Gibraltarian people


Gibraltarian people

Infobox Ethnic group
group = Gibraltarians
"Llanitos"


caption = "Some notable Gibraltarians:"
William Penney Peter Caruana Alfred Holmes
Joe Bossano Paul Isola Adolfo Canepa

population = 28,875 (Gibraltar alone, Jan 2008 estimate) [ [http://www.intute.ac.uk/sciences/worldguide/html/893_people.html Intute - World Guide - Gibraltar] ]
regions =

GIB
ENG
flag|Andalusia

languages = English· Spanish Llanito smaller|(vernacular)
religions = Christianity smaller|(mostly Roman Catholicism and Anglicanism)· Islam· Judaism· Hinduism
related = Andalusian· British· Genoese· Maltese· Portuguese

The Gibraltarians (colloquially Llanitos), are a Southern European nation and cultural group native to Gibraltar, a British overseas territory located near the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula at the entrance to the Mediterranean sea.

Origins

Gibraltarians are a racial and cultural fusion of the many European immigrants who came to the Rock of Gibraltar over three hundred years. They are the descendants of economic migrants that came to Gibraltar after the majority of the Spanish population left in 1704. The few Spaniards who remained in Gibraltar in August 1704 left in 1727 when Gibraltar was subjected to its first siege.

Genoese (who arrived to work for the garrison and later went on to form the basis of Gibraltar's civilian police force) and Catalans (who arrived in the fleet with Prince George of Hesse-Darmstadt, possibly some two hundred in all), became the core of Gibraltar's first civilian population under a Dutch flag, soon replaced by the flag of England. Jews from Tetouan in Morocco, who had previously been suppliers to the English territory of Tangier, started supplying fresh produce to Gibraltar from 1704.

In 1728 the settlement of Jews in Gibraltar was such that by 1755 they formed 50% of the 1300 civilian population together with the Genoese. In 1888 the construction of the new harbour at Gibraltar started in order to provide an additional coaling station on the British routes to the East. This resulted in the importation of Maltese labour both to assist in its construction, and to replace striking Genoese labour in the old coaling lighter-based industry. Maltese, and Portuguese people formed the majority of this new population. Other groups include Minorcans (forced to leave their homes when Minorca was returned to Spain in 1802), Sardinians, Sicilians and other Italians, French, Germans, and the British.

Immigration from Spain and intermarriage with Spaniards from the surrounding Spanish towns was a constant feature of Gibraltar's history until General Francisco Franco closed the border with Gibraltar, cutting off many Gibraltarians from their relatives on the Spanish side of the frontier. The Spanish socialist government reopened the land frontier, but other restrictions remain in place.

Nationality

Gibraltarians are British, albeit with a distinct identity of their own.

"noun:" Gibraltarian(s)"adjective:" Gibraltar

Culture

Religion

Gibraltarians' main religion is Christianity, with the majority of Gibraltarians belonging to the Roman Catholic Church. Other Christian denominations include the Church of England, the Gibraltar Methodist Church, [cite web |url=http://www.methodist.org.gi/ |title=Gibraltar Methodist Church |accessdate=2007-10-30 |publisher=The Methodist Church] Church of Scotland, various Pentecostal and independent churches mostly influenced by the House Church and Charismatic movements, as well as a Plymouth Brethren congregation. There is also a ward of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and Jehovah's Witnesses. There are also a number of Hindu Indians, a Moroccan Muslim population, members of the Bahá'í Faith [cite web |url=http://www.gibnet.com/bahai/ |title=The Bahá'í Community in Gibraltar |accessdate=2007-10-30 |publisher=Gibnet] and a long-established Jewish community. [cite web |url=http://www.gibraltar.gov.uk/hol/people.asp |title=People |accessdate=2007-11-06 |date=2005 |publisher=Official Government of Gibraltar London website] [cite web |first=Joseph|last=Jacobs|url=http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=220&letter=G |title=Gibraltar |accessdate=2007-11-06 |publisher=JewishEncyclopedia.com]

Languages

English (used in schools and for official purposes) and Spanish are the main languages of Gibraltar. Most Gibraltarians converse in "Llanito", an Andalusian Spanish based creole. It consists of an eclectic mix of Andalusian Spanish and British English as well as languages such as Maltese, Portuguese, Italian of the Genoese variety and Haketia. Among more educated Gibraltarians, it also typically involves code-switching to English. Arabic is spoken by the Moroccan community, just like Hindi and Sindhi is spoken by the Indian community of Gibraltar. Maltese is still spoken by some families of Maltese descent.

References

See also

* List of Gibraltarians
* Gibraltarian status
* Demographics of Gibraltar
* History of Nationality in Gibraltar

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