Hypothesis


Hypothesis

A hypothesis (from Greek "polytonic|ὑπόθεσις") consists either of a suggested explanation for a phenomenon (an event that is observable) or of a reasoned proposal suggesting a possible correlation between multiple phenomena. The term derives from the Greek, "hypotithenai" meaning "to put under" or "to suppose." The scientific method requires that one can test a scientific hypothesis. Scientists generally base such hypotheses on previous observations or on extensions of scientific theories. Even though the words "hypothesis" and "theory" are often used synonymously in common and informal usage, a scientific "hypothesis" is not the same as a scientific "theory". A Hypothesis is never to be stated as a question, but always as a statement with an explanation following it. It is not to be a question because it states what he/she thinks or believes will answer the problem the best.

In early usage, scholars often referred to a clever idea or to a convenient mathematical approach that simplified cumbersome calculations as a "hypothesis"; when used this way, the word did not necessarily have any specific meaning. Cardinal Bellarmine gave a famous example of the older sense of the word in the warning issued to Galileo in the early 17th century: that he must not treat the motion of the Earth as a reality, but merely as a hypothesis.

In common usage in the 21st century, a "hypothesis" refers to a provisional idea whose merit requires evaluation. For proper evaluation, the framer of a hypothesis needs to define specifics in operational terms. A hypothesis requires more work by the researcher in order to either confirm or disprove it. In due course, a confirmed hypothesis may become part of a theory or occasionally may grow to become a theory itself. Normally, scientific hypotheses have the form of a mathematical model. Sometimes, but not always, one can also formulate them as existential statements, stating that some particular instance of the phenomenon under examination has some characteristic and causal explanations, which have the general form of universal statements, stating that every instance of the phenomenon has a particular characteristic.

Any useful hypothesis will enable predictions by reasoning (including deductive reasoning). It might predict the outcome of an experiment in a laboratory setting or the observation of a phenomenon in nature. The prediction may also invoke statistics and only talk about probabilities. Karl Popper, following others, has argued that a hypothesis must be falsifiable, and that one cannot regard a proposition or theory as scientific if it does not admit the possibility of being shown false. Other philosophers of science have rejected the criterion of falsifiability or supplemented it with other criteria, such as verifiability (e.g., verificationism) or coherence (e.g., confirmation holism). The scientific method involves experimentation on the basis of hypotheses in order to answer questions and explore observations.

In framing a hypothesis, the investigator must not currently know the outcome of a test or that it remains reasonably under continuing investigation. Only in such cases does the experiment, test or study potentially increase the probability of showing the truth of a hypothesis. If the researcher already knows the outcome, it counts as a "consequence" — and the researcher should have already considered this while formulating the hypothesis. If one cannot assess the predictions by observation or by experience, the hypothesis classes as not yet useful, and must wait for others who might come afterward to make possible the needed observations. For example, a new technology or theory might make the necessary experiments feasible.

In the United States of America, teachers of science in primary schools have often simplified the meaning of the term "hypothesis" by describing a hypothesis as "an educated guess". The failure to emphasize the explanatory or predictive quality of scientific hypotheses omits the concept's most important and characteristic feature: the purpose of hypotheses. People generate hypotheses as early attempts to explain patterns observed in nature or to predict the outcomes of experiments. For example, in science, one could correctly call the following statement a hypothesis: identical twins can have different personalities because the environment influences personality. In contrast, although one might have informed one's self about the qualifications of various political candidates, making an educated guess about the outcome of an election would not qualify as a scientific hypothesis: the guess lacks an underpinning generic explanation.

Evaluating hypotheses

Karl Popper's hypothetico-deductive method (also known as the method of "conjectures and refutations") demands falsifiable hypotheses, framed in such a manner that the scientific community can prove them false (usually by observation). According to this view, a hypothesis cannot be "confirmed", because there is always the possibility that a future experiment will show that it is false. Hence, failing to falsify a hypothesis does not prove that hypothesis: it remains provisional. However, a hypothesis that has been rigorously tested and not falsified can form a reasonable basis for action, i.e., we can act as if it is true, until such time as it is falsified. Just because we've never observed rain falling upward, doesn't mean that we never will--however improbable, our theory of gravity may be falsified some day.

Popper's view is not the only view on evaluating hypotheses. For example, some forms of empiricism hold that under a well-crafted, well-controlled experiment, a lack of falsification "does" count as verification, since such an experiment ranges over the full scope of possibilities in the problem domain. Should we ever discover some place where gravity did not function, and rain fell upward, this would not falsify our current theory of gravity (which, on this view, has been verified by innumerable well-formed experiments in the past)--it would rather suggest an expansion of our theory to encompass some new force or previously undiscovered interaction of forces. In other words, our theory as it stands is verified, though possibly incomplete.

In recent years philosophers of science have tried to integrate the various approaches to evaluating hypothesis, and the scientific method in general, to form a more complete system that integrates the individual concerns of each approach. Notably, Imre Lakatos and Paul Feyerabend have produced novel attempts at such a synthesis. Both men also happen to be former students of Popper.

Scientific hypothesis

People refer to a trial solution to a problem as a hypothesis — often called an "educated guess" — because it provides a suggested solution based on the evidence. Experimenters may test and reject several hypotheses before solving the problem.

According to Schick and Vaughn, [Schick, Theodore and Vaughn, Lewis: "How to think about weird things: Critical thinking for a New Age" Boston, 2002] researchers weighing up alternative hypotheses may take into consideration:

* Testability (compare falsifiability as discussed above)
* Simplicity (as in the application of "Occam's razor", discouraging the postulation of excessive numbers of entities)
* Scope - the apparent application of the hypothesis to multiple cases of phenomena
* Fruitfulness - the prospect that a hypothesis may explain further phenomena in the future
* Conservatism - the degree of "fit" with existing recognized knowledge-systems....

ee also

* Case study
* Ecological fallacy
* Hypothesis Theory, a research area in Cognitive Psychology
* Learning
* Logic
* Null hypothesis
* "Null Hypothesis - The Journal of Unlikely Science"
* "Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" for Newton's position on hypotheses
* Reductionism
* Research design
* Scientific method
* Thought experiment
* Confirmation holism
* Empiricism
* Logical Positivism
* Sociology of scientific knowledge

References

External links

* [http://www.allmathwords.org/hypothesis.html Hypothesis] All Math Words.org Encyclopedia for grades 7-10.


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  • hypothesis — hypothesis, theory, law are often interchangeable in general use. In their technical senses they are usually discriminated by the scientists and philosophers who employ them. In general the terms denote an inference from data that is offered as a …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • hypothesis — hy‧poth‧e‧sis [haɪˈpɒθss ǁ ˈpɑː ] noun hypotheses PLURALFORM [ siːz] [countable] STATISTICS an idea that can be tested to see if it is true or not: • These results support the hypothesis that individuals are willing to pay more in order to live …   Financial and business terms

  • hypothesis — hypothesis, hypothesis testing A hypothesis is an untested statement about the relationship (usually of association or causation) between concepts within a given theory . Hypothesis testing involves the testing of a hypothesis in a scientific… …   Dictionary of sociology

  • Hypothesis — Hy*poth e*sis, n.; pl. {Hypotheses}. [NL., fr. Gr. ? foundation, supposition, fr. ? to place under, ? under + ? to put. See {Hypo }, {Thesis}.] 1. A supposition; a proposition or principle which is supposed or taken for granted, in order to draw… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • hypothesis — I noun assertion, assignment of cause, assumption, conclusion drawn from accepted truths, coniectura, conjecture, deduction, guess, inference, postulate, postulation, speculation, suggestion, supposal, supposition, surmise, tentative explanation …   Law dictionary

  • hypothesis — 1590s, from M.Fr. hypothese and directly from L.L. hypothesis, from Gk. hypothesis base, basis of an argument, supposition, lit. a placing under, from hypo under (see SUB (Cf. sub )) + thesis a placing, proposition (see THESIS (Cf. thesis)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • hypothesis — [hī päth′ə sis, hipäth′ə sis] n. pl. hypotheses [hī päth′əsēz΄, hi päth′əsēz΄] [Gr, groundwork, foundation, supposition < hypotithenai, to place under < hypo , under + tithenai, to place: see HYPO & DO1] an unproved theory, proposition,… …   English World dictionary

  • hypothesis — hypothesis. См. теория попаданий. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • hypothesis — hypothesis. См. теория онкогенов. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • hypothesis — meaning ‘something proposed as a basis for reasoning’, has the plural form hypotheses, pronounced seez …   Modern English usage

  • hypothesis — [n] theory antecedent, apriority, assignment, assumption, attribution, axiom, basis, belief, conclusion, condition, conjecture, data, deduction, demonstration, derivation, explanation, foundation, ground, guess, inference, interpretation, layout …   New thesaurus


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