History of science and technology


History of science and technology

The history of science and technology (HST) is a field of history which examines how humanity's understanding of the natural world (science) and ability to manipulate it (technology) have changed over the millennia. This field of history also studies the cultural, economic, and political impacts of scientific innovation.

Histories of science were originally written by practicing and retired scientists, starting primarily with William Whewell, as a way to communicate the virtues of science to the public. In the early 1930s, after a famous paper given by the Soviet historian Boris Hessen, effort was focused into looking at the ways in which scientific practices were allied with the needs and motivations of their context. After World War II, extensive resources were put into teaching and researching the discipline, with the hopes that it would help the public better understand both science and technology as they came to play an exceedingly prominent role in the world. In the 1960s, especially in the wake of the work done by Thomas Kuhn, the discipline began to serve a very different function, and began to be used as a way to critically examine the scientific enterprise. At the present time it is often closely aligned with the field of Science studies.

Modern mathematical science and physical engineering as it is understood today took form during the scientific revolution, though much of the mathematics and science was built on the work of the Greeks, Egyptians, Mesopotamians, Chinese, Indians and Muslims. See the main articles History of science and History of technology for these respective topics.

Universities with HST programs

* Brown University has a program in the History of Mathematics. [cite web | author = Brown University | title = History of Mathematics at Brown | url = http://www.brown.edu/Departments/History_Mathematics | accessdate = July 30 | accessyear = 2006 ] (This program is in the process of being phased out. There are no longer any full-time faculty, and no new students are being admitted to the program.)
* California Institute of Technology offers courses in the History and Philosophy of Science to fulfill its core humanities requirements.
* Carleton University Ottawa offer courses in Ancient Science and Technology in its Technology, Society and Environment program
* Case Western Reserve University has an undergraduate interdisciplinary program in the History and Philosophy of Science [cite web | author = Case Western Reserve University | title = History and Philosophy of Science | url = http://www.case.edu/artsci/hpst/ | accessdate = July 30 | accessyear = 2006 ] and a graduate program in the History of Science, Technology, Environment, and Medicine (STEM). [cite web | author = Case Western Reserve University | title = History of Science, Technology, Environment, and Medicine | url = http://www.case.edu/artsci/hsty/graduate.html#stem | accessdate = July 30 | accessyear = 2006 ]
* Cornell University offers a variety of courses within the Science and Technology course. One notable course is called Science and Technology History Taught currently by Professor Peter Dear which centers upon the development of Science and Technology History from the Newtonian era up to the Einsteinian revolution. This class is one of the longest running classes at Cornell University and is offered by the College of Arts and Sciences and caters to students who want to learn more about the development of modern science. [cite web | author = Cornell University | title = Science and Technology Studies | url = http://www.cuinfo.cornell.edu/Academic/Courses/AS.php | accessdate = May 16 | accessyear = 2006 ]
* Georgia Institute of Technology has an undergraduate and graduate program in the History of Technology and Society. [cite web | author = Georgia Institute of Technology | title = School of History, Technology, and Society | url = http://www.hts.gatech.edu/ | accessdate = July 30 | accessyear = 2006 ]
* Harvard has a large undergraduate and graduate program in History of Science, and is one of the largest departments currently in the world. [cite web | author = Harvard University | title = Department of the History of Science | url = http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~hsdept/ | accessdate = July 30 | accessyear = 2006 ]
* Indiana University offers undergraduate courses and a masters and PhD program in the History and Philosophy of Science. [cite web | author = Indiana University | title = Department of History and Philosophy of Science | url = http://www.indiana.edu/~hpscdept/ | accessdate = July 30 | accessyear = 2006 ]
* Johns Hopkins University has an undergraduate and graduate program in the History of Science, Medicine, and Technology. [cite web | author = Johns Hopkins University | title = History of Science, Medicine, and Technology | url = http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/graduateprograms/history_of_science/ | accessdate = July 30 | accessyear = 2006 ]
*University of Kings College has a degree program in History of Science and Technology
* Lehigh University offers an undergraduate level STS concentration (founded in 1972) and a graduate program with emphasis on the history of industrial America. [cite web | author = Lehigh University | title = The Science, Technology, and Society Program | url = http://www.lehigh.edu/~insts/insts.html | accessdate = July 30 | accessyear = 2006 ]
* Linköpings universitet, Sweden, has a Science, Technology, and Society program which includes HST. [cite web | author = Linköping University | title = "Tema Teknik och social förändring" | url = http://www.tema.liu.se/tema-t/ | accessdate = July 30 | accessyear = 2006 ]
* London Centre for the History of Science, Medicine, and Technology - this Centre was formed in 1987 and runs a taught MSc programme, jointly taught by Imperial College London, University College London, and the Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine at UCL. [cite web | author = London Centre for the History of Science, Medicine and Technology | title = History of Science, Medicine and Technology | url = http://www.londoncentre-hstm.ac.uk]
* Massachusetts Institute of Technology has a Science, Technology, and Society program which includes HST. [cite web | author = Massachusetts Institute of Technology | title = Program in Science, Technology, and Society | url = http://web.mit.edu/sts/ | accessdate = July 30 | accessyear = 2006 ]
* New Jersey Institute of Technology has a Science, Technology, and Society program which includes the History of Science and Technology [cite web | author = New Jersey Institute of Technology | title = Program in Science, Technology, and Society | url = http://catalog.njit.edu/undergraduate/programs/sts.php | accessdate = Feb 28 | accessyear = 2007 ]
* Oregon State University offers a Masters and Ph.D. in History of Science through its Department of History. [cite web | author = Oregon State University | title = Graduate Programs | url = http://oregonstate.edu/cla/history/grad/ | accessdate = May 15 | accessyear = 2007 ]
* Princeton University has a program in the History of Science. [cite web | author = Princeton University | title = Program in History of Science | url = http://www.princeton.edu/~hos/ | accessdate = July 30 | accessyear = 2006 ]
* Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute has a Science and Technology Studies department
* Stanford has a History and Philosophy of Science and Technology program. [cite web | author = Stanford University | title = History and Philosophy of Science and Technology | url = http://hpst.stanford.edu/ | accessdate = July 30 | accessyear = 2006 ]
* Stevens Institute of Technology has an undergraduate and graduate program in the History of Science.
* Technische Universität Berlin has a program in the History of science and technology. [cite web | author = Berlin Technical University | title = Philosophy, Theory of Science, and History of Science and Technology | url = http://www.tu-berlin.de/fak1/philosophie/ | accessdate = July 30 | accessyear = 2006 ]
* Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona offers a master degree and PhD programme in HST together with the Universitat de Barcelona. [cite web | author = Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona | title = Centre d'Història de la Ciència | url = http://www.uab.es/cehic/ | accessdate = April 10 | accessyear = 2008 ]
* University of California, Berkeley offers a graduate degree in HST through its History program, and maintains a separate sub-department for the field. [cite web | author = University of California, Berkeley | title = History of science and technology | url = http://ohst.berkeley.edu | accessdate = July 30 | accessyear = 2006 ]
* University of California, Los Angeles has a relatively large group History of Science and Medicine faculty and graduate students within its History department, and also offers an undergraduate minor in the History of Science. [cite web | author = University of California, Los Angeles | title = History of Science Program | url = http://www.history.ucla.edu/graduate/fields/science.html | accessdate = July 30 | accessyear = 2006 ]
* University College London has an undergraduate programme in History and Philosophy of Science in the Department of Science and Technology Studies, offering three BSc degrees. A taught MSc programme is offered through the London Centre for History of Science, Medicine and Technology. An MPhil/PhD research degree is offered, too. [cite web | author = University College London | title = Science and Technology Studies | url = http://www.ucl.ac.uk/sts | accessdate = July 30 | accessyear = 2006 ] UCL also contains The Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine which runs a postgraduate programme. [cite web | author = University College London | title = The Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine | url = http://www.ucl.ac.uk/histmed/ | accessdate = July 30 | accessyear = 2006 ]
* University of Bern, Switzerland, has an undergraduate and a graduate program in the History and Philosophy of Science. [cite web | author = University of Bern | title = History and Philosophy of Science | url = http://www.philoscience.unibe.ch | accessdate = December 21 | accessyear = 2006 ]
* University of Bristol has a masters and PhD program in the Philosophy and History of Science. [cite web | author = University of Bristol | title = Department of Philosophy | url = http://www.bris.ac.uk/philosophy/ | accessdate = July 30 | accessyear = 2006 ]
* University of Cambridge has an undergraduate course and a large masters and PhD program in the History and Philosophy of Science (including the History of Medicine). [cite web | author = University of Cambridge | title = History and Philosophy of Science | url = http://www.hps.cam.ac.uk/ | accessdate = July 30 | accessyear = 2006 ]
* University of Durham, UK, has a 1st year History of Science module in the Philosophy department. [cite web | author = University of Durham | title = Department of Philosophy | url = http://www.dur.ac.uk/philosophy/undergrad/courses/ | accessdate = July 30 | accessyear = 2006 ]
* University of Florida has a Graduate Program in 'History of Science, Technology, and Medicine' at the University of Florida provides undergraduate and graduate degrees. [cite web | author = University of Florida | title = Department of History | url = http://www.history.ufl.edu/ | accessdate = July 30 | accessyear = 2006 ]
* University of King's College in Halifax, Nova Scotia has a History of Science and Technology Program. [cite web | author = University of King's College | title = History of Science & Technology | url = http://www.ukings.ca/kings_2902.html | accessdate = July 30 | accessyear = 2006 ]
* University of Leeds has both undergraduate and graduate programmes in History and Philosophy of Science in the Department of Philosophy. [cite web | author = University of Leeds | title = History & Philosophy of Science | url = http://www.philosophy.leeds.ac.uk/ | accessdate = July 30 | accessyear = 2006 ]
*University of Manchester offers undergraduate modules and postgraduate study in History of Science, Technology and Medicine and is sponsored by the Wellcome Trust. [cite web | author = University of Manchester | title = History of Science, Technology and Medicine | url = http://www.chstm.manchester.ac.uk/ | accessdate = December 12 | accessyear = 2007 ]
* University of Minnesota offers graduate programmes and an undergraduate minor in History of Science and Technology and History of Medicine. [cite web | author = University of Minnesota | title = History of Science and Technology | url = http://groups.physics.umn.edu/hsci/ | accessdate = September 14 | accessyear = 2006 ] [cite web | author = University of Minnesota | title = History of Medicine | url = http://www.med.umn.edu/history/ | accessdate = September 14 | accessyear = 2006 ]
* University of Oklahoma has an undergraduate minor and a graduate degree program in History of Science. [cite web | author = University of Oklahoma | title = Department of the History of Science | url = http://www.ou.edu/cas/hsci/ | accessdate = July 30 | accessyear = 2006 ]
* University of Oxford has a one-year graduate course in 'History of Science: Instruments, Museums, Science, Technology' associated with the Museum of the History of Science. [cite web | author = University of Oxford | title = History of Science: Instruments, Museums, Science, Technology | url = http://www.mhs.ox.ac.uk/course/ | accessdate = July 30 | accessyear = 2006 ]
* University of Pennsylvania has a program in history and sociology of Science. [cite web | author = University of Pennsylvania | title = History & Sociology of Science | url = http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/hss2/hss/ | accessdate = July 30 | accessyear = 2006 ]
* University of Puget Sound has a Science, Technology, and Society program which includes the history of science and technology. [cite web | author = University of Puget Sound| title = Science, Technology, & Society | url = http://www.ups.edu/x3013.xml | accessdate = September 13 | accessyear = 2008 ]
* University of Toronto has a program in history and philosophy of Science and Technology. [cite web | author = University of Toronto | title = History and Philosophy of Science and Technology | url = http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/ihpst/ | accessdate = July 30 | accessyear = 2006 ]
* University of Wisconsin-Madison has one of the largest programs in History of Science, Medicine and Technology, with particular strength in medical history, history of biology, history of science and religion, and environmental history. This program was the first to exist as an independent academic department, the Department of the History of Science. It offers M.A. and Ph.D. degrees as well as an undergraduate major. [cite web | author = University of Wisconsin-Madison | title = History of Science | url = http://histsci.wisc.edu/ | accessdate = June 24 | accessyear = 2008 ]
* Utrecht University has two co-operating programs: one in History and Philosophy of Science at the Faculty of Natural Sciences and one in Historical and Comparative Studies of the Sciences and the Humanities at the Faculty of Humanities. [cite web | author = Utrecht University | title = History and Philosophy of Science | url = http://www1.phys.uu.nl/masters/histphilmaster/ | accessdate = July 30 | accessyear = 2006 ] [cite web | author = Utrecht University | title = Historical and Comparative Studies of the Sciences and Humanities | url = http://www2.let.uu.nl/Solis/homelet/master/hiscompstudies/ | accessdate = July 30 | accessyear = 2006 ]
* Yale University has a program in the History of Science and Medicine. [cite web | author = Yale University | title = History of Science and Medicine | url = http://www.yale.edu/hshm/ | accessdate = July 30 | accessyear = 2006 ]

Prominent historians of the field

*Garland Allen
*Wiebe Bijker
*Peter J. Bowler
*Janet Browne
*James Burke
*Edwin Arthur Burtt
*Johann Beckmann
*Jim Bennett
*Herbert Butterfield(1900-1979)
*Martin Campbell-Kelly
*Georges Canguilhem
*Allan Chapman
*I. Bernard Cohen (1914-2003)
*A. C. Crombie {1915-1996)
*Peter Dear
*E. J. Dijksterhuis
*Pierre Duhem
*A. Hunter Dupree
*George Dyson
*Jacques Ellul
*Eugene S. Ferguson
*Peter Galison
*Sigfried Giedion
*Charles Coulston Gillispie
*Robert Gunther (1869-1940)
*Paul Forman
*Donna Haraway
*Ahmad Y Hassan
*John L. Heilbron
*Reijer Hooykaas
*Thomas P. Hughes
*Evelyn Fox Keller
*Daniel Kevles
*Robert Kohler
*Alexandre Koyré
*Melvin Kranzberg
*Thomas Kuhn
*Bruno Latour
*Simon Lavington
*David C. Lindberg
*G. E. R. Lloyd
*Anneliese Maier
*Leo Marx
*Lewis Mumford
*Otto Neugebauer (1899-1990)
*Ronald Numbers
*David Nye
*Abraham Pais (1918-2000)
*Trevor Pinch
*Theodore Porter
*Raul Rojas
*Michael Ruse
*A. I. Sabra
*George Sarton
*Simon Schaffer
*Howard Segel
*Steven Shapin
*Wolfgang Schivelbusch
*Charles Singer
*Merritt Roe Smith
*Stephen Snobelen
*John Staudenmaier
*M. Norton Wise
*Frances A. Yates

Journals and periodicals

*"British Journal for the History of Science"
*"Centaurus"
*"Dynamis"
*"History of Technology (magazine)"
*"Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences" (HSPS)
*"Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences" (HSNS)
*"ICON"
*"IEEE Annals of the History of Computing"
*"Isis"
*"Journal of the History of Biology"
*"Journal of the History of Medicine and the Allied Sciences"
*"Osiris"
*"Science & Technology Studies"
*"Science in Context"
*"Science, Technology, & Human Values"
*"Social Studies of Science"
*Technology and Culture
*"Transactions of the Newcomen Society"
*"Historia Mathematica"
*"Bulletin of the Scientific Instrument Society"

ee also

* Science and technology in Canada
* Earthquake engineering

Professional societies

* The British Society for the History of Science [http://www.bshs.org.uk/ (BSHS)]
* History of Science Society [http://hssonline.org (HSS)]
* Newcomen Society [http://www.newcomen.com/ ]
* Society for the History of Technology [http://shot.press.jhu.edu/ (SHOT)]
* Society for the Social Studies of Science [http://www.4sonline.org/ (4S)]
* Scientific Instrument Society [http://www.sis.org.uk/ ]

References

Bibliography

Historiography of science
*H. Floris Cohen, "The Scientific Revolution: A Historiographical Inquiry", University of Chicago Press 1994 - Discussion on the origins of modern science has been going on for more than two hundred years. Cohen provides an excellent overview.
*Ernst Mayr, "The Growth of Biological Thought", Belknap Press 1985
*Michel Serres,(ed.), "A History of Scientific Thought", Blackwell Publishers 1995
*"Companion to Science in the Twentieth Century", John Krige (Editor), Dominique Pestre (Editor), Taylor & Francis 2003, 941pp
*The Cambridge History of Science, Cambridge University Press
**Volume 4, Eighteenth-Century Science, 2003
**Volume 5, The Modern Physical and Mathematical Sciences, 2002

History of science as a discipline
*J. A. Bennett, 'Museums and the Establishment of the History of Science at Oxford and Cambridge', British Journal for the History of Science 30, 1997, 29–46
*Dietrich von Engelhardt, "Historisches Bewußtsein in der Naturwissenschaft : von der Aufklärung bis zum Positivismus", Freiburg [u.a.] : Alber, 1979
*A.-K. Meyer, 'Setting up a Discipline: Conflicting Agendas of the Cambridge History of Science Committee, 1936–1950.' Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 31, 2000

External links

* [http://www.hssonline.org/guide/ The History of Science Society's "Guide to the Profession"]
* [http://www.ncsu.edu/chass/mds/stslinks.html A page of Science, Technology, and Society links] .
* [http://www.creatingtechnology.org/eng/apply.htm What's wrong with "technology as applied science?"]
* [http://www.fi.edu/learn/index.php History of Science and Technology] - Resources for Science Learning, The Franklin Institute


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