably, however "'of blessed memory" is the most common.
May Hashem avenge his/her blood
This honorific "May Hashem avenge his/her blood" is used for a non-rabbinic general individual who perished as a result of anti-semitism, for example pogroms or the Holocaust. The Hebrew version is "Hashem yikom damo" (m.) / "Hashem yikom dama" (f.) and in the Hebrew: (f.) "יקום דמה" \ (m.) "השם יקום דמו." The English abbreviation is "HY"D" and in Hebrew "הי״ד."
Saintly and the righteous
Memory of the righteous
The honorific "May the memory of the righteous be for blessing" is used after the names of holy rabbis and other saintly people. In Hebrew transliteration: "'zekher tzadik livrakha'" and in Hebrew: "זכר צדיק לברכה." The English abbreviation commonly used is "ZT"L" and in Hebrew, "זצ״ל" is used. It is pronounced in reading as "zatzal." It may be also written as "ZTz"L"
It is used primarily in reference to rabbis who have been deceased in recent memory. Thus, one is likely to write "Rabbi Moshe Feinstein ZT"L" (d. 1986) but far less likely to write "the Rambam ZT"L" (d. 1204) or "Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi ZT"L (d. 1812)"
Memory of the saintly martyrs
"May the memory of the saintly be for blessing" is used specifically for saintly martyrs. In this sense, martyrs can also include Jews killed in times of persecution (for example, in the Holocaust). In Hebrew transliteration "zekher kadosh livrakhah" and in Hebrew "זכר קדוש לברכה." It may be abbreviated as "ZK"L" or in Hebrew "זק״ל."
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