- The Autumn of the Middle Ages
"The Autumn of the Middle Ages", or "The Waning of the Middle Ages", (published in 1919 as "Herfsttij der Middeleeuwen" and translated into English in 1924) is the best-known work by the Dutch historian
Its subtitle is 'a study of the forms of life, thought and art in France and the Netherlands in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries'.
In it, he presents the idea that the exaggerated formality and romanticism of
late medievalcourt society was a defense mechanism against the constantly increasing violence and brutality of general society. He saw the period as one of pessimism, cultural exhaustion, and nostalgia for the past, rather than of rebirth and optimism.
Huizinga's work has later come under criticism, especially for relying too heavily on evidence from the rather exceptional case of the Burgundian court. A new English translation of the book was published in 1996 because of perceived deficiencies in the original translation.
* The Waning of the Middle Ages: A Study of Forms of Life, Thought, and Art in France and the Netherlands in the Dawn of the Renaissance, transl. by Fritz Hopman, London, 1924 (many reprints).
* The Autumn of the Middle Ages, transl. by Rodney J. Payton and Ulrich Mammitzsch, Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1996.
* William J. Bouwsma, The Waning of the Middle Ages, in Daedalus 103 (1974), 1: 35-43.
* Edward Peters and Walter P. Simons, The New Huizinga and the Old Middle Ages, in Speculum 74 (1999): 587-62.
The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy"
* [http://www.archive.org/details/waningofthemiddl007061mbp "The Waning of the Middle Ages"] , Edward Arnold & Co, 1924. Scanned book via
*gutenberg|no=16829|name=Herfsttij der Middeleeuwen (In Original Dutch)Other
* [http://www.age-of-the-sage.org/history/historian/Johan_Huizinga.html Johan Huizinga's The Waning of the Middle Ages] , overview of author and book.
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