- San Jacinto Monument
name = San Jacinto Monument
boxwidth = 260px
nrhp_type = nhl
caption =The San Jacinto Monument
April 21, 1939
December 19, 1960
governing_body = Private
cite web|url=http://www.nr.nps.gov/|title=National Register Information System|date=2006-03-15|work=National Register of Historic Places|publisher=National Park Service]
mapcaption = San Jacinto Monument in Texas
locmapin = Texas
maplabel = Monument
maplabelsize = 77
maplabelpos = bottom
lat_direction = N
lat_degrees = 29
lat_minutes = 45
lat_seconds = 0
long_degrees = 95
long_minutes = 4.8
long_seconds = 0
long_direction = WThe San Jacinto Monument is a convert|570|ft|m|1|sing=on high
columnlocated in Harris County, Texas, United States, near the city of La Porte. [http://www.sanjacinto-museum.org/Contact_Us/] . It is topped with a 220-ton star that commemorates the site of the Battle of San Jacinto, the decisive battle of the Texas Revolution. The monument, dedicated on April 21, 1939, is the world's tallest monument tower, and masonrytower, and is part of the San Jacinto Battleground State Historic Site, located along the Houston Ship Channel. The column is an octagonal shaft faced with Texas Cordova shellstone, topped with a convert|34|ft|m|0|sing=on Lone Star - the symbol of Texas.
As part of the San Jacinto Battlefield, the monument was designated a
National Historic Landmarkon December 19, 1960, and therefore automatically listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It was designated an Historic Civil Engineering Landmark in 1992.
An inscription on the monument tells the story of the birth of Texas:
:"The early policies of Mexico toward her Texas colonists had been extremely liberal. Large grants of land were made to them, and no taxes or duties imposed. The relationship between the Anglo-Americans and Mexicans was cordial. But, following a series of revolutions begun in 1829, unscrupulous rulers successively seized power in Mexico. Their unjust acts and despotic decrees led to the revolution in Texas."
:"In June, 1832, the colonists forced the Mexican authorities at Anahuac to release Wm. B. Travis and others from unjust imprisonment. The
Battle of Velasco, June 26, and the Battle of Nacogdoches, August 2, followed; in both the Texans were victorious. Stephen Fuller Austin, "Father of Texas," was arrested January 3, 1834, and held in Mexico without trial until July, 1835. The Texans formed an army, and on November 12, 1835, established a provisional government."
:"The first shot of the Revolution of 1835-36 was fired by the Texans at Gonzales,
October 2, 1835, in resistance to a demand by Mexican soldiers for a small cannon held by the colonists. The Mexican garrison at Goliad fell October 9; the Battle of Concepcionwas won by the Texans, October 28. San Antonio was captured December 10, 1835 after five days of fighting in which the indomitable Benjamin R. Milam died a hero, and the Mexican Army evacuated Texas."
:"Texas declared her independence at
Washington-on-the-Brazos March 2. For nearly two months her armies met disaster and defeat: Dr. James Grant's men were killed on the Aguadulce March 2; William Barret Travis and his men sacrificed their lives at the Alamo, March 6; William Wardwas defeated at Refugio, March 14; Amos B. King's men were executed near Refugio, March 16; and James Walker Fannin and his army were put to death near Goliad March 27, 1836."
:"On this field on
April 21, 1836 the Army of Texas commanded by General Sam Houston, and accompanied by the Secretary of War, Thomas J. Rusk, attacked the larger invading army of Mexicans under General Santa Anna. The battle line from left to right was formed by Sidney Sherman's regiment, Edward Burleson's regiment, the artillery commanded by George W. Hockley, Henry Millard's infantry and the cavalry under Mirabeau B. Lamar. Sam Houston led the infantry charge."
:"With the battle cry, "Remember the Alamo! Remember Goliad!" the Texans charged. The enemy taken by surprise, rallied for a few minutes then fled in disorder. The Texans had asked no quarter and gave none. The slaughter was appalling, victory complete, and Texas free! On the following day General Antonio Lopez De Santa Anna, self-styled "
Napoleonof the West," received from a generous foe the mercy he had denied Travis at the Alamo and Fannin at Goliad."
:"Citizens of Texas and immigrant soldiers in the Army of Texas at San Jacinto were natives of
Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, Austria, Canada, England, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Mexico, Poland, Portugaland Scotland."
:"Measured by its results, San Jacinto was one of the decisive battles of the world. The freedom of Texas from
Mexicowon here led to annexation and to the Mexican-American War, resulting in the acquisition by the United Statesof the states of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, California, Utahand parts of Colorado, Wyoming, Kansasand Oklahoma. Almost one-third of the present area of the American Nation, nearly a million square miles of territory, changed sovereignty."
San Jacinto Day
*cite web |title=San Jacinto Museum of History Contact Page |url=http://www.sanjacinto-museum.org/Contact_Us/ |publisher=San Jacinto Museum of History |accessdate=2006-12-06
* [http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/spdest/findadest/parks/san_jacinto_battleground/monument.phtml Texas State Parks: San Jacinto Monument]
* [http://texashistory.unt.edu/search/?q=san+jacinto&t=fulltext Images of the San Jacinto Mounument] from the Portal to Texas History
* [http://www.nr.nps.gov/iwisapi/explorer.dll?IWS_SCHEMA=NRIS1&IWS_LOGIN=1&IWS_REPORT=100000044 National Historic Landmark information]
* [http://www.asce.org/history/build_sanjacinto.html American Society of Civil Engineers page]
* [http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/SS/lbs1.html San Jacinto Monument and Museum] Handbook of Texas Online
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