 International Data Encryption Algorithm

IDEA
An encryption round of IDEAGeneral Designers Xuejia Lai and James Massey Derived from PES Successors MMB, MESH, Akelarre,
IDEA NXT (FOX)Cipher detail Key sizes 128 bits Block sizes 64 bits Structure Substitutionpermutation network Rounds 8.5 Best public cryptanalysis A highorder differentiallinear attack requiring 2^{64}2^{52} chosen plaintexts breaks 6 rounds with a complexity of 2^{126.8} encryptions (Biham et al., 2007).^{[1]} In cryptography, the International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) is a block cipher designed by James Massey of ETH Zurich and Xuejia Lai and was first described in 1991. As a block cipher, it is also symmetric. The algorithm was intended as a replacement for the Data Encryption Standard[DES]. IDEA is a minor revision of an earlier cipher, PES (Proposed Encryption Standard); IDEA was originally called IPES (Improved PES).
The cipher was designed under a research contract with the Hasler Foundation, which became part of AscomTech AG. The cipher is patented in a number of countries but is freely available for noncommercial use. The name "IDEA" is also a trademark. The patents will expire in 2011–2012. Today, IDEA is licensed in all the countries where it is patented by MediaCrypt.
IDEA was used in Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) v2.0, and was incorporated after the original cipher used in v1.0, BassOmatic, was found to be insecure.^{[2]} IDEA is an optional algorithm in the OpenPGP standard.
Contents
Operation
IDEA operates on 64bit blocks using a 128bit key, and consists of a series of eight identical transformations (a round, see the illustration) and an output transformation (the halfround). The processes for encryption and decryption are similar. IDEA derives much of its security by interleaving operations from different groups — modular addition and multiplication, and bitwise eXclusive OR (XOR) — which are algebraically "incompatible" in some sense. In more detail, these operators, which all deal with 16bit quantities, are:
 Bitwise eXclusive OR (denoted with a blue circled plus ⊕).
 Addition modulo 2^{16} (denoted with a green boxed plus ⊞).
 Multiplication modulo 2^{16}+1, where the allzero word (0x0000) is interpreted as 2^{16} (denoted by a red circled dot ⊙).
After the eight rounds comes a final "half round", the output transformation illustrated below:
Key schedule
Each round uses six 16bit subkeys, while the halfround uses four, a total of 52 for 8.5 rounds. The first eight subkeys are extracted directly from the key, with K1 from the first round being the lower sixteen bits; further groups of eight keys are created by rotating the main key left 25 bits between each group of eight. This means that it is rotated less than once per round, on average, for a total of six rotations.
Security
The designers analysed IDEA to measure its strength against differential cryptanalysis and concluded that it is immune under certain assumptions. No successful linear or algebraic weaknesses have been reported. As of 2007^{[update]}, the best attack which applies to all keys can break IDEA reduced to 6 rounds (the full IDEA cipher uses 8.5 rounds).^{[1]} Note that a "break" is any attack which requires less than 2^{128} operations; the 6round attack requires 2^{64} known plaintexts and 2^{126.8} operations.
Bruce Schneier thought highly of IDEA in 1996, writing, "In my opinion, it is the best and most secure block algorithm available to the public at this time." (Applied Cryptography, 2nd ed.) However, by 1999 he was no longer recommending IDEA due to the availability of faster algorithms, some progress in its cryptanalysis, and the issue of patents.^{[3]}
Weak keys
The very simple key schedule makes IDEA subject to a class of weak keys; some keys containing a large number of 0 bits produce weak encryption.^{[4]} These are of little concern in practice, being sufficiently rare that they are unnecessary to avoid explicitly when generating keys randomly. A simple fix was proposed: exclusiveORing each subkey with a 16bit constant, such as
0x0DAE
.^{[4]}^{[5]}Larger classes of weak keys were found in 2002.^{[6]}
This is still of negligible probability to be a concern to a randomlychosen key, and some of the problems are fixed by the constant XOR proposed earlier, but the paper is not certain if all of them are. A more comprehensive redesign of the IDEA key schedule may be desirable.^{[6]}
Availability
A patent application for IDEA was first filed in Switzerland (CH A 1690/90) on May 18, 1990, then an international patent application was filed under the Patent Cooperation Treaty on May 16, 1991. Patents were eventually granted in Austria, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, (European Patent Register entry for European patent no. 0482154, filed May 16, 1991, issued June 22, 1994 and expiring not later than May 16, 2011), the United States (U.S. Patent 5,214,703, issued May 25, 1993 and expiring not later than January 7, 2012) and Japan (JP 3225440). (According to the PGP FAQ^{[7]}, the US patent expired on May 25, 2010. However, US patent law was changed in 1995 such that patents now expire 20 years after filing, not 17 years after issuing. This holds retroactively for all patents that had not yet expired at the time the changed law came into effect,^{[8]} and it thus holds for IDEA. International treaties may or may not cause expiry as early as May 16, 2011.^{[9]})
MediaCrypt AG is now offering a successor to IDEA and focuses on its new cipher (official release on May 2005) IDEA NXT, which was previously called FOX.
Literature
 Hüseyin Demirci, Erkan Türe, Ali Aydin Selçuk, A New Meet in the Middle Attack on The IDEA Block Cipher, 10th Annual Workshop on Selected Areas in Cryptography, 2004.
 Xuejia Lai and James L. Massey, A Proposal for a New Block Encryption Standard, EUROCRYPT 1990, pp389–404
 Xuejia Lai and James L. Massey and S. Murphy, Markov ciphers and differential cryptanalysis, Advances in Cryptology — Eurocrypt '91, SpringerVerlag (1992), pp17–38.
References
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} Biham, E.; Dunkelman, O.; Keller, N.. "A New Attack on 6Round IDEA". SpringerVerlag. http://www.cosic.esat.kuleuven.be/publications/article920.ps.
 ^ Garfinkel, Simson (December 1, 1994), PGP: Pretty Good Privacy, O'Reilly Media, pp. 101–102, ISBN 9781565920989
 ^ "Slashdot". slashdot.org. http://slashdot.org/interviews/99/10/29/0832246.shtml. Retrieved 20100815.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} Daemen, Joan; Govaerts, Rene; Vandewalle, Joos (1993), "Weak Keys for IDEA", Advances in Cryptology, CRYPTO 93 Proceedings: 224–231, http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.51.9466
 ^ Nakahara, Jorge Jr.; Preneel, Bart; Vandewalle, Joos (2002), A note on Weak Keys of PES, IDEA and some Extended Variants, http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.20.1681
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} Biryukov, Alex; Nakahara, Jorge Jr.; Preneel, Bart; Vandewalle, Joos, "New WeakKey Classes of IDEA", Information and Communications Security, 4th International Conference, ICICS 2002, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2513: 315–326, http://www.cosic.esat.kuleuven.be/publications/article189.pdf, "While the zeroone weak keys problem of IDEA can be corrected just by XORing a fixed constant to all the keys (one such constant may be 0DAE_{x} as suggested in [4]) the problem with the runs of ones may still remain and will require complete redesign of the IDEA key schedule."
 ^ http://www.pgp.net/pgpnet/pgpfaq/#PATENTIDEA
 ^ http://answers.google.com/answers/threadview/id/2434.html
 ^ http://www.patentlens.net/daisy/KeyOrgs/1236/418/420/422.html
External links
Categories: Block ciphers
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