James Collip


James Collip

Infobox Scientist
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birth_date = November 20, 1892
birth_place = Belleville, Ontario
death_date = June 19, 1965
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field = biochemistry
work_institutions =
alma_mater = University of Toronto
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known_for = insulin
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James Bertram Collip (November 20, 1892 – June 19, 1965) was part of the Toronto group which isolated insulin. Born in Belleville, Ontario, he served as the Chair of the Department of Biochemistry at McGill University from 1928-1941 and Dean of Medicine at the University of Western Ontario from 1947-1961, where he was also a member of the Kappa Alpha Society.

He enrolled at Trinity College at the University of Toronto at the age of 15, and studied physiology and biochemistry. He obtained a Ph.D in Biochemistry from the University of Toronto in 1916.

In 1915, at the age of 22, Collip accepted a lecturing position in Edmonton at the University of Alberta Faculty of Medicine, shortly before completing his doctorate studies. He fulfilled the role for 13 years, rising to the position of Professor and Head of the Department of Biochemistry in 1920. His research at the time was mainly focused on blood chemistry of vertebrates and invertebrates.

He took a sabbatical leave beginning in April 1921, and travelled to Toronto on a Rockefeller Travelling Scholarship for a six month position with Professor J. J. R. MacLeod of the University of Toronto's Department of Physiology. There his research program (on the effect of pH on the concentration of sugar in the blood) would take him to marine biological stations in Woods Hole, Massachusetts and St. Andrews, New Brunswick before he returned to Toronto late in the year.

MacLeod was overseeing the work of Frederick Banting and Charles Best in their search for a treatment for diabetes which they had begun in May 1921. In December, when Banting and Best were having difficulties in refining the pancreatic extract, MacLeod freed Collip from his other research to enable him to join the research team. Collip's task was to prepare insulin in a more pure, usable form than Banting and Best had been able to achieve to date. Within a month, Collip achieved the goal of preparing a pancreatic extract pure enough to use in clinical trials.

Successful trials were soon completed and the future of insulin was assured. Banting, Best and Collip subsequently shared the patent for insulin, which they sold to the University of Toronto for one dollar.

Regrettably, due to disagreements between Banting and MacLeod, there was ill-will generated within the team. The Nobel Prize for Medicine was awarded to Banting and MacLeod in 1923. Feeling that Best had been overlooked in the award, Banting shared his portion with his Best. In response, MacLeod shared his portion with Collip. Nonetheless, Collip (and MacLeod) have been largely forgotten as co-discoverers of insulin.

Following this early success, Collip returned to Edmonton to resume his position with the University, and to pursue his own studies on hormone research. In 1928 he was recruited to McGill University in Montreal by his former graduate advisor, Archibald Macallum. Collip served as Chair of McGill's Department of Biochemistry from 1928-1941. He is regarded as a pioneer of endocrine research. He did pioneering work with the hormone ACTH.

He died at the age of 72.

Honours (Partial list)

* Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, 1925
* Fellow of the Royal Society, 1933
* D.Sc., Harvard University, 1936
* Commander of the Order of the British Empire, 1943
* D.Sc., Oxford University, 1946
* Medal of Freedom with Silver Palm (US), 1947
* Banting Medal of the American Diabetes Association , 1960
* Honorary Doctorate from the University of Western Ontario, 1964

Readings

* Michael Bliss, "The Discovery of Insulin", 1982, McLellan & Stewart
* M. L. Barr and R. J Rossiter, "James Bertram Collip 1892-1965, Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society", Volume 19, December 1973

References


*cite journal
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last=Kinch
first=R A
authorlink=
coauthors=
year=2008|month=Mar.

title=Dr J. B. Collip and the development of Premarin
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volume=30
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pages=244–7
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pmid = 18364102
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
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last=Bliss
first=Michael
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year=2005|month=.

title=Resurrections in Toronto: the emergence of insulin
journal=Horm. Res.
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issue=
pages=98–102
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pmid = 16286782
doi = 10.1159/000087765
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*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Rosenfeld
first=Louis
authorlink=
year=2002|month=Dec.

title=Insulin: discovery and controversy
journal=Clin. Chem.
volume=48
issue=12
pages=2270–88
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pmid = 12446492
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*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Dominguez
first=L J
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coauthors=Licata G
year=|month=.

title= [The discovery of insulin: what really happened 80 years ago]
journal=Ann. Ital. Med. Int.
volume=16
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pages=155–62
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pmid = 11692904
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
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last=Collip
first=J B
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year=|month=.

title=The William Henry Welch Lectures: Some recent advances in the physiology of the anterior pituitary. 1934
journal=Mt. Sinai J. Med.
volume=66
issue=5-6
pages=343–64; discussion 342
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pmid = 10618738
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
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last=Li
first=A
authorlink=
year=1992|month=Oct.

title=J. B. Collip, A. M. Hanson and the isolation of the parathyroid hormone, or endocrines and enterprise
journal=Journal of the history of medicine and allied sciences
volume=47
issue=4
pages=405–38
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pmid = 1469272
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doi=10.1093/jhmas/47.4.405
*cite journal
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last=Schwartz
first=T B
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year=1991|month=.

title=Giants with tunnel vision: the Albright-Collip controversy
journal=Perspect. Biol. Med.
volume=34
issue=3
pages=327–46
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pmid = 2067930
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Bliss
first=M
authorlink=
year=1982|month=.

title=Banting's, Best's, and Collip's accounts of the discovery of insulin
journal=Bulletin of the history of medicine
volume=56
issue=4
pages=554–68
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 6760943
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Barr
first=M L
authorlink=
coauthors=Rossiter R J
year=1973|month=.

title=James Bertram Collip, 1892-1965
journal=Biographical memoirs of fellows of the Royal Society. Royal Society (Great Britain)
volume=19
issue=
pages=235–67
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 11615724
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Browne
first=J S
authorlink=
coauthors=Denstedt O F
year=1966|month=Aug.

title=James Bertram Collip (1892-1965)
journal=Endocrinology
volume=79
issue=2
pages=225–8
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 5331934
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Noble
first=R L
authorlink=
year=1966|month=Apr.

title=J. B. Collip, 1893-1965
journal=J. Reprod. Fertil.
volume=11
issue=2
pages=167–70
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 5328022
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Foglia
first=V G
authorlink=
year=|month=.

title= [James Bertram Collip (20 November 1892- 19 June 1964)]
journal=Revista de la Sociedad Argentina de Biología
volume=42
issue=1
pages=4–6
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 4861053
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Noble
first=R L
authorlink=
year=1965|month=Dec.

title=Memories of James Bertram Collip
journal=Canadian Medical Association journal
volume=93
issue=26
pages=1356–64
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 5321114
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Keys
first=D A
authorlink=
year=1965|month=Oct.

title=James Bertram Collip, an appreciation
journal=Canadian Medical Association journal
volume=93
issue=14
pages=774–5
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 5318738
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=WARWICK
first=O H
authorlink=
year=1965|month=Aug.

title=James Bertram Collip--1892-1965
journal=Canadian Medical Association journal
volume=93
issue=
pages=425–6
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 14339310
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=THOMSON
first=D L
authorlink=
year=1957|month=Nov.

title=Dr. James Bertram Collip
journal=Canadian journal of biochemistry and physiology
volume=35
issue=11
pages=suppl 3–7
publisher = | location =
pmid = 13479783
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =
doi = 10.1159/000047423


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