- List of Tagalog loanwords
The Tagalog language, due to its history of connections with the rest of Asia, and the influence of European colonization, has developed a unique vocabulary since its inception from its Austronesian roots. The influence of the Sanskrit, Arabic, Spanish, Greek, Latin, Arabic, English, Spanish, Malay, Chinese, Japanese, and Indian languages can be seen in the Tagalog language. According to the linguistic expert Jose Villa Panganiban, "of the 30,000 root words in the Tagalog language, there are close to 5,000 from Spanish, 3,200 from Malay, 1,500 from English, 1,500 from both Hokkien (Min Nan) and Yueh Chinese dialects, 300 from Sanskrit, 200 from Arabic, and a few hundred altogether from other languages". Some linguists claim that borrowings from Malay cannot be ascertained at this time, as words from the Old Austronesian language and those from Malay are still ambiguous and too similar to be distinguished, but some linguists studying the Malay language came to recognize semantic cognates with other Austronesian words, thereby classifying some others to be of Malay provenance.
Spanish has bequeathed the most loan words to Tagalog. According to linguists, Spanish (5,000) has even surpassed Malayo–Indonesian (3,500) in terms of loan words borrowed. About 40% of everyday (informal) Tagalog conversation is practically made up of Spanish loanwords. An example is the sentence below, wherein Spanish–derived words are italicized (original in parentheses):
"Puwede (Puede) ba akong umupo sa silya (cilla) sa tabi ng bintana (ventana) habang nasa biyahe (viaje) tayo sa eroplano (aeroplano)?" ("May I sit in the chair nearest the window in the duration of our voyage in the airplane?")
Most have retained at least their original spelling, pronunciation, and definition such as basura', delikadesa, and demokrasya.
Others have morphed like 'ku(ha)nin' (Sp.: 'coja' + Tag. '–nin'), which has inconspicuously developed into another pure Tagalog–sounding word. Another one is maamong kordero (from Sp. amo & cordero). Combined together, it conveys the description of a meek, tame, harmless human with Tagalog adjective prefix and suffix added. The compound word batya't palo–palo, a must word in the laundry business where many Spanish words proliferate. The words were taken from the Spanish batea for "washing tub" and palo for "stick" or "beater", something a typical Filipino might think had no Spanish provenance at all. Others are umpisa (empieza), pulubi (pobre), pader (pared).
Some have totally gained new meaning such as kursonada (corazonada, originally meaning '"hunch", has changed to "object of desire"); sospechoso, the "suspicious person" and not the "suspect" anymore as it originally means in Spanish; imbyerna (invierna), meant 'winter' became a word for 'bummer'; or 'insekto' – 'insect' transformed into a 'pesty clownish person'; or even 'sigue' a Spanish word for 'continue' or 'follow' now widely understood as the second or third to the last word when about to hang up the phone ('O sigue uhm, bye.').
Others use prefixes and/or suffixes, combined from Tagalog or other languages without which the word can not be completed and convey its meaning. For example, 'pakialamero' (from Tag. 'pakialam' and the Sp. suffix '–ero'); same as 'majongero' ('mahjong' an obviously Chinese word and the Sp. suffix '–ero'). 'Daisysiete' becomes a corrupted word from English 'daisy' and the Spanish 'decisiete' combining and overlapping to coin the term to mean a sweet and sexually desirable sounding female who is underaged (below 18 years old). And 'bastusing katawan' (Sp.: 'basto' & Tag.: 'katawan') combined to form a term for a bombshell body.
Even after the Spanish colonists left, Tagalog is still being influenced by Spanish as new words are coined, albeit in its own terms, viz. 'alaskador' ('Alaska' + Sp. suffix '–ador'); 'barkada' (from Sp.: 'barca' or a 'boat' to a 'clique'); 'berde' ('green' nuanced to 'toilet joke'); which are not understood in Spain or any Latin American country. In a strange twist, even if Filipinos have a chance to Tagalized words using foreign words, currently English—their most accessible influence—they coin words in a uniquely Hispanizing way i.e. 'boksingero' (from Eng. 'boxing') instead of using the Spanish 'boxeador't. Or 'basketbolista' (from Eng. 'basketball'), instead of borrowing from Spanish 'baloncesto' to make it say 'baloncestista' or 'baloncestador' (although basketball is "básquetbol" in many Latin American countries).
Here are the examples of Spanish–derived Tagalog words in the following format: Word (Etymology – Original Definition/s if different from Nuanced Definition. = Derivative Definition if Compound Words) – Nuanced Definition. Shared Definition precedes Nuanced Definition if both exist.
Tagalog Spanish Meaning Abante Avante Ahead, Forward Ahensiya Agéncia Agency Ambisyoso Ambicioso Ambitious Bodega Bodega Warehouse Colegio/Kolehiyo Colegio College Diyos Dios God Edukasyon Educación Education Eskwela Escuela School Guerra/Giyera Guerra War Hustisya Justicia Justice Hapon Japón Japan Ingles Inglés English Kalye Calle Street Kapasidad Capacídad Capacity Kultura Cultura Culture Luho Lujo Luxury Monarkiya Monarquía Monarchy Mundo Mundo World Nasyonalista Nacionalista Nationalist Numero Número Number Operasyon Operación Operation Ordinansa Ordinanza Ordinance Oras Horas Time
Pamilya Familia Family Pilipinas Filipinas Philippines Probinsya Provincia Province Realidad Realidad Reality Republika República Republic Reyna Reina Queen Sabon Jabón Soap Tableta Tableta Tablet Teknolohiya Tecnología Technology Yelo Hielo Ice
English has been used in everyday Tagalog conversation. This kind of conversation is called Taglish. English words borrowed by Tagalog are mostly modern and technical terms, but English words are also used for short usage (many Tagalog words translated from English are very long) or to avoid literal translation and repetition of the same particular Tagalog word. English makes the second largest vocabulary of Tagalog after Spanish. In written language, English words in a Tagalog sentence are written as they are, but they are sometimes written in Tagalog phonetic spelling. Here are some examples:
Here are some examples:
Tagalog English Basketbol Basketball Biskwit Biscuit Byu View Direk Director Ekonomiks Economics Interbyu Interview Iskor Score Iskrin Screen Ispiker Speaker Isports Sports Istampid Stampede Catsup/Kechap Ketchup Keyk Cake Perpyum Perfume Websayt Website
Cognates with Malay
Tagalog is an Austronesian language and a close cousin of both Malay varieties in Malaysia, Brunei and Indonesia. Because of this close relationship, there are many cognates between the two languages stretching back many millennia. Many cognates were re-borrowed into in the language when Old Malay became the official language of trade and documentation during the pre-Hispanic era of Philippine history, as evidenced by the Laguna Copperplate Inscription of 900 AD and accounts of Pigafetta at the time of the Spanish arrival in the country 5 centuries later. This is a small sample of the thousands of cognates present between Tagalog and Malay.
Tagalog Malay Meaning Ako Aku I (first person) Balik Balik Return Bansà Bangsa Country Daán Jalan Street,
Hangin Angin Wind Itik Itik Duck Itim Hitam Black Kalapatî Merpati Pigeon Lalaki Lelaki,
Male Langit Langit Sky,
Sakit Sakit Ill Mura Murah Cheap Pangulo Penghulu President Pulà Merah Red Putî Putih White Saksi Saksi Witness Sarap Sedap Delicious Sulat Surat Letter Tamis Manis Sweet Taon Tahun Year Utak Otak Brain Mahal Mahal Expensive Sintá Cinta Love (Possessive) Anak Anak Child Kanan Kanan Right Guntíng Gunting Scissor Lima Lima Five Ikaw Kau You Durián Durian Durian Tulong Tolong Help Pulò Pulau Island Rambután Rambutan Rambutan Batík Batik Spot,
Batò Batu Stone Lahat Lalat All Mulâ Mula From Radyo Radio Radio Medya Media Media Sanggol Sanggul Infant Dagat Darat Sea Payong Payung Umbrella Kita Kita We (1st person dual, i.e. "you and I") Kami Kami We (excludes addresee) Dingding Dinding Wall Mangga Mangga Mango Halagâ Harga Price Babae Bibi Female Timog Timur South Ulan Hujan Rain Buwaya Buaya Crocodile Bawang Bawang Garlic Apat Empat Four Ánim Enam Six Salitá Cerita Word Balitá Berita News Kambing Kambing Goat Tahanan Tahanan House Halaman Halaman Plant Kapag Kapan When Ulat Ulat Report Bakit Bukit Why Buwan Bulan Month Laban Lawan Oppose (v.),
Langka Nangka Jackfruit Balimbing Belimbing Starfruit Aprikot Aprikot Apricot Lemon Lemon Lemon Papaya Pepaya Papaya Bunga Bunga Fruit Lawa Rawa Lake Helikopter Helikopter Helicopter Balakáng Belakang Hip Libo Ribu Thousand Utang Utang Debt Tagalog Sanskrit Meaning Alak Arak Wine Bahala Bahala Fate Bathala Bathala Almighty Bahagi Bhag Part
Budhî Bodhi Conscience Diwa Jiwa Spirit,
Diwata Devanta Fairy/
Dukha Dukkha Destitute Guro Guru Teacher,
Karma Karma Karma Kathâ Katha Creation Mahárlika Mahardhikka Nobility Mukhâ Mukha Face Sutlâ Sutra Silk Visayas Vijaya Major islands group in central Philippines. Main islands are: Samar, Leyte, Cebu, Bohol, Negros, and Panay. Tagalog Hindi Meaning Achara Achar Pickled
Tsaa Chai Tea Beranda Veranda Roofed open gallery
Mahal Mahal Beloved
Sabón Saboon Soap Syampu Champo Shampoo
- Bumbay (Gujarati: Bombay) – Term used for people of South Asian descent.
- Alam (Arabic: Alham) – Knowledge, understanding.
- Hiyâ (Arabic: Hayaa) - to feel shame, blush.
- Hukum(Arabic: Hukum) - Judge
Min Nan (Hokkien), Yueh (Cantonese), and Mandarin Chinese
During the time when several Kingdoms existed in the area of what is now Luzon(in reference to the Luzon Empire or Kingdom of Tondo), diplomatic ties were established with the Ming dynasty. Contact also reached as far as the Sultan of Sulu. As a result, many Chinese loanwords were gained, some examples are:
- Apo (Hokkien: 阿公/A–kong) – Grandfather (the word 'apo' means grandchild/ren in Tagalog).
- Ate (Hokkien: 阿姊/A–chí) – Eldest sister.
- Bakya (Hokkien: 木屐/ba̍k-kia̍h) – Native wooden sandals.
- Batchoy (Hokkien: 肉水/bah-chúi) – Pork in soup.
- Bihon (Hokkien: 米粉/bí-hún) – Rice vermicelli
- Bitsin (Hokkien: 味精/bī-cheng) – monosodium glutamate.
- Chekwa (Slang/corruption for Intsik, see ‘intsik’.)
- Daw/Raw (Mandarin: Tao, Originally meant "God", "Way", or "God's Way") – He said/she said/they said/it was said/reportedly/supposedly.
- Ditse (Hokkien: 二姊/Dī–chí) – Second eldest sister.
- Hikaw (Hokkien: 耳鉤/hī–kau) – Earrings.
- Jusi (Hokkien: 富絲/hù-si) – Cloth made from pineapple fibers.
- Impo (Hokkien: 阿媽/A–má) – Grandmother.
- Ingkong (Hokkien: 阿公/A–kong) – Grandfather.
- Intsík (Hokkien: Din Tiak) – Chino.
- Kuya (哥哥; Cantonese: ko–ko; Hokkien: keh–ya) – Eldest brother.
- Lumpia (Hokkien: 潤餅/jūn-piáⁿ) – lumpia/spring rolls.
- Mami (Hokkien: 肉麵/bah-mī) – Meat and noodles in soup.
- Pati (Hokkien: ) – Including.
- Pancit (Hokkien: 便ê食/piān-ê-si̍t) – Noodles with sauce.
- Petsay (Hokkien: 白菜/pe̍h-chhài) – Chinese cabbage.
- Pesa (Hokkien: 白sa̍h) – Plain boiled.
- Santse (Hokkien: 三姊/San–chí) – Third eldest sister.
- Sitsit (Hokkien: ) – Pssst...
- Siyansi (Hokkien: 煎匙/chian-sî) – Spoon-like kitchen turner/spatula.
- Siyopaw/siopao (Hokkien: 燒包/sio-pau) – Dough ball filled with pork/beef/carabao meat.
- Sotanghon (Hokkien: 苏冬粉/so-tang-hun) – Cellophane noodles
- Suki (Hokkien: 主客/chu–khe) – Regular Customer.
- Sungki (Hokkien: 伸齒/chhun-khí) – Malocclusion.
- Susi (Hokkien: 鎖匙/só–sî) – Key.
- Tikoy (Hokkien: 甜粿/Tih–ke) – Chinese New Year's cake Nian gao.
- Tingi (Hokkien:) – Selling at retail.
- Tokwa (Hokkien: 豆干/tāu-koaⁿ) – Soybean curd
- Totso (Hokkien: 豆油醋魚/tāu–iû-chhò͘-hî) – Sauteed fish.
- Toyo (Hokkien: 豆油/tāu–iû) – Soy sauce.
- Tausi (Hokkien: 豆豉/tāu-si; 'beans fermented/in brine') – Fermented black beans.
During the era of the several Kingdoms in the Luzon area, and even in the Visayas, trade was established between them and South East and East Asia(especially Japan and China). Word borrowings from Japanese were most likely from trade, some examples are:
- Dahan–dahan (Nihongo: だんだん dandan) – Slowly, gradually.
- Haba (Nihongo: 幅 haba) – Width or Breadth.
- Kaban (Nihongo: 鞄 kaban – Bag, satchel.) – Sack of rice.
- Kampay (Nihongo: 乾杯 kanpai) - Cheers!
- Katol (Nihongo: 蚊取線香 katori-senkou) – Mosquito coil.
- Jack-en-poy (NIhongo: じゃんけんぽん jankenpon) - Rock-paper-scissors
- Tamang-tama (Nihongo: 偶々 tama-tama) - coincidentally
- Karaoke (Nihongo: カラオケ karaoke) – A form of musical entertainment, usually social in nature where one sings from a selection of songs with the aid of an audio–video guide that provides the instrumental accompaniment and flashes the scripts of the lyrics for the player to read.
Tagalog gained Nahuatl words through Spanish and with the galleon trade with Mexico during the Hispanic era.
- Akuwete (Nahuatl: Achiotl via Mex. Sp.: Achiote) – Annatto seeds.
- Kamatsile/Kamatsili/Camachile (Nahuatl: Cuanhmochitl via Mex. Sp.: Guamáchili) – Sweet tamarind or Manila tamarind.
- Kamote (Nahuatl: Camotli via Mex. Sp.: Camote) – Sweet potato.
- Pitaka (Nahuatl: Petlacalli via Mex. Sp.: Petaca) – Suitcase) – Coin purse.
- Sayote (Nahuatl: Chayotli via Mex. Sp.: Chayote) – A Mexican squash.
- Singkamas (Nahuatl: Xicamatl via Mex. Sp.: Jicama) – A sweet root crop (water chestnut).
- Sukil (Nahuatl: Xochitl via Mex. Sp.: Suchil) – A flower.
- Tatay (Nahuatl: Tatl) – Father.
- Tiangge/Tiyangge (Nahuatl: Tianquiztli via Mex. Sp.: Tianguis) – Seasonal markets.
- Tsokolate (Nahuatl: Xocolatl or Chocolatl via Mex. Sp.: Chocolate) – Chocolate.
- Tsonggo (Nahuatl via Mex. Sp.: Chango) – Monkey.
- Sapote (Nahuatl: Tzapotl via Mex. Sp.: Chico sapote) – Sapodilla, now called Chico or Tsiko. However the word Zapote remained in the minds of Filipinos as a place i.e. Zapote, Cavite.
- Bayabas (Always Plu.) (Arawak: Guayabo via Mex. Sp.: Guayaba) – Guava.
- Kasikwe/Cacique (Arawak via Mex. Sp.: Cacique) – Chief, boss.
- Kaimito/Caimito (Unknown but somewhere in Caribbean/Central American via Mex. Sp.: Caimito) – Star fruit.
- Mani (Always Sing.) Taíno: Maní via Mex. Sp.: Maní) – Peanut. Slang for clitoris.
- Mais (Taíno: Maíz via Mex. Sp.: Maíz) – Maiz.
- Papaya (Arawak: Papáia via Mex. Sp. Papaya) – Papaya.
- Patatas (Always plu.) (Taíno: Batata via Mex. Sp.: Patata) – Potato.
- Hispanic Culture in the Philippines
- Words of Nahautl Origin
- Mexican Words
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