Contagious equine metritis


Contagious equine metritis

Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM) is a venereal infection of the genital tract of horses brought on by the Taylorella equigenitalis bacteria. Passed on through sexual contact, according to Robert N. Oglesby DVM, the disease was first reported in 1977 on horse breeding farms in England and was found in 1978 by Dr. C.E.D. Taylor in horses imported from Europe into the state of Kentucky in the United States.[1] A second American outbreak occurred a year later in Missouri but in both cases, the diseases were quickly eradicated. [1]. The American Association of Equine Practitioners has advised that the disease has also been found in a few but limited cases in California, Virginia and New Jersey. On December 17, 2008 a case was reported by USDA-Aphis to the OIE in a 16 year-old Quarter Horse stallion standing at stud in Kentucky who had previously been located in Texas [2].

Contagious Equine Metritis has also been found in Japan, Germany, France, Netherlands, Scandinavia Bosnia and Morocco.

Contents

Signs

Signs in mares appear ten to fourteen days after breeding to an infected or carrier stallion. A gray to creamy vulvar discharge mats the hair of the buttocks and tail, although in many cases, the discharge is absent and the infection is not apparent. Most mares recover spontaneously, although many become carriers. Infected mares are usually infertile during the acute illness. However, the infertility only lasts a few weeks, after which pregnancy is possible.

Stallions do not show signs of infection. The first indication of the carrier state is the appearance of Contagious Equine Metritis and/or lack of pregnancy in the mares covered by the stallion.

Diagnosis

The Diagnosis of Contagious Equine Metritis is made by taking cultures from all accessible sites. In mares, this includes the endometrium, cervix, clitoral fossa and sinuses. In stallions, cultures are taken from the skin folds of the prepuce, urethral fossa, urethra, and the pre-ejaculatory fluid. All samples should be refrigerated and transported to an approved testing laboratory within 48 hours of collection.

Blood tests for mares are available for detecting antibodies to Taylorella equigenitalis. Blood tests are not possible for stallions. These tests become positive 10 or more days after infection. If positive, they only indicate that the mare has had the disease in the past, and do not indicate whether the mare is a carrier now.

Treatment

Taylorella equigenitalis is susceptible to most antibiotics, although the carrier state in mares is difficult to eliminate. Most mares with acute endometritis recover spontaneously. Recommended therapy is to infuse the uterus with an antibiotic such as penicillin, cleansing the clitoral area with 2% chlorhexidine solution and then applying chlorhexidine or nitrofurazone ointment to the clitoral fossa and sinuses. The entire treatment is repeated daily for five days.

It is relatively easy to eliminate the carrier state in stallions using local disinfectant. With the penis dropped and the glans extended from the foreskin, the shaft of the penis, including the folds of the prepuce and the urethral fossa, should be cleansed daily for five days with a 2% chlorhexidine solution. After drying, nitrofurazone cream is applied to these areas.

References

  1. ^ "Transfer of Haemophilus equigenitalis Taylor et al. 1978 to the genusTaylorella gen. nov. asTaylorella equigenitalis comb. nov". Current Microbiology 9 (3): 155–162. doi:10.1007/BF01567289. 0343-8651 (Print) 1432-0991 (Online). 

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Contagious Equine Metritis — Die Ansteckende Gebärmutterentzündung des Pferdes (Kontagiöse Equine Metritis, englisch Contagious Equine Metritis, CEM) ist eine ansteckende Deckseuche bei Pferden, die vom Bakterium Taylorella equigenitalis verursacht wird. Die CEM ist wegen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • contagious equine metritis — (CEM) a highly contagious venereal disease of horses caused by infection with Taylorella equigenitalis; symptoms may include endometritis and salpingitis with a profuse purulent discharge, but sometimes infection is subclinical with only a… …   Medical dictionary

  • equine metritis — Vet. Pathol. a highly contagious inflammation of the uterus affecting mostly thoroughbred mares. * * * …   Universalium

  • equine metritis — Vet. Pathol. a highly contagious inflammation of the uterus affecting mostly thoroughbred mares …   Useful english dictionary

  • Kontagiöse Equine Metritis — Die Ansteckende Gebärmutterentzündung des Pferdes (Kontagiöse Equine Metritis, englisch Contagious Equine Metritis, CEM) ist eine ansteckende Deckseuche bei Pferden, die vom Bakterium Taylorella equigenitalis verursacht wird. Die CEM ist wegen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Metritis — is inflammation of the wall of the uterus, whilst endometritis is inflammation of the functional lining of the uterus, called the endometrium [1] Although these terms can apply to any species of mammal, in humans the term Pelvic Inflammatory… …   Wikipedia

  • Smegma — This article is about smegma, usually found in the foreskin, a secretion of mammalian genitals. See Vernix caseosa for the substance that covers the skin of a baby at birth. See Smegma (band) for the experimental noise band. Smegma (Greek smēgma …   Wikipedia

  • Ansteckende Pferdemetritis — Die Ansteckende Gebärmutterentzündung des Pferdes (Kontagiöse Equine Metritis, englisch Contagious Equine Metritis, CEM) ist eine ansteckende Deckseuche bei Pferden, die vom Bakterium Taylorella equigenitalis verursacht wird. Die CEM ist wegen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Mexico–United States border — The border between the United States and Mexico spans four U.S. states, six Mexican states, and has over twenty commercial railroad crossings …   Wikipedia

  • Ansteckende Gebärmutterentzündung des Pferdes — Die Ansteckende Gebärmutterentzündung des Pferdes (Kontagiöse Equine Metritis, englisch Contagious Equine Metritis, CEM) ist eine ansteckende Deckseuche bei Pferden, die vom Bakterium Taylorella equigenitalis verursacht wird. Die CEM ist wegen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.