- Launch control center (ICBM)
The launch control center, or LCC for short, is the main control facility of any U.S. ICBM complex. From here, the crew can monitor the complex, launch the
missile, or relax in the living quarters (depending on the ICBM system). The LCC is designed to provide maximum protection for the missile combat crew and equipment vital to missile launch.
All LCCs were dependent on a "missile support base" (MSB) for logistics support. For example,
Minot AFBis the MSB for the 91st Space Wing. This is important to note, for some wayward maintenance crews have strayed from their MSB/missile complex, into another base's complex unwittingly.
Three types of Minuteman LCCs exist:
#Alternate Command Post (ACP) - performed backup functions to missile support base; control missile wing communications
#Squadron Command Post (SCP) - perform backup functions to ACP; control squadron execution and communications
#Primary LCC (PLCC) - perform execution and rapid message processing
There are four configurations of the LCC, differing primarily in the amount and location of communications equipment. Functionally, there are three LCC designations. One Alternate Comniand Post (ACP) LCC is located within each Minuteman wing and serves as backup for the wing command post. Three Squadron Command Posts (SCPS) serve as command units for the remaining squadrons within the wing, and report directly to the wing command post. The ACP doubles as SCP for the squadron it is located within. The remainder of the LCCS (16) are classified as primary LCCS. Four primary LCCS are located within each squadron and report to their respective command post.
Atlas D Configuration
Atlas E Configuration
Atlas F Configuration
Titan I LCC
Titan II LCC
The Titan LCCs held four crew members: the Missile Combat Crew Commander (MCCC), the Deputy Missile Combat Crew Commander (DMCCC), Ballistic Missile Analyst Technician (BMAT), and the Missile Facilities Technician (MFT).
Titan II had a three story LCC dome. The first level was the crews living area and contained a kitchen, bathroom, bedroom, and a small equipment area that housed an exhaust fan and a water heater. The second level was the launch control area and held the LCCFC (Launch Control Complex Facility Console, the main launch console), the ALOC (Alternate Launch Officer Console), the Control Monitor Group (monitored the missile), and several offer pieces of equipment. The lowest level, level 3, held communications equipment, the two battery backup supplies, the sewage lift station, the motor-generator, and several other pieces of equipment.
There were two types of Titan II sites: standard, and ACP (alternate command post) sites. ACPs had all of the equipment that one would find on a standard site plus additional communication equipment.
Launch Control Center
The LCC is an underground structure of reinforced concrete and steel of sufficient strength to withstand weapon effects. It contains equipment and personnel capable of controlling, monitoring, and launching 50 missiles in the unmanned launch facilities within the squadron.
The LCC outer structure is cylindrical with hemispherical ends. Walls are approximately 4.5 feet thick. A blast door permits entry into the LCC from the tunnel junction. An escape hatch 3-ft in diameter is located at the far end of the LCC. The escape hatch and associate tunnel are constructed to withstand weapon effects and allow personnel egress in the event of damage to the vertical access shaft. Essential LCC launch equipment along with the missile combat crew are located in a shock isolated room suspended within the blast−proof outer structure. The room is steel and suspended as a pendulum by four shock isolators (see picture below).
Command-data Buffer (CDB) was a configuration for early Minuteman missiles. The overall layout of the LCC did not change through the upgrade to REACT, however there are some major equipment changes.
Launch Control Equipment Building
Missile Alert Facility
The Missile Alert Facility (MAF), previously known as the Launch Control Facility (LCF), consists of
As of 2006, all Minuteman LCCs were modified to handle the LCC Netlink upgrade. The Netlink system brought internet access underground for missile combat crews. [http://www.afspc.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-070322-103.pdf "LCC Netlink", High Frontier Journal, Vol 3, No. 2]
*Strategic Automated Command Control System (SACCS) - formerlly known as
Strategic Air CommandDigital Information Network (SACDIN)
Minimum Essential Emergency Communications Network(MEECN) [http://www.afmc.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123013488]
AFSATCOM, using both MILSTARand DSCSsatellites
*Survivable Low-frequency Communications System (SLFCS, aka
*ICBM SHF Satellite Terminal (ISST)
*Hardened Intersite Cable System lines (HICS)
*Voice Dial Lines 1 & 2
The Minuteman LCC differs from previous missile systems in that it only held room for two personnel, the Missile Combat Crew Commander (MCCC) and the Deputy Missile Combat Crew Commander (DMCCC).
The Peacekeeper LCCs were just non-REACT modified CDB LCCs. Instead of replacing the command and control equipment, the 'old' Minuteman CDB C2 system was modified for the 50 Peacekeeper ICBMs.
* [http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/mimi/hrs2-5.htm U.S. National Park Service article] with detailed information on
Minuteman missilelaunch control centers.
* [http://www.titanmissilemuseum.org/ Titan Missile Museum: Pima Air & Space Museum]
* [http://missilebases.com/ 20th Century Castles: LCC real estate sales]
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