Encirclement


Encirclement

Encirclement is a military term for the situation when a force or target is isolated and surrounded by enemy forces. This situation is highly dangerous for the encircled force: at the strategic level, because it cannot receive supplies or reinforcements, and on the tactical level, because the units in the force can be subject to an attack from several sides. Lastly, since the force cannot retreat, unless it is relieved or can break out, it must either fight to the death or surrender.Encirclement has been used throughout the centuries by military leaders, including famous generals such as Alexander the Great, Hannibal, Sun Tzu, Wallenstein, Napoleon I, Heinz Guderian, von Rundstedt, Zhukov, and Patton. Sun Tzu suggests that an army should not be "completely" encircled, but should be given some room for escape, in order to prevent that 'encircled' army's men lifting their morale and fighting till the death –- a more optimal situation would be them considering the possibility of a retreat.

The main form of encircling, the "double pincer," is executed by attacks on the flanks of a battle, where the mobile forces of the era, such as light infantry, cavalry, tanks, or APC's attempt to force a breakthrough to utilize their speed to join behind the back of the enemy force, and complete the "ring", while the main enemy force is stalled by probing attacks. The encirclement of the German Sixth Army at Stalingrad is a typical example of this.

If there is a natural obstacle, such as ocean or mountains on one side of the battlefield, only one pincer is needed ("single pincer"), because the function of the second arm is taken over by the natural obstacle. The German attack into the lowlands of France in 1940 is a typical example of this.

A third and more rare type of encirclement can ensue from a breakthrough in an area of the enemy front, and exploiting that with mobile forces, diverging in two or more directions behind the enemy line. Full encirclement rarely follows this, but the threat of it severely hampers the defender's options. This type of attack pattern is centerpiece to Blitzkrieg operations. By the extreme difficulty of this operation, it can only be executed if the offensive force has a vast superiority, either in technology, organization, or sheer numbers. The Barbarossa campaign of 1941 saw some examples of this.

A special kind of encirclement is the siege. In this case, the encircled force voluntarily allows this to happen at a stronghold location where long-lasting supplies and defensive constructions or fortifications are in place, allowing them to repel attacks. Sieges have taken place in almost all eras of warfare.

Examples of battles of encirclement:

*Battle of Cannae
*Battle of Fraustadt
*Battle of Kiev (1941)
*Battle of Smolensk (1941)
*Battle of Stalingrad
*Battle of Tannenberg (1914)

See also

* Blockade
* Breakout (military)
* Pocket (military)


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Look at other dictionaries:

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  • encirclement — encircle ► VERB ▪ form a circle around; surround. DERIVATIVES encirclement noun …   English terms dictionary

  • encirclement — noun see encircle …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • encirclement — See encircle. * * * …   Universalium

  • encirclement — noun a) The act of encircling or the state of being encircled b) The isolation of a target by the formation of a blockade around it …   Wiktionary

  • encirclement — Synonyms and related words: aerial tactics, airborne tactics, applied tactics, armored tactics, barrier tactics, beleaguerment, besiegement, blockade, blockading, cavalry tactics, cincture, circling, circumambience, circumambiency, circumcincture …   Moby Thesaurus

  • encirclement — en cir·cle·ment || mÉ™nt n. act of encircling, act of surrounding; state of being surrounded …   English contemporary dictionary

  • encirclement — en·cir·cle·ment …   English syllables

  • encirclement — noun a war measure that isolates some area of importance to the enemy • Syn: ↑blockade • Derivationally related forms: ↑encircle, ↑blockade (for: ↑blockade) • Topics: ↑ …   Useful english dictionary

  • Encirclement Campaigns — is a term used to describe several different campaigns launched by forces of the Chinese Nationalist Government against forces of the Communist Party of China during the Chinese Civil War. The campaigns were launched between the late 1920s to the …   Wikipedia


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