- Pizza delivery
Pizza delivery is a service in which a pizzeria delivers a
pizza, usually ordered by telephone or Internet, to a customer. Delivery charges are commonly applied to such purchases.
In the United States, modern pizza delivery began after
World War II, when many pizzerias were opened by former soldiers who had encountered the dish while serving in Italy. Many pizzerias were opened in the 1950s and 1960s by Italian immigrants in northern European countries, like Germany, Belgiumand The Netherlands. Today, in many European countries, take-out döner kebabor shawarmarestaurants sell pizzas as well.
Ordering pizza for delivery usually involves contacting a local pizza restaurant or chain by telephone or online. Online ordering has gained popularity in countries with high Internet usage such as the
United Statesand Canada, where most pizza chains now offer online menus and instant ordering.
Pizzerias, such as Ontario's Pizza Pizza chain, will incorporate a time guarantee or a promise delivery within a predetermined period of time, perhaps specifying that late deliveries will be free of charge. [ [http://www.pizzapizza.ca/guarantee.htm "Pizza Pizza's Guarantee."] (Commercial website). pizzapizza.ca. Retrieved on
2007- 12-07.] For example, Domino's Pizza had a commercial campaign in the 1980s and early 1990s promising, "30 minutes or it's free." This practice was discontinued in 1993 due to a number of lawsuits arising from accidents caused by hurried delivery drivers. [ [http://www.gtla.org/public/news/dominos.html "Jury award spurs Domino's to drop deadily policy."] (Website). Georgia Trial Lawyers Association. Retrieved on 2007- 09-18.] Now, pizzerias will commonly state to the customer an approximate time frame for a delivery, without making any guarantees as to the actual delivery time. In early 2008, Domino's introduced the "You Got 30 Minutes," which is not a promise or guarantee, but a goal that Domino's strives for.
Bags used to keep pizza hot while being transported are commonly referred to as "hotbags"(Winter 2002.) [http://www.pmq.com/mag/2002winter/hotbag.shtml "Hotbags: Turning Up the Heat on Deliveries."] "PMQ" (Pizza Magazine Quarterly) via pmq.com. Retrieved on
2007- 09-18] or "hot bags". [ [http://www.pizzatools.com/productdisplay.aspx?catid=211 "Pizza Delivery Hot Bags."] (Commercial website.) Pizzatools.com. Retrieved on 2007- 09-18.] Hotbags are thermal bags, typically made of vinyl, nylon, or Cordura, that passively retain heat. Material choice affects cost, durability, and condensation. Heated bags supply added heat through insertion of externally-heated disks, electrical heating elements, or pellets heated by inductionfrom electrically generated magnetic waves.
The most common pizza box is a square
cardboard boxin which a pizza is packaged for take-out or pizza delivery. Pizza boxes are often emblazoned with the logo of the pizza company from which they come. However, some smaller restaurants will use boxes with a generic image. Pizza boxes are not accepted by most municipal recycling programs because food is often stuck to the box itself. Boxes are thus commonly thrown away with household garbage; a more environmentally friendly disposal option that has been proposed is a form of backyard compostingfor pizza boxes, but it has been found that even newspapers if left in sections can take 20 years to decompose. [ [http://earth911.org/blog/2007/09/25/pizza-boxes-banned-from-barrington-recycle-bins/ "Pizza Boxes Banned From Barrington Recycle Bins."] (Organization website.) earth911.org. Retrieved on 2007- 12-07.]
For decades, "free delivery" was a popular slogan for almost all pizza stores. [ (
2007- 05-13.) [http://soxnews.co.uk/2007/05/13/how-pizzas-got-delivered-for-free/ "How Pizzas got Delivered for free?"] Deliverpizza.co.uk. (website.) Retrieved on 2007- 12-07.]
In Australia the delivery of food to a home or place of work began to take hold in the regional cities around 1993-1994. The price of delivery has always been included in the overall price of the order, usually in the cost of a main course meal or pizza, not in the condiments or drinks. The habit of a gratuity depends solely on the temperament of the customer, but wages paid for a driver exceed the wages in other countries; even with the restaurant industry being a very cut-throat business. A portion of the delivery charge is given to the driver as the store is required to re-emburse the driver for the use of a personal vehicle. Donatos for instance charges $2.10 of which $1.15 goes to the driver.Fact|date=June 2008 Domino's Pizza is credited with popularizing free pizza delivery in the United States. [Miller, Hannah. (April/May 2006.) [http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/2006/2/2006_2_30.shtml "American Pie."] "American Heritage Magazine", Vol. 57, Issue 2, via americanheritage.com. Retrieved on
2007- 09-18.] Pizza Hut began experimenting in 1999 with a 50-cent delivery charge in ten stores in the Dallas-Fort Worth area. [( 1999- 09-18.) [http://www.accessmylibrary.com/comsite5/bin/pdinventory.pl?pdlanding=1&referid=2930&purchase_type=ITM&item_id=0286-6669415 "Pizza Hut tries out 50-cent delivery fee."] Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service, via accessmylibrary.com (commercial website, payment required for full article).] By the summer of 2001 it was implemented in 95% of its 1,749 company-owned restaurants in the U.S., and in a smaller number of its 5,250 franchisee-owned restaurants.Horovitz, Bruce. ( 2002- 09-03.) [http://www.usatoday.com/money/industries/food/2002-09-03-pizza-delivery-fee_x.htm "Pizza chains deliver ... fees."] "USA Today" via usatoday.com. Retrieved on 2007- 09-18.] By 2002, a small percentage of stores owned or franchised by U.S. pizza companies Domino's and Papa John's were also charging delivery fees of 50 cents to $1.50, and some of Little Caesar's franchisees charged delivery fees. In 2005, Papa John's implemented delivery charges in the majority of its company-owned stores to enhance pricing flexibility. [( 2005- 11-01.) [http://ir.papajohns.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=115556&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=776780 "Papa John's Reports Third Quarter Earnings; October Comparable Sales Results Announced."] (Press release.) Papa John's International Inc. Retrieved on 2007- 09-18.] Domino's credits delivery charges as a way to adjust for variable ingredient, energy, and labor costs without adjusting menu prices.Clarifyme|date=March 2008
In some countries, it's common to
tipthe pizza deliverer with an optional gratuity upon paying for the order.
United States, tipping for pizza delivery is customary. Opinions on appropriate amounts vary widely, with news articles typically suggesting around 15% of the bill or at least $3. [( 2004- 11-15.) [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6444207/site/newsweek/ "Naughty or nice? TIPs complete guide to passing the bucks."] (News website). "MSNBC". Retrieved on 2007- 09-25.] [( 2001- 03-30.) [http://telepixtvcgi.warnerbros.com/reframe.html?http://telepixtvcgi.warnerbros.com/dailynews/consumer/03_01/03_30a.html "Tipping etiquette."] (News website.) "ExtraTV". Retrieved on 2007- 09-25.] [Myers, Stephanie. ( 2002- 02-02.) [http://media.www.thetowerlight.com/media/storage/paper957/news/2002/02/02/UndefinedSection/Pizza.Drivers.Say.Tips.Make.Or.Break-2195624.shtml "Pizza drivers say tips make or break."] "The Tower Light", via thetowerlight.com. Retrieved on 2007- 09-24.] Slightly more is suggested for deliveries in inclement weather or relatively distant deliveries.Karp, Gregory. (November 19, 2006). [http://www.chicagotribune.com/business/yourmoney/sns-yourmoney-1119spending,1,6183843.story?coll=chi-stockticker-misc "Spending Smart: Taking the tangle out of tipping."] "Chicago Tribune Web Edition". Retrieved on 2007- 09-17.] The Original Tipping Page website [http://tipping.org] , cited by a few dozen news sources, suggests $1-2 for short distances, $2-3 for longer distances, and $5 or more for large orders. [( 2001- 04-05.) [http://www.gwhatchet.com/home/index.cfm?event=displayArticlePrinterFriendly&uStory_id=d5524cda-e7df-4186-b2ac-a69002e2c37a "A handy tip." "The GW Hatchet", via gwhatchet.com. Retrieved on 2007- 09-25.] [Cote, Kaleena. ( 2003- 11-16.) [http://media.www.keeneequinox.com/media/storage/paper537/news/2003/11/06/Features/Tips-On.Tipping-547765-page2.shtml "Tips on tipping."] "Keene Equinox", via keeneequinox.com. Retrieved on 2007- 09-25.] [ [http://tipping.org/tips/deliveries.html "U.S. deliveries."] (Website.) "The Original Tipping Page". Retrieved on 2007- 09-25.] U.S. deliverers may be employees or independent contractors. [Coomes, Steve. ( 2003- 12-10.) [http://www.pizzamarketplace.com/article.php?id=2907 "Can your pizza business survive an audit?."] "Pizza Marketplace", via pizzamarketplace.com. Retrieved on 2007- 09-25.] Employees are legally obligated to report tips to their employer for income tax purposes, while independent contractors, who may charge a per-delivery fee to a restaurant, are legally obligated to report tips to the Internal Revenue Service. [Coomes, Steve. ( 2007- 03-17.) [http://www.pizzamarketplace.com/article.php?id=1830&prc= "Truth or Consequences."] "Pizza Marketplace", via pizzamarketplace.com. Retrieved on 2007- 09-25.]
Australia, tipping for pizza delivery is rare and not customary, and hourly wages for deliverers are considered relatively high.Coomes, Steve. ( 2004- 08-09.) [http://www.pizzamarketplace.com/article.php?id=3382&prc=144&page=125 "Pizza Delivery 'Down Under.'"] "Pizza Marketplace" website. Retrieved on 2007- 09-18.] Prices for delivery orders are typically higher than for carryout orders, and "free delivery" cannot be advertised if carryout pricing is lower.
Pizza delivery, by its nature, can pose risks for those engaged in it, as they are required to go to the homes of strangers, in unfamiliar neighborhoods. In the U.S., pizza delivery persons have been subjected to assault, robbery, and sometimes raped or killed on the job.Chan, Sewell. (
1996- 07-10.) [http://online.wsj.com/article/SB836951715273632000.html?mod=googlewsj "Pizza Redlining: Green Says 'Go,' Red Says Tough Neighborhood."] "The Wall Street Journal Online". Retrieved on 2007- 09-18.] [Associated Press. ( 2004- 01-05.) [http://www.news4jax.com/news/2742092/detail.html "Police: Teens Rape, Rob Tallahassee Pizza Delivery Woman."] "News4Jax.com". Retrieved on 2007- 09-18.] The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, which categorizes pizza delivery drivers and taxicabdrivers as "drivers-sales workers," ranked it the fifth most dangerous job category.Moon, Melissa. ( 2005- 04-06.) [http://www.wreg.com/Global/story.asp?S=3175772&nav=3HvEYVpz "Dangerous Work for Pizza Delivery Drivers."] (News website.) "WREG-TV Memphis" at wreg.com. Retrieved on 2007- 09-18.]
In 2004, Pizza Hut fired a delivery person who shot and killed a robber while on the job, citing its company policy against employees carrying weapons. [(
2004- 05-18.) [http://www.theindychannel.com/news/3320630/detail.html "Deliveryman: I Shot Man In Self-Defense."] "The Indy Chanel" (television news website.) Retrieved on 2007- 09-18.] Other national chains such as Domino's also prohibit carrying weapons, though many independent pizzarias allow delivery persons to carry weapons in a legal manner. [(July 16, 2004.) [http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?s_site=indystar&f_site=indystar&f_sitename=Indianapolis+Star%2FNews%2C+The+%28IN%29&p_theme=gannett&p_product=IN&p_action=search&p_field_base-0=&p_text_base-0=Chains+won%27t+let+workers+carry+guns&Search=Search&p_perpage=10&p_maxdocs=200&p_queryname=700&s_search_type=keyword&p_sort=_rank_%3AD&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0=date%3AB%2CE&p_text_date-0=2004 "Arming delivery drivers a tossup for pizzerias"] "Indianapolis Star" via newsbank.com (commercial website, paywalled article). Retrieved on 2007- 09-18.] Employer restrictions on carrying weapons is a controversial issue in the U.S., where most states in the U.S. allow most citizens to carry concealed weapons in many circumstances. [Armour, Stephanie. ( 2004- 12-09.) [http://www.usatoday.com/money/companies/management/2004-12-09-guns-cover_x.htm "Companies that ban guns put on defensive."] "USA Today" via usatoday.com. Retrieved on 2007- 09-18.]
In recent history, two labor unions have been formed specifically for pizza delivery drivers - the now-defunct
Association of Pizza Delivery Drivers[Associated Press. ( 2004- 11-18.) [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6519923/ "Pizza drivers seek national union."] MSNBC.com. Retrieved on 2007- 09-18.] (APDD) and the American Union of Pizza Delivery DriversAssociated Press. ( 2006- 09-22.) [http://www.usatoday.com/money/industries/food/2006-09-22-pizza-union_x.htm?csp=34 "Pizza delivery drivers form first union."] "USA Today" via usatoday.com. Retrieved on 2007- 09-18.] (AUPDD).
Association of Pizza Delivery Drivers
APDD was formed in
2002. Its initial claim to fame was as an Internet-based union, eschewing traditional methods of organizing, and making contributions and the sale of goods the center of its fundraising activities, instead of dues.Fact|date=September 2007 People could join APDD using a form at their website, or chat with its officers in an IRC-compatible Java chat every Tuesday evening. At its peak, it claimed approximately 1,000 members in 46 US states.Fact|date=September 2007 APDD held several certification votes in the US, but was never successful in organizing a local. In March 2006APDD lost a lawsuit against a Domino's franchise in Mansfield, Ohio. This combined with massive debt left the union with little choice but to shut down.Fact|date=September 2007
American Union of Pizza Delivery Drivers
AUPDD was founded in early
2006by Jim Pohle, a driver for a Domino's Pizzastore in Pensacola, Florida. It was certified as the representative union for his store in April 2006. [ [http://www.aupdd.org/PhotoAlbum.asp "American Union of Pizza Delivery Drivers: Photo Album"] (Organization website.) American Union of Pizza Delivery Drivers. Retrieved on 2007- 09-18.] Pohle cites the sub-minimum wage paid by his store as the instigating factor in forming a union.
While formed in the more traditional method of organizing at one's own workplace, AUPDD uses certain Internet-based techniques originated by APDD, such as its mass communications with the press and its fundraising activities (although more traditional dues are collected from the eleven members of the fledgling local).Fact|date=September 2007 It also uses the Internet as its primary outreach to those wishing to start locals across the US.Fact|date=September 2007
In popular culture
Pizza delivery has been featured as a major element in several mediums in popular culture. There are several works of fiction where the main character delivers pizzas, including
Tom Wolfe's novel " I Am Charlotte Simmons" (2004), and Neal Stephenson's postcyberpunknovel " Snow Crash" (1992). Several feature films also use pizza delivery prominently, including the 1984 comedy " Delivery Boys" and the Spike Lee1989 film " Do the Right Thing". In the case of other films, use of pizza delivery has been regarded by critics as "overly integrated product placement". [Heather Boerner, " [http://www.commonsensemedia.org/movie-reviews/R-L-Stines-Haunting.html Review of "R.L. Stine's Haunting House: Don't Think About": Tween-friendly, ad-happy Halloween fright fest] ," "Common Sense Media".] Heather Boerner criticized "" (2007) for its over the top use of Papa John's Pizza. She wrote, "Not only is the pizza delivery guy included in more than half of the DVD, but the logo is present and the kids are shown munching ecstatically on the pizza at the end of the movie. They even say things like, 'What great pizza!' and something along the lines of 'That delivery guy sure was nice!' It's enough to make a commercial-conscious parent gag." [Heather Boerner, " [http://www.commonsensemedia.org/movie-reviews/R-L-Stines-Haunting.html Review of "R.L. Stine's Haunting House: Don't Think About": Tween-friendly, ad-happy Halloween fright fest] ," "Common Sense Media".]
Since the 1970s, pizza delivery has been a recurring plot vehicle in
pornographic films, where it is used to introduce men (or women) for random sexual encounters. Titles in this genre include "Pizza Girls, We Deliver" (1978); "The Pizza Boy: He Delivers" (1986); "California Pizza Girls" (1992); "Hawaiian Pizza Punani" (1993), "Pizza Sluts" (1995); "Big Sausage Pizza" (2003); "Big Sausage Pizza 2" (2004); "Fresh Hot Pizza Boy" (2004); "DD Pizza Girls" (2004), and " PepperoniTits" (2006).
Pizza delivery has also been the subject of non-pornographic films, [See, for example, " [http://www.thepizzaguymovie.com/ The Pizza Guy Movie] ".] even to the point of being the subject of such feature length films as "
Drivers Wanted" and "", [ [http://www.driverswantedmovie.com/ "Drivers Wanted" Movie: Pizza Delivery Movie!] ] as well as "Pizza: The Movie". [Joshua Tyler, [http://www.cinemablend.com/reviews/Pizza-The-Movie-583.html "Pizza: The Movie" - Review] (2004-07-25).] Pizza delivery has served as major plot element of such films as "Loverboy". [CARYN JAMES, " [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=950DE4D8123AF93AA15757C0A96F948260 Reviews/Film; A Youth's Salty Specialty On a Pizza-Delivery Route] ," "The New York Times" (April 29, 1989).]
In television, the Australian comedy series "
Pizza (TV series)" centers on Pauly and his co-workers who deliver pizzas for a Sydney-based pizzeria called Fat Pizza. On the show " Futurama", the character Philip J. Fry, was a pizza delivery boy in the 20th century before he was cryogenically frozen and woke up in the 30th century. A " SpongeBob SquarePants" episode ("Pizza Delivery") features the title character having to overcome obstacles in order to deliver a pizza to a customer, who then refuses to take it because he didn't get his drink. [ [http://www.tv.com/spongebob-squarepants/pizza-delivery---home-sweet-pineapple/episode/53080/summary.html SpongeBob SquarePants: Pizza Delivery / Home Sweet Pineapple - TV.com ] ]
At a historic Minuteman Missile Site in
South Dakota, the entrance to the underground Launch Control Center is sealed by a blast-proof door emblazoned with a painted spoof of Domino's Pizza's red, white, and blue pizza delivery box. [http://www.nps.gov/archive/mimi/history/srs/sites.htm "History of Minuteman Missile Sites"] (Website). United States National Park Service. Retrieved on 2007- 09-18.] The box is labeled "Minuteman II," and hand-lettered text on the door reads "World-wide delivery in 30 minutes or less, or your next one is free," spoofing a former Domino's Pizza slogan.
Association of Pizza Delivery Drivers
* [http://www.io.com/~sjohn/pizza.htm PIZZA] by S. John Ross (a History of Pizza Delivery)
* [http://www.aupdd.org/ American Union of Pizza Delivery Drivers]
* [http://www.tipthepizzaguy.com Tip The Pizza Guy]
* [http://www.wreg.com/Global/story.asp?S=3175772&nav=3HvEYVpz Dangerous Work for Pizza Delivery Drivers]
* [http://www.wavy.com/Global/story.asp?S=3099584 Two Teens Charged With Robbing Pizza Delivery Driver in Chesapeake]
* [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/8145344/ Bullet won't stop this pizza delivery man]
* [http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/face/stateface/nj/02nj021.html 17-Year-Old Pizza Delivery Driver Killed in a Motor Vehicle Accident]
* [http://www.lex18.com/Global/story.asp?S=3081699 Pizza delivery man arrested for trafficking in marijuana]
* [http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/internetprivacy/2004-04-27-pizza-no-privacy_x.htm Missouri tracks scofflaws via pizza-delivery databases]
* [http://www.detnews.com/2005/business/0502/20/D01-94767.htm Domino's aims to double its slice of industry pie - Ann Arbor-based pizza chain pins hopes on faster delivery and expansion overseas]
* [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6519923/ Pizza Driver unions]
* [http://www.dickmeister.com/id143.html More on Pizza delivery unions]
Further reading on appearances in popular culture
*Michele Cheplic, " [http://popular-culture.families.com/blog/pizza-huts-youngest-and-most-famous-delivery-person-maybe Pizza Hut's Youngest and Most Famous Delivery Person... Maybe] ," "Popular Culture Blog" on "families.com" (13 Nov 2007).
*KevinL, " [http://pizzadeliverystories.blogspot.com/2007/03/top-ten-movies-with-pizza-delivery.html Top Ten Movies With Pizza Delivery Scenes] ," "Pizza Delivery Stories" (Friday, March 23, 2007).
*Nora Maynard, " [http://www.chow.com/stories/10699 Slice of Life: Great pizza moments in film] ," "Chow"
*" [http://www.spike.com/video/duck-season-pizza/2707170?cmpnid=800&lkdes=VID_2707170 Duck Season Pizza Delivery] ," "SPIKE" (March 08, 2006).
* [http://slice.seriouseats.com/tags/Pop%20Culture%20Pizza Entries tagged with 'Pop Culture Pizza']
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