Arian controversy


Arian controversy

The Arian controversy describes several controversies which divided the Christian church from before the Council of Nicaea in 325 to after the Council of Constantinople in 383. The most important of these controversies concerned the relationship between the Creator and Logos, or between God the Father and God the Son.

History

Origins of the controversy

Lucian of Antioch

It is believed that Arius' doctrines were influenced by the teachings of Lucian of Antioch, a celebrated Christian teacher and martyr for the faith. In a letter to Bishop Alexander of Constantinople, Alexander of Alexandria wrote that Arius derived his theology from Lucian. The express purpose of his letter is to complain of the doctrines Arius was then diffusing but his charge of heresy against Arius is vague and unsupported by other authorities, and Alexander's language, like that of most controversialists in those days, is vituperative. Moreover, Lucian is not stated, even by Alexander himself, to have fallen into the heresy afterwards promulgated by Arius, but is accused "ad invidiam" of heretical tendencies.

The controversy begins

The early history of the controversy must be pieced together from about [http://faculty.wlc.edu/thompson/fourth-century/Urkunden/urkundenchart.htm 35 documents] found in various sources. The historian Socrates of Constantinople reports that Arius first became controversial under the bishop Achillas of Alexandria, when he made the following syllogism: he said, "‘If the Father begat the Son, he that was begotten had a beginning of existence: and from this it is evident, that there was a time when the Son was not. It therefore necessarily follows, that he had his substance from nothing.’"

The patriarch of Alexandria was the subject of adverse criticism for his slow reaction against Arius. Like his predecessor Dionysius, he has been charged with vacillation. Yet it is difficult to see how he could have acted otherwise than he did. The question that Arius raised had been left unsettled two generations previously, or, if in any sense it could be said to have been settled, it had been settled in favour of the opponents of the "homoousion". Therefore Alexander allowed the controversy to continue until he felt that it had become dangerous to the peace of the Church. Then he called a council of bishops and sought their advice. Once they decided against Arius, Alexander delayed no longer. He deposed Arius from his office, and excommunicated both him and his supporters.

The Council of Nicaea (325)

Ariminum, Seleucia, and Constantinople (358-360)

In 358, the emperor Constantius II requested two councils, one of the western bishops at Ariminum and one of the eastern bishops at Nicomedia. [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 4, chapter 10.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 37.]

In 359, the western council met at Ariminum. Ursacius of Singidunum and Valens of Mursa declared that the Son was like the father "according to the scriptures," following a new (Homoian) creed drafted at Sirmium (359). Many of the most outspoken supporters of the Creed of Nicaea walked out. The council, including some supporters of the older creed, adopted the newer creed. [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 4, chapter 10.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 37.] After the council, Pope Liberius condemned the creed of Ariminum, while his rival, Felix, supported it. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 40.]

An earthquake struck Nicomedia, killing the bishop Cecropius of Nicomedia, and in 359 the eastern council met at Seleucia instead. The council was bitterly divided, and procedurally irregular, and the two parties met separately and reached opposing decisions. Basil of Ancyra and his party declared that the Son was of similar substance to the Father, following a (Homoiousian) Creed of Antioch from 341, and deposed the opposing party. Acacius of Caesarea declared that the Son was like the Father, introducing a new (Homoian) creed. [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 4, chapter 11.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 40.]

Constantius requested a third council, at Constantinople (359), of both the eastern and western bishops, to resolve the split at Seleucia. Acacius now declared that the Son was like the Father "according to the scriptures." Basil of Ancyra, Eustathius of Sebaste, and their party again declared that the Son was of similar substance to the Father, as in the majority decision at Seleucia. Maris of Chalcedon, Eudoxius of Antioch, and the deacons Aëtius and Eunomius declared that the Son was of a dissimilar substance from the Father. [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 4, chapter 12 and book 5, chapter 1.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 41.] The Heteroousians defeated the Homoiousians in an initial debate, but Constantius banished Aëtius, [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 4, chapter 12 and book 5, chapter 1.] after which the council, including Maris and Eudoxius, [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 41.] agreed to the homoian creed of Ariminum with minor modifications. [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 4, chapter 12 and book 5, chapter 1.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 41.]

After the Council of Constantinople, the homoian bishop Acacius deposed and banished several homoiousian bishops, including Macedonius I of Constantinople, Basil, Eustathius, Eleusius of Cyzicus, Dracontius of Pergamum, Neonas of Seleucia, Sophronius of Pompeiopolis, Elpidius of Satala and Cyril of Jerusalem. [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 5, chapter 1.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 42.] At the same time, Acacius also deposed and banished the Anomoean deacon Aëtius. [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 5, chapter 1.]

In 360, Acacius appointed Eudoxius of Antioch to replace Macedonius and Athanasius of Ancyra to replace Basil, as well as Onesimus of Nicomedia to replace Cecropius, who had died in the earthquake at Nicomedia. [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 5, chapter 1.]

The controversy in the 360s

In 361, Constantius died and Julian the Apostate became sole Roman emperor. Julian demanded the restoration of several pagan temples which Christians had seized or destroyed. [Henry Chadwick, History of the Early Church, chapter 9] According to Philostorgius, pagans killed George of Laodicea, bishop of Alexandria, allowing Athanasius of Alexandria to reclaim the see. [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 7, chapter 2.]

The Council of Constantinople (383)

Councils involved

Several church councils were largely, if not primarily, concerned with the Arian controversy. These include:
* Synods of Antioch 264-269, councils rejected the term homoousios
* Egyptian Council of Alexandria (318 or 319). [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 1, chapter 6.] [Anthony F. Beavers, "Chronology of the Arian Controversy".]
* Council of the party of Alexander of Alexandria at Nicomedia (c. 325). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 1, chapter 7.]
* Council of the party of Alexander of Alexandria at Antioch (325).Fact|date=August 2007 [Anthony F. Beavers, "Chronology of the Arian Controversy".]
* Council of Nicaea (more than 300 bishops) (325). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 1, chapters 8-9.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 1, chapters 8-13.] [Anthony F. Beavers, "Chronology of the Arian Controversy".]
* Church trial of Eustathius of Antioch at Antioch (c. 330). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 2, chapter 7.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 1, chapter 24.]
* Council of Nicomedia (250 bishops) (c. 335). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 2, chapter 7.]
* Church trial of Athanasius of Alexandria at Tyre (335). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 2, chapter 11.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 1, chapters 28-32, 34-35.] [Anthony F. Beavers, "Chronology of the Arian Controversy".]
* Council of Jerusalem (335). [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 1, chapter 33.] [Anthony F. Beavers, "Chronology of the Arian Controversy".]
* Church trial of Marcellus of Ancyra at Constantinople (336). [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 1, chapter 36.] [Anthony F. Beavers, "Chronology of the Arian Controversy".]
* Church trial of Athanasius of Alexandria at Antioch (338).Fact|date=August 2007 [Anthony F. Beavers, "Chronology of the Arian Controversy".]
* Council of Antioch (Council of the Dedication) (90 bishops) (341). [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapters 8 & 10.] [Anthony F. Beavers, "Chronology of the Arian Controversy".]
* Another Council of Antioch (341). [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 15.] [Anthony F. Beavers, "Chronology of the Arian Controversy".]
* Western Council of Rome (342).Fact|date=July 2007
* Mostly Western Council of Sardica (342 or 343). [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapters 20 & 26.] [Anthony F. Beavers, "Chronology of the Arian Controversy".]
* Eastern Council of Philippopolis (342 or 343). [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 20 & 26.] [Anthony F. Beavers, "Chronology of the Arian Controversy".]
* Eastern Council of Antioch (344).Fact|date=August 2007 [Anthony F. Beavers, "Chronology of the Arian Controversy".]
* Regional Council of Jerusalem. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 24.]
* Mostly Western Council of Mediolanum (345).Fact|date=August 2007 [Anthony F. Beavers, "Chronology of the Arian Controversy".]
* Mostly Western Council of Mediolanum (347).Fact|date=August 2007 [Anthony F. Beavers, "Chronology of the Arian Controversy".]
* Council of Sirmium (347).Fact|date=August 2007
* Egyptian Council of Alexandria (c. 351). [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 26.]
* Council of Sirmium and church trial of Photinus at Sirmium (351). [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapters 29-30.] [Anthony F. Beavers, "Chronology of the Arian Controversy".]
* Council of Arelate (353).Fact|date=August 2007 [Anthony F. Beavers, "Chronology of the Arian Controversy".]
* Mostly Western Council of Mediolanum (more than 300 bishops) (355). [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 36.] [Anthony F. Beavers, "Chronology of the Arian Controversy".]
* Council of Sirmium (357). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 4, chapter 3.] [Anthony F. Beavers, "Chronology of the Arian Controversy".]
* Council of Ancyra (358).Fact|date=August 2007 [Anthony F. Beavers, "Chronology of the Arian Controversy".]
* Fourth Council of Sirmium (359).Fact|date=August 2007 [Anthony F. Beavers, "Chronology of the Arian Controversy".]
* Western Council of Ariminum (about 300 or more than 400 bishops) (359). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 4, chapters 10-11.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 37.] [Anthony F. Beavers, "Chronology of the Arian Controversy".]
* Eastern Council of Seleucia (about 160 bishops) (359). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 4, chapters 10-11.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapters 37 & 39.] [Anthony F. Beavers, "Chronology of the Arian Controversy".]
* Council of the Homoians at Nike (c. 359). [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 37.]
* First Council of Constantinople (360) (360). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 4, chapter 12.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 41.] [Anthony F. Beavers, "Chronology of the Arian Controversy".]
* Church trial of Eunomius of Cyzicus at Constantinople (c. 360). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 6, chapter 1.]
* Church trial of Eustathius of Sebaste at Gangra. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 43.]
* Council of the Anomoeans in Constantinople (c. 361). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 7, chapter 6.]
* Local council at Constantinople (c. 361). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 7, chapter 6.]
* Council of Antioch (361).Fact|date=August 2007 [Anthony F. Beavers, "Chronology of the Arian Controversy".]
* Council of the Anomoeans in Constantinople (c. 363). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 8, chapter 2.]
* Council of the party of Theodosius of Lydia (c. 363 or 364). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 8, chapter 4.]
* Local council at Antioch (c. 381). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 10, chapter 1.]
* Council of Constantinople (381 or 383). [Anthony F. Beavers, "Chronology of the Arian Controversy".]
* Council of Toledo (Of the churches in Hispania) (589).

Issues

Is the Logos created?

Was the Logos created in time?

Personhood of the Holy Spirit

Dominating the secular intellectual milieu in which the Cappadocians lived was Platonism, which, when mixed with unreflective Christian theology, bred Arianism, the most prominent heresy at the dawn of the fourth century. According to Platonism, the One or “first cause” radiated immaterial and material entities in a hierarchical, categorized way. If this conceptualization had remained unchecked, the Christian God could have been given a Platonic veneer: the Father as the “first cause,” the Son or Logos as the primary emanation from the One, and the Spirit as a further emanation of the Logos. Arianism held that the Son of God was a being created by the First Person and could not be considered divine, an attractive option incorporating both classical Greek thought and the historical event of the person of Jesus. The Cappadocians vehemently argued against Arianism for its inequality among the divine Persons: “This was the disease of Arius, who gave his name to the madness, and who threw into confusion and brought to ruin a great part of the Church. Without honoring the Father, he dishonored what proceeded from Him by maintaining unequal degrees in the Godhead. But we recognize one glory of the Father, the equality of the Only-begotten, and one glory of the Son, the equality of the Holy Spirit. And we believe that to subordinate anything of the Three is to destroy the whole” (Gregory of Nazianzus, On St. Basil, par. 30.). The Cappadocian insistence on equality among the divine Persons was also a solid refutation of the hierarchical ordering of the cosmos found in Platonism.

According to a heresyPOV-statement|date=June 2008 related to Arianism, Anomoianism, the Spirit was subjugated to the Father and the Son. As time went on, arguing for the divinity of the Spirit became increasingly more important to the Cappadocians. Nicaea left rather open the question of the divinity of the Spirit; belief “in the Holy Spirit” was all the bishops had stated. Advocating for the divinity of the Holy Spirit was crucial for the Cappadocians exactly because of their insistence on the unity and equality of the Three: “The central thrust of Basil’s positive argument in favor of the Spirit’s deity is the non-separability of the three persons and the inference from this that they are all three worthy of this same honor” Anthony Meredith, The Cappadocians (Crestwood, New York: St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 1995), 32).

The Cappadocians’ insistence on three co-equal divine Persons, however, subjected them to accusations of tritheism. The extreme opposite, Sabellianism, also widespread at that time, conflated the three Persons into one and saw no distinctions among them whatsoever. The theologians, therefore, had to articulate the unity of the divine essence as well as the distinctness of Persons in the Godhead.

As time went on and in response to continual controversy, the Cappadocians’ theological writings increased in nuance and also in clarity. What emerged from them was the orthodox Christian belief that God is a unity of Three distinct yet inseparable and equal Persons. The Cappadocian theologians worked out this theology by establishing the distinctness of the divine Persons, the communitarian relationships of the Three, and the unity of their divine essence.

"This section submitted by Claire Anderson, M.Div."

Other Issues

Several other issues arose at the same time as the Arian controversy proper.

Dates of Passover and Easter

In Christianity, Easter is the Sunday and Monday after Passover. However, it was debated whether to follow Jewish practice for the calculation of the date of Passover. By the 4th century, the most common Christian methods had diverged from the most common Jewish ones. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 1, chapter 8.]

Marriage

Many held that presbyters and bishops should not marry, and some held that presbyters and bishops who had already married, and their wives, should refrain from sex. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 1, chapter 11.]

Eustathius of Sebaste condemned marriage entirely; he also excluded married presbyters from communion, forbade married Christians from praying at home while encouraging unmarried ones to hold services at home; he was deposed for this and his doctrines were condemned. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 43.]

ides

Homoousian

The Homoousians taught that the Son is of the same substance as the Father, i.e. both uncreated. The Sabellian form had been condemned as heresy in the 3rd century. The Athanasian form would be declared orthodox at the Council of Constantinople in 383, and has become the basis of most of modern trinitarianism. [Bernhard Lohse, "A Short History of Christian Doctrine", pp. 56-59 & 63.
Peter Heather & John Matthews, "Goths in the Fourth Century", pp. 127-128. This mainly discusses the later controversy and only mentions Athanasius' form.
]
*Alexander, bishop of Alexandria (313-326). [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 1, chapters 5 & 6.]
*Hosius, bishop of Cordoba (?-(359). [Socrates of Constantintinople, "Church History", book 1, chapter 7 and book 2, chapter 31.]
*Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea (c. 313-339). [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 21.]
*Eustathius, (possibly Sabellian) bishop of Antioch (c. 325-330). [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 1, chapter 25.]
*Cyrus, (possibly Sabellian) bishop of Beroe. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 1, chapter 25.]
*Athanasius (Athanasian) bishop of Alexandria (326-373, later rival of Gregory of Cappadocia and then George of Laodicea). [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 1, chapters 23, 27-32 & 34-35.]
*Paul, bishop of Constantinople (336-351, later rival of Eusebius of Nicomedia and then Macedonius I of Constantinople). [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapters 6-7, 12 & 16.]
*Julius, bishop of Rome (337-352). [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 15.]
*Asclepas, bishop of Gaza. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 23.]
*Lucius, bishop of Adrianople (?-351). [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapters 23 & 26.]
*Maximus, bishop of Jerusalem (333-350). [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapters 24 & 38.]
*Paulinus, bishop of Treves, who supported Athanasius of Alexandria at Milan. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 36.]
*Dionysius, bishop of Alba, who supported Athanasius of Alexandria at Milan. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 36.]
*Eusebius, bishop of Vercelli (340-371), who supported Athanasius of Alexandria at Milan. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 36.]
*Angelius, (Novatian) bishop of Constantinople. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 38.]

*Gregory of NazianzusFact|date=July 2007
*Gregory of ElviraFact|date=July 2007
*Lucifer, bishop of Cagliari.Fact|date=July 2007
*Hilary, bishop of Poitiers (c. 353-367).Fact|date=July 2007
*Servatius, bishop of Tongeren.Fact|date=July 2007

Marcellus of Ancyra and Photinus of Sirmium

According to the historian Socrates of Constantinople, Marcellus of Ancyra and Photinus of Sirmium taught "that Christ was a mere man." [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 1, chapter 36 and book 2, chapter 20
Socrates, book 1, chapter 36, states that Marcellus "dared to say, as the Samosatene had done, that Christ was a mere man" and book 2, chapter 18, states that Photinus "asserted that the Son of God was a mere man."
] Their opponents associated the teachings of Marcellus of Ancyra and Photinus of Sirmium with those of Sabellius and Paul of Samosata, which had been widely rejected before the controversy. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 1, chapter 36 and book 2, chapter 29.
Sozomen, "Church History", book 4, chapter 6.
Besides these histories, Eunomius' "First Apology" associates Marcellus' and Photinus' doctrines with Sabellius, and condemns these doctrines.'
]

*Marcellus, bishop of Ancyra (?-336 and c. 343-c. 374) and critic of Asterius. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 1, chapter 36 and book 2, chapter 20.]
*Photinus, bishop of Sirmium (?-351) and in exile (351-376); according to Socrates of Constantinople and Sozomen, Photinus was a follower of Marcellus. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapters 18 & 29.
Sozomen, "Church History", book 4, chapter 6.
]

* In 336, a church trial at Constantinople deposed Marcellus and condemned his doctrines. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 1, chapter 36.
Sozomen, "Church History", book 2, chapter 33.
]
* Pope Julius I supported Marcellus and called for his restoration. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 15.]
* In 342 or 343, the mostly Western Council of Sardica restored Marcellus, while the mostly Eastern Council of Philippopolis sustained his removal. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 20.
Sozomen, "Church History", book 3, chapters 11-12.
]
* Under pressure from his co-Emperor Constans, Constantius II initially backed the decision of Sardica, but after Constans' death, reversed course. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapters 23 & 26.
Sozomen, "Church Hustory", book 4, chapter 2.
]
* In 351,Fact|date=August 2007 a church trial at the Council of Sirmium deposed Photinus and condemned his teachings. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapters 29-30.
Sozomen, "Church History", book 4, chapter 6.
]
* The Macrostich condemned the teachings of Marcellus and Photinus. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 19.]

Homoiousian

The Homoiousian school taught that the Son is of a similar substance to the Father. [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 4, chapter 9.] [Peter Heather & John Matthews, "Goths in the Fourth Century", p. 128. This mainly discusses the later controversy.]

*Basil of Ancyra, bishop of Ancyra (336-360). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 8, chapter 17.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 1, chapter 36 & book 2, chapter 42.]
*Macedonius, (Macedonian) bishop of Constantinople (342-346 and 351-360). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 4, chapter 9 & book 8, chapter 17.] [Socrates if Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapters 16, 27, 38 & 42.]
*George of Laodicea, bishop of Alexandria (356-361, rival of Athanasius of Alexandria). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 8, chapter 17.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 1, chapters 24 & 40.]
*Eudoxius, bishop of Germanicia (?-358), Antioch (358-359), and Constantinople (360-370), who supported the Macrostich. [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 4, chapters 4 & 12.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapters 19, 37 & 40.]
*Martyrius, who supported the Macrostich. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 19.]
*Macedonius, bishop of Mopsuestia, who supported the Macrostich. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 19.]
*Mark, bishop of Arethusa, who wrote the Creed of Sirmium of 351. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 30.]
*Cyril, (Macedonian) bishop of Jerusalem (350-386). [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapters 38 & 42.]
*Marathonius, (Macedonian) bishop of Nicomedia (c. 351-?). [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapters 38 & 45.]
*Eleusius, (Macedonian) bishop of Cyzicus (c. 351-360). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 8, chapter 17.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapters 38, 42 & 45.]
*Sophronius, (Macedonian) bishop of Pompeiopolis (?-360). [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapters 39, 40, 42 & 45.]
*Dracontius, bishop of Pergamum (?-360). [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 42.]
*Neonas, bishop of Seleucia (?-360). [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 42.]
*Elpidius, bishop of Satala (?-360). [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 42.]
*Eustathius, (Macedonian) bishop of Sebastia. [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 8, chapter 17.] [Socrates of Connstantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 45.]
*Annianus of Antioch. [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 4, chapter 11.]
*Sabinus, Macedonian bishop of Heraclea. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 1, chapter 8 and book 2, chapter 15.]

Homoian

The Homoians taught that the Son is similar to the Father, either "in all things" or "according to the scriptures," without speaking of substance. [Peter Heather & John Matthews, "Goths in the Fourth Century", p. 128. This mainly discusses the later controversy.] Several members of the other schools, such as Hosius of Cordoba and Aëtius, also accepted certain Homoian formulae. [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 4, chapter 3 for Hosius and chapter 8 for Aëtius.]

*Ursacius, initially homoiousian, then homoousian, and later homoian bishop of Singidunum, who had opposed Athanasius. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 1, chapter 27 and book 2, chapters 12 & 37.]
*Valens, initially homoiousian, then homoousian, and later homoian bishop of Mursa, who had opposed Athanasius. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 1, chapter 27 and book 2, chapters 12 & 37.]
*Germinius. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 37.]
*Auxentius (d. 374), bishop of Milan. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 37.]
*Demophilus, bishop of Beraea (?-370) and Constantinople (370-380). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 9, chapter 19.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 37.]
*Gaius. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 37.]
*Acacius, bishop of Caesarea (340-366). [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapters 4, 39 & 40.]

Heteroousian

The Heteroousians taught that the Son is of a different substance from the Father, i.e. created. Arius had taught this early in the controversy, and Aëtius would teach the later Anomoean form. [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 3, chapter 5, book 4, chapter 12 and book 6, chapter 5 refer to "different substance," book 4, chapter 12 refers to "dissimilarity of substance," and book 4, chapters 4 & 12 and book 5, chapter 1 refer to "unlike in substance" or "unlikeness in substance."] [Peter Heather & John Matthews, "Goths in the Fourth Century", pp. 127-128. This mainly discusses the later controversy and only mentions Anomoeanism, without using the term Heteroousian.]

*Arius, presbyter in Alexandria. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 1, chapters 5-6.]
*Theophilus the Indian, who later supported Aëtius. [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 3, chapter 5 and book 8, chapter 2.]
*Aëtius, who founded the Anomoean tradition, later bishop (361-?). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 7, chapter 6.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 35.]
*Theodulus, (Anomoean) bishop of Chaeretapa (?-c. 363) and Palestine (c. 363-c. 379). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 8, chapter 2 and book 9, chapter 18.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 40.]
*Eunomius, (Anomoean) bishop of Cyzicus (360-361) and exiled bishop (361-c. 393). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 5, chapter 3 and book 6, chapters 1-3.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 35.]
*Paemenius, (Anomoean) bishop of Constantinople, (c. 363, at the same time as Eudoxius of Antioch). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 8, chapter 2.]
*Candidus, (Anomoean) bishop of Lydia, (c. 363-?). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 8, chapter 2.]
*Arrianus, (Anomoean) bishop of Ionia, (c. 363-?). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 8, chapter 2.]
*Florentius, (Anomoean) bishop of Constantinople, (c. 363-?, at the same time as Eudoxius of Antioch). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 8, chapter 2.]
*Thallus, (Anomoean) bishop of Lesbos, (c. 363-?, at the same time as Eudoxius of Antioch). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 8, chapter 2.]
*Euphronius, (Anomoean) bishop of Galatia, the Black Sea and Cappadocia, (c. 363-?). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 8, chapter 2.]
*Julian, (Anomoean) bishop of Cilicia, (c. 363-?). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 8, chapter 2.]
*Serras, Stephen, and Heliodorus, (Anomoean) bishops of Egypt, (c. 363-?). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 8, chapter 2.]
*Philostorgius, (Anomoean) historian.

Other critics of the Creed of Nicaea

Many critics of the "Nicene" Creed cannot be clearly associated with one school, often due to lack of sources, or due to contradictions between sources.

*Secundus, bishop of Ptolemais, who supported Arius at Nicaea. [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 1, chapter 9.] [Condemned by Alexander of Alexandria, see Socrates, "Church History", book 1, chapter 6.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 1, chapter 8.]
*Theonus, bishop of Marmarica, who supported Arius at Nicaea. [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 1, chapter 9.] [Condemned by Alexander of Alexandria, see Socrates, "Church History", book 1, chapter 6.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 1, chapter 8.]
*Eusebius, bishop of Berytus, Nicomedia (?-325 and 328-338) and Constantinople (338-341, rival of Paul I of Constantinople), who supported Arius at Nicaea. [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 1, chapter 9.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 1, chapters 6, 8 & 14, and book 2, chapter 7.]
*Theognis, bishop of Nicaea, who supported Arius at Nicaea. [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 1, chapter 9.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 1, chapters 6, 8 & 14.]
*Maris, bishop of Chalcedon, who supported Arius at Nicaea. [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 1, chapter 9 and book 4, chapter 12.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 1, chapter 8.]
*Eusebius, (possibly Homoiousian, possibly Sabellian) bishop of Emesa (c. 339 or 341). [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 9.]
*Gregory of Cappadocia, bishop of Alexandria (339-346, rival of Athanasius of Alexandria). [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapters 10-11.]
*Narcissus, bishop of Neronias. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 26.]
*Stephanus, bishop of Antioch (342-344). [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 26.]
*Leontius, bishop of Antioch (344-358), who also taught Aetius. [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 3, chapter 17.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapters 26 & 35.]
*Patrophilus of Scythopolis. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 38.]

*Asterius (d. c. 341), who, according to Socrates of Constantinople, considered Jesus as example of the power of God, and according to Philostorgius, defended the Homoiousian tradition. [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 4, chapter 4.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 1, chapter 36.]
*Athanasius of Anazarbus, who taught Aetius. [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 3, chapter 15.]
*Wulfila (d. 383), first bishop of the Goths (341?-c.383), and Bible translator, who agreed to the Homoian formula at Constantinople. [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 2, chapter 5.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 41.]
*Wereka and Batwin, "papa" and "bilaifs" respectively, and Gothic martyrs.
*Auxentius of Durostorum, later bishop of Milan, Wulfila's adopted son. [Heather and Matthews, "Goths in the Fourth Century", pp. 135-136.]
*Palladius, bishop of Ratiaria. [Heather and Matthews, "Goths in the Fourth Century", pp. 135-136.]
*Secundianus, bishop of Singidunum. [Heather and Matthews, "Goths in the Fourth Century", pp. 135-136.]

Unclassified

*Euzoius, deacon and supporter of Arius; later Homoian bishop of Antioch (361-378, at the same time as three others). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 5, chapter 5, book 8, chapter 2 and book 9, chapter 4.] [Condemned by Alexander of Alexandria, see Socrates, "Church History", book 1, chapter 6.]
*Dorotheus or Theodorus, Homoiousian and later Homoian bishop of Heraclea (?-378) and Antioch, (378-381, at the same time as three others). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 8, chapter 17 and book 9, chapter 14.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 12.]
*Uranius, bishop of Tyre. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapters 39 & 40.]
*Onesimus, bishop of Nicomedia (359-?). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 5, chapter 1.]
*Athanasius, bishop of Ancyra (359-?, at the same time as Basil of Ancyra). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 5, chapter 1.]
*Acacius, bishop of Tarsus (359-?, at the same time as Silvanus of Tarsus). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 5, chapter 1.]

*Silvanus, bishop of Tarsus. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 39.]
*Hypatius of Cyrus, bishop of Nicaea (?-380). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 9, chapter 19.]
*Leontius, bishop of Tripolis. [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 7, chapter 6.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 40.]
*Theodosius, a bishop of Philadelphia in Lydia. [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 8, chapter 3.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 40.]
*John, Anomean bishop of Palestine (c. 379-?). [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 9, chapter 18.]
*Evagrius, bishop of Mytelene. [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 40.]
*Asterius, presbyter in Antioch, possibly the same as an Asterius who supported Acacius at Seleucia. [Philostorgius, in Photius, "Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius", book 10, chapter 1.] [Socrates of Constantinople, "Church History", book 2, chapter 40.]

ee also

* Arianism
* Arius
* Athanasius
* Christian views of Jesus
* Constantinian shift
* History of Christianity
* Nontrinitarianism
* Semi-Arianism
* Shituf
* Trinitarianism

References

External links

* [http://faculty.cua.edu/pennington/ChurchHistory220/LectureTwo/ArianControversy.htm Timeline of the Arian controversy]
* [http://www.fourthcentury.com/index.php/urkunde-chart-opitz Documents of the early Arian controversy]


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