Indiana Jones franchise


Indiana Jones franchise

The "Indiana Jones" franchise, based on the adventures of the eponymous fictional archaeologist, began in 1981 with the film "Raiders of the Lost Ark". A prequel, "Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom", followed in 1984 and the sequel "Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade", five years later. In 1992, "The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles" began airing on television. A fourth film, "Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull", was released on May 22 2008. The franchise was created by George Lucas; the films were directed by Steven Spielberg and star Harrison Ford.

In addition, Marvel Comics began publishing "The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones" in 1983, and Dark Horse Comics earned the comic book rights to the character in 1991. Novelizations of the films have been published, in addition to a series of German novels by Wolfgang Hohlbein, and twelve novels set before the films published by Bantam Books. Numerous video games about Indiana Jones have been released since 1982, with another set to be released.

Films

Overview

*"Raiders of the Lost Ark" (1981) is set in 1936. Indiana Jones (Harrison Ford) is assigned by government agents to locate the Ark of the Covenant before the Nazis do, to make them invincible like the Israelites in the Old Testament, who revered it as the dwelling place of God. The Nazis are being helped by Indiana's nemesis Rene Belloq (Paul Freeman). With the help of his old flame Marion Ravenwood (Karen Allen) and Sallah (John Rhys-Davies), Indiana manages to recover the Ark in Egypt. The Nazis manage to steal the Ark and capture Indiana and Marion. Belloq and the Nazis perform a ceremony to open the Ark, but when they do so, they are all killed gruesomely by the Ark's wrath. Indiana and Marion, who survived by closing their eyes, manage to get the Ark back to America, where it is stored in a secretive government warehouse.

*"Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom" (1984) is set in 1935, a year before "Raiders". Indiana escapes Chinese gangsters with the help of singer/actress Willie Scott (Kate Capshaw) and eleven-year-old taxi driver Short Round (Jonathan Ke Quan). The trio crash-land in India where they come across a village whose children have been kidnapped. A destructive cult led by Mola Ram (Amrish Puri) have also taken the holy Sankara Stones, which they will use to take over the world. Indiana manages to overcome Mola Ram's evil power, and rescues the children and returns the stones to their rightful place, overcoming his own mercenary nature.

*"Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade" (1989) opens in 1912 where a thirteen-year-old Indiana (River Phoenix) attempts to recover an ornamental cross belonging to Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, a task which he finally completes in 1938. Indiana and his mentor Marcus Brody (Denholm Elliott) are assigned by American businessman Walter Donovan (Julian Glover) to find the Holy Grail. They are teamed up with Dr. Elsa Schneider (Alison Doody), following on from where Indiana's estranged father Henry (Sean Connery) left off before he disappeared. It turns out Donovan and Elsa are in league with the Nazis, who captured Henry in order to get Indiana to help them find the Grail. However, Indiana recovers his father's diary filled with his research, and manages to rescue him before finding the location of the Grail. Both Donovan and Elsa fall to the temptation of the Grail, while Indiana and Henry realize that their relationship with each other was more important than finding the relic.

*"Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull" (2008) is set in 1957, making it nineteen years since "The Last Crusade", and thus acknowledging the real-life passing of years between films. Indiana is having a quiet life teaching before being thrust back into his old adventuring. He races against agents of the Soviet Union, led by Spalko (Cate Blanchett) for the crystal skull. Indy's journey takes him across Nevada, Connecticut, Peru, and the forest of the Amazon in Brazil. Indiana also encounters a rival archeologist by the name of Mac (Ray Winstone) and a greaser named Mutt Williams (Shia LaBeouf), as well as his old flame Marion Ravenwood.

Development

In 1973, George Lucas wrote "The Adventures of Indiana Smith". [Hearn, p.80] Like "Star Wars," it was an opportunity to create a modern version of the serials of the 1930s and 1940s.cite video|title=Indiana Jones: Making the Trilogy|format=DVD|publisher=Paramount Pictures|year=2003] Lucas discussed the concept with Philip Kaufman, who worked with him for several weeks and came up with the Ark of the Covenant as the plot device. The project was stalled when Clint Eastwood hired Kaufman to direct "The Outlaw Josey Wales". [Hearn, p.112-115] In May 1977, Lucas was in Maui, trying to escape the enormous success of "". Friend and colleague Steven Spielberg was also there, holidaying from work on "Close Encounters of the Third Kind". Spielberg told Lucas he was interested in making a James Bond film. Lucas then told him of an idea "better than James Bond", explaining the plot of "Raiders of the Lost Ark". Spielberg loved it, calling it "a James Bond film without the hardware",McBride, p.309-322] though he had the character's surname changed to "Jones". Spielberg and Lucas made a deal with Paramount Pictures for five films about Indiana.

Spielberg and Lucas aimed to make "Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom" much darker, because of their personal moods following their respective break-ups and divorces. Lucas made the film a prequel as he didn't want the Nazis to be the villains again. He had ideas regarding the Monkey King and a haunted castle, but wound up creating the Sankara Stones. [cite news | title = Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom | pages = 86-92 | publisher = Empire | date = October 2006] He hired Willard Huyck and Gloria Katz to write the script as he knew of their interest in Indian culture. [Hearn, p. 144-7] The major scenes that were dropped from "Raiders of the Lost Ark" were included in this film: an escape using a giant rolling gong as a shield, a fall out of a plane in a raft, and a mine cart chase. For the third film, Spielberg revisited the Monkey King and haunted castle concepts, before Lucas suggested the Holy Grail. Spielberg had previously rejected it as too ethereal, but then came up with telling a father-son story. He thought, "The Grail that everybody seeks could be a metaphor for a son seeking reconciliation with a father and a father seeking reconciliation with a son."cite news | title = Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade | pages = 96-100 | publisher = Empire | date = October 2006]

Following the 1989 release of "Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade", Lucas let the series end as he felt he could not think of a good plot device to drive the next installment, and chose instead to produce "The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles", which explored the character in his early years. Ford played Indiana in one episode, narrating his adventures in 1920 Chicago. When Lucas shot Ford's role in December 1992, he realized the scene opened up the possibility of a film with an older Indiana set in the 1950s. The film could reflect a science fiction 1950s B-movie, with aliens as the plot device.Rinzler, Bouzereau, Chapter 11: "Atomic Ants from Space: May 1989 to June 2007" p. 231–247] Ford disliked the new angle, telling Lucas "No way am I being in a Steve Spielberg movie like that."cite news | author = Steve Daly | title = Indiana Jones: The Untold Story | publisher = Entertainment Weekly | date = 2008-04-16 | url = http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,20192043,00.html | accessdate=2008-04-17] Spielberg himself, who depicted aliens in "Close Encounters of the Third Kind" and "E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial", resisted it. Lucas came up with a story, which Jeb Stuart turned into a script from October 1993 to May 1994. Lucas wanted Indiana to get married, which would allow Henry Jones Sr. to return, expressing concern over whether his son is happy with what he has accomplished. After he learned that Joseph Stalin was interested in psychic warfare, he decided to have Russians as the villains and the aliens to have psychic powers.Rinzler, Bouzereau, "Script draft by David Koepp summary and commentary: April 23, 2007", p. 248–255] Following Stuart's next draft, Lucas hired "Last Crusade" writer Jeffrey Boam to write the next three versions, the last of which was completed in March 1996. Three months later, "Independence Day" was released, and Spielberg told Lucas he would not make another alien invasion film. Lucas decided to focus on the "Star Wars" prequels.

In 2000, Spielberg's son asked when the next Indiana Jones film would be released, which made him interested in reviving the project.Cite news | author = Ann Donahue | title = Indiana Jones and the Curse of Development Hell | publisher = Premiere | url = http://www.premiere.com/movienews/3372/indiana-jones-and-the-curse-of-development-hell.html | accessdate = 2007-07-17] The same year, Ford, Lucas, Spielberg, Frank Marshall, and Kathleen Kennedy met during the American Film Institute's tribute to Ford, and decided they wanted to enjoy the experience of making an Indiana Jones film again. Spielberg also found returning to the series a respite from his many dark films during this period.cite news | author = Matthew Leyland | title = Fortune and Glory | publisher = Total Film | date = June 2008 | pages = 68–71] Spielberg and Lucas discussed the central idea of a B-movie involving aliens, and Lucas suggested using the crystal skulls to ground the idea. Lucas found those artifacts as fascinating as the Ark,Cite news | author = Jim Windolf | title = Keys to the Kingdom | publisher = Vanity Fair | date = February 2008 | url = http://www.vanityfair.com/culture/features/2008/02/indianajones200802 | accessdate=2008-01-02] and had intended to feature them for a "Young Indiana Jones" episode before the show's cancellation. M. Night Shyamalan was hired to write for an intended 2002 shoot, but he was overwhelmed writing a sequel to a film he loved like "Raiders", and claimed it was difficult to get Ford, Spielberg, and Lucas to focus. [Cite news | author = Patrick Lee | title = M. Night Shyamalan had a sense that all "Signs" pointed to Mel Gibson | publisher = "Science Fiction Weekly" | date = 2002-08-05 | url = http://www.scifi.com/sfw/interviews/sfw8748.html | accessdate = 2007-07-17] Stephen Gaghan and Tom Stoppard were also approached.

Frank Darabont, who wrote various "Young Indiana Jones" episodes, was hired to write in May 2002. [Cite news | author = Ken Plume | title = IGN FilmForce Exclusive: Has Indy IV Found Its Writer? | publisher = IGN | date = 2002-05-17 | url = http://uk.movies.ign.com/articles/359/359715p1.html | accessdate = 2007-01-02] His script, entitled "Indiana Jones and the City of Gods", was set in the 1950s, with ex-Nazis pursuing Jones.Cite news | author = Jim Windolf | title = Q&A: Steven Spielberg | publisher = Vanity Fair | date = 2007-12-02 | url = http://www.vanityfair.com/culture/features/2008/02/spielberg_qanda200802 | accessdate=2007-12-02] Spielberg conceived the idea because of real life figures such as Juan Perón in Argentina, who protected Nazi war criminals. Darabont claimed Spielberg loved the script, but Lucas had issues with it, and decided to take over writing himself. Lucas and Spielberg acknowledged the 1950s setting could not ignore the Cold War, and the Russians were more plausible villains. Spielberg decided he could not satirize the Nazis after directing "Schindler's List",cite news | author = Steve Daly | title = Steven Spielberg and George Lucas: The Titans Talk! | publisher = Entertainment Weekly | date = 2008-04-16 | url = http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,20192040,00.html | accessdate=2008-04-17] while Ford felt "We plum [b] wore the Nazis out." Darabont's main contribution was reintroducing Marion Ravenwood as Indiana's love interest, but gave them a 13-year old daughter, which Spielberg decided was too similar to "".

Jeff Nathanson met with Spielberg and Lucas in August 2004, and turned in the next drafts in October and November 2005, titled "The Atomic Ants". David Koepp continued on from there, giving his script the subtitle "Destroyer of Worlds", based on the Robert Oppenheimer quote. It was changed to "Kingdom of the Crystal Skull", as Spielberg found it more inviting a title and actually named the plot device.Rinzler, Bouzereau, Chapter 12: "Mr. Jones's Wild Ride: June to December 2007", p. 254–295] Koepp wanted to make Mutt into a nerd, but Lucas refused, explaining he had to resemble Marlon Brando in "The Wild One"; "he needs to be what Indiana Jones' father thought of [him] – the curse returns in the form of his own son – he's everything a father can't stand". Koepp collaborated with Lawrence Kasdan on the film's "love dialogue".Cite journal |author=Peter N. Chumo II |title=Matinee Magic: David Koepp and Indiana Jones Enter the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull |journal=Creative Screenwriting |volume=15 |issue=3 |year=2008 |month=May/June]

Box office

List indicator(s)

*(y) indicates a film was released multiple times.
*A dark grey cell indicates figures are not yet available.

Merchandise

Toy lines

In 1981, Kenner released a 12-inch doll of Indiana Jones, and the following year they released nine action figures, three playsets as well as toys of the Nazi truck and Indy's horse. They also released a board game. In 1984, TSR, Inc. released miniature metal versions of the characters for a role playing game, and in 1995 Micro Machines released a box set of ten die-cast toys of the vehicles in the films. [cite web | title = The Adventures of Indiana Jones | publisher = Cool Toy Review | url = http://www.cooltoyreview.com/Kenner_IJ.asp | accessdate=2008-02-21] LJN released three six-inch action figures for "Temple of Doom" in 1984, and also created an unreleased playset. [cite web | title = Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom: Action Figures | publisher = TheRaider.net | url = http://www.theraider.net/information/collectibles/ljn_todoom.php | accessdate=2008-02-21] Micro Machines also worked on an unreleased playset. [cite web | title = Indiana Jones Micro Machines | publisher = TheRaider.net | url = http://www.theraider.net/information/collectibles/micro_machines.php | accessdate=2008-02-21] Horizon released highly detailed dolls of Indy and his father in 1993, [cite web | title = Indiana Jones vinyl figure kits | publisher = TheRaider.net | url = http://www.theraider.net/information/collectibles/horizon_vinyl.php | accessdate=2008-02-21] while Toys McCoy released a limited edition 12-inch Indy and his horse from "Raiders" in 1999. [cite web | title = Toys McCoy Indiana Jones figures | publisher = TheRaider.net | url = http://www.theraider.net/information/collectibles/toys_mccoy.php | accessdate=2008-02-21] In January 2001, Walt Disney Parks and Resorts sold new and exclusive action figures and vehicle models, [cite web | title = Disney Figures: Series 1 | publisher = TheRaider.net | url = http://www.theraider.net/information/collectibles/disney_series1.php | accessdate=2008-02-21] and a second wave followed in August 2003. This included G.I. Joe versions of Indy, including an African-American styled toy, to honor the black performers at their stunt shows. [cite web | title = Disney Figures: Series 2 | publisher = TheRaider.net | url = http://www.theraider.net/information/collectibles/disney_series2.php | accessdate=2008-02-21]

Hasbro released toys based on "Raiders of the Lost Ark" and "Kingdom of the Crystal Skull" on May 1 2008. Waves based on "The Last Crusade" and "Temple of Doom" will follow in July and September, respectively. The new toy line consists of three-inch, deluxe sized and twelve-inch figures (that come with props) and vehicles. There will also be a Mr. Potato Head Indiana Jones called "Taters of the Lost Ark", "Adventure Heroes" aimed at young children and die-cast toys. There is also a playset of a temple from the fourth film, [cite web | title = Toy Fair 2008 - Indiana Jones Presentation | publisher = Cool Toy Review | url = http://www.cooltoyreview.com/TF2008/Hasbro/IJpresentation/default.asp | accessdate=2008-02-17] and mail away offers requiring proof of purchase to receive a twelve-inch scale Ark of the Covenant, an "Adventure Heroes" Indy with his horse from the first film, or a crystal skeleton action figure from the fourth film. [cite web | title = Exclusive Mail In Figures | publisher = Hasbro | url = http://www.hasbro.com/indianajones/default.cfm?page=Redemption | accessdate=2008-05-08] Hasbro stress this line will continue after the films, and there will also be toys based on "The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles". [cite news | author = Scott Collura | title = Toy Fair 08: Indiana Jones Action Figures | publisher = IGN | date = 2008-02-17 | url = http://uk.comics.ign.com/articles/852/852878p1.html | accessdate=2008-02-21] Sideshow Collectibles, Gentle Giant, Diamond Select Toys and the Japanese Kotobukiya also earned the Indiana Jones licensing rights in 2008. [cite web | title = Indiana Jones 'Raiders of the Lost Ark' - Sideshow Exclusive Edition | publisher = Sideshow Collectibles | date = 2008-02-21 | url = https://www.sideshowtoy.com/cgi-bin/category.cgi?item=39051 | accessdate=2008-02-21] [cite web | title = Toy Fair 2008 - Gentle Giant Indiana Jones | publisher = Cool Toy Review | url = http://www.cooltoyreview.com/TF2008/GG/IJ/default.asp | accessdate=2008-02-21] [cite news | author = Scott Collura | title = Toy Fair 08: Diamond Select Nabs Lucasfilm License | publisher = IGN | date = 2008-02-25 | url = http://uk.comics.ign.com/articles/854/854599p1.html | accessdate=2008-02-27] [cite news | title = USTF: Kotobukiya's Indiana Jones Lines | publisher = Action-Figure | date = 2008-02-16 | url = http://www.action-figure.com/index.php?name=News&file=article&sid=22701 | accessdate=2008-02-21] Lego will release eight play sets to coincide with the fourth film. Only half of them are based on "Kingdom of the Crystal Skull": three are based on "Raiders" and another is based on "Crusade". [cite web | title = Indiana Jones - Products | publisher = Lego | url = http://indianajones.lego.com/en-us/Products/IndianaJones/7620.aspx | accessdate=2008-02-17] [cite news | title = New Indy Movie LEGO Sets Offer Exclusive Peek Into Crystal Skull | publisher = Gizmodo | url = http://gizmodo.com/350473/new-indy-movie-lego-sets-offer-exclusive-peek-into-crystal-skull | accessdate=2008-02-17]

Merchandise featuring franchise cross-overs include Mr. Potato Head [ [http://toynewsi.com/news.php?catid=262&itemid=12410 Toy News International] "Taters Of The Lost Ark Mr. Potato Head"] , Mickey Mouse as Indiana Jones (available only in Disney parks) [ [http://endorexpress.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=293&Itemid=82 endorexpress.net] "Indiana Jones Mickey Action Figure"] , a Muppets brand produced by Palisades based on the frog's appearance in the Disney World stunt show as seen in "The Muppets at Walt Disney World" (although due to legal reasons, the producers and figure's packaging made it clear that "Adventure Kermit" was in no way affiliated with Indiana Jones, the item nonetheless appears in DK's "Indiana Jones: The Ultimate Guide" published in 2008), [cite book |title= Indiana Jones: The Ultimate Guide |publisher= DK Publishing |isbn= 0756635004 ] and a series of LEGO sets and other tie-ins.

Video games

The first Indiana Jones video game was a 1982 adaptation of "Raiders of the Lost Ark", released on the Atari 2600. Atari released "Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom" in 1985. In 1988, an NES version of "Temple of Doom" was released. LucasArts released two versions of "Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade", entitled ' and '. An NES version of "The Last Crusade" was released in 1991. The final adaptation of the films was "Indiana Jones' Greatest Adventures", released on the Super Nintendo Entertainment System in 1994.

LucasArts released the first original Indiana Jones game, "Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis", in 1992, which was a personal computer game. A sequel, entitled "Indiana Jones and the Iron Phoenix", was intended for a 1995 release, but was canceled. "Indiana Jones and His Desktop Adventures" followed instead in 1996. LucasArts released "Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine" in 1999 on the PC, and it was also released on the Nintendo 64 and the Game Boy Color by 2001. The game featured the return of Sophia Hapgood, Indy's sidekick from "Fate of Atlantis". "Indiana Jones and the Emperor's Tomb", a prequel to "Temple of Doom", was released on the Playstation 2, Xbox, Apple Macintosh and Microsoft Windows in 2003.

The "" video game was released in June 2008. Another game with the working title "Indiana Jones" is also in production.

Role playing games

Pinball

A pinball machine based on the first three films was released in 1993. Stern Pinball will release a new edition in 2008, which will feature all four movies. [Cite news | publisher = Pinball News | title = Indiana Jones | url = http://pinballnews.com/games/indianajones/index.html | date = 2008-03-20 | accessdate = 2008-04-07]

Literature

Adult novels

The first novelization was of "Raiders of the Lost Ark", written by Campbell Black and published by Ballantine Books in April 1981. [cite book|author=Campbell Black|title=Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Ark|publisher=Ballantine Books|month=April | year=2008|url=http://www.randomhouse.com/rhpg/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9780345353757|isbn=978-0-345-35375-7] It was followed by "Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom", written by James Kahn and published by Ballantine in May 1984. [cite book|author=James Kahn|title=Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom|publisher=Ballantine Books|month=May | year=1984|url=http://www.randomhouse.com/rhpg/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9780345314574|isbn=978-0-345-31457-4] Finally, they published "Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade" in May 1989. It was the first Indy book by Rob MacGregor. [cite book|author=Rob MacGregor|title=Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade|publisher=Ballantine Books|month=September | year=1989|url=http://www.randomhouse.com/rhpg/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9780345361615|isbn=978-0-345-36161-5] MacGregor was awarded the job after helping an editor on another project. Neither the editor nor LucasFilm were aware of MacGregor's interest in history and archaeology. A fan of the first two films, MacGregor admitted writing the novelization made him "somewhat disappointed with [the third] . That’s because I took the script and expanded it to novel length [and] adding scenes while Spielberg took the same script and trimmed a few scenes to tighten the story. So, for me, it was all very familiar when I saw the movie, but it seemed somehow to be missing something."cite web|author=Aaron Gantt|title =Interview with Rob MacGregor|publisher=The Indy Experience|url=http://www.theindyexperience.com/interviews/rob_macgregor_interview.php|accessdate=2008-03-01]

German author Wolfgang Hohlbein wrote eight novels from 1990—1993, but none of these were translated into English. [cite book|author=Wolfgang Hohlbein|title=Indiana Jones Indiana Jones and the Feathered Snake|publisher=Goldmann Verlag|year=1990|isbn=3-442-09722-3] [cite book|author=Wolfgang Hohlbein|title=Indiana Jones and the Ship of the Gods|publisher=Goldmann Verlag|year=1990|isbn=3-442-09723-1] [cite book|author=Wolfgang Hohlbein|title=Indiana Jones and the Gold of El Dorado|publisher=Goldmann Verlag|year=1991|isbn=3-442-09725-8] [cite book|author=Wolfgang Hohlbein|title=Indiana Jones and the Sword of Genghis Khan|publisher=Goldmann Verlag|year=1991|isbn=3-442-09726-6] [cite book|author=Wolfgang Hohlbein|title=Indiana Jones and the Vanished People|publisher=Goldmann Verlag|year=1991|isbn=3-442-41028-2] [cite book|author=Wolfgang Hohlbein|title=Indiana Jones and the Secret of Easter Island|publisher=Goldmann Verlag|year=1992|isbn=3-442-41052-5] [cite book|author=Wolfgang Hohlbein|title=Indiana Jones and the Legacy of Avalon|publisher=Goldmann Verlag|year=1993|isbn=3-442-41144-0] [cite book|author=Wolfgang Hohlbein|title=Indiana Jones and the Labyrinth of Horus|publisher=Goldmann Verlag|year=1993|isbn=3-442-41145-9] Hohlbein set his books from 1938—1944, except for the first which he set in 1929. Lucas had no involvement in this series. [cite news|title=Wolfgang Hohlbein interview|publisher=TheRaider.net|date=2003-03-18|url=http://www.theraider.net/features/interviews/wolfgang_hohlbein.php|accessdate=2008-03-01] Meanwhile, Lucas asked MacGregor to continue writing original novels for Bantam Books. They chose to make them prequels set in the 1920s (after Indy graduates from college), so to not interfere with the films. Lucas only permitted Marcus Brody to appear. Lucas also told MacGregor to base the books on real myths, but except for the deletion of a sex scene, MacGregor was given total creative freedom. Barring Stonehenge, MacGregor chose locations he had visited in the past. [cite news|title=Rob MacGregor interview|publisher=TheRaider.net|date=2002-06-29|url=http://www.theraider.net/features/interviews/rob_macgregor.php|accessdate=2008-03-01] His six books were published from January 1991—November 1992. The sixth book, "The Genesis Deluge" (1992), featuring Noah's Ark, was the best-selling novel. MacGregor felt it "had a strong following among religious-oriented people [...] because they tend to take the Noah’s Ark story to heart and think of it as history and archaeological fact, rather than myth. They also see Indy as one of their own, even though he’s actually quite an iconoclast [...] However, Indy follows the trail and indeed finds 'an ark' on Mount Ararat." MacGregor's own favorite of his books was the preceding "The Seven Veils". This featured real-life explorer Percy Fawcett, and the tragic death of Indy's wife, Deirdre Campbell. Deirdre, a red haired student of Indy at the University of London, dies in the book's climactic plane crash. [cite book|author=Rob MacGregor|title=Indiana Jones and the Peril of Delphi|publisher=Bantam Books|month=January | year=1991|url=http://www.randomhouse.com/bantamdell/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9780553289312|isbn=978-0-553-28931-2] [cite book|author=Rob MacGregor|title=Indiana Jones and the Dance of Giants|publisher=Bantam Books|month=May | year=1991|url=http://www.randomhouse.com/bantamdell/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9780553290356|isbn=978-0-553-29035-6] [cite book|author=Rob MacGregor|title=Indiana Jones and the Seven Veils|publisher=Bantam Books|month=November | year=1991|url=http://www.randomhouse.com/bantamdell/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9780553293340|isbn=978-0-553-29035-6] [cite book|author=Rob MacGregor|title=Indiana Jones and the Genesis Deluge|publisher=Bantam Books|month=January | year=1992|url=http://www.randomhouse.com/bantamdell/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9780553295023|isbn=978-0-553-29502-3] [cite book|author=Rob MacGregor|title=Indiana Jones and the Unicorn's Legacy|publisher=Bantam Books|month=August | year=1992|url=http://www.randomhouse.com/bantamdell/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9780553296662|isbn=978-0-553-29666-2] [cite book|author=Rob MacGregor|title=Indiana Jones and the Interior World|publisher=Bantam Books|month=November | year=1992|url=http://www.randomhouse.com/bantamdell/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9780553299663|isbn=978-0-553-29966-3]

Martin Caidin wrote the next two novels in Bantam's series. These both feature Gale Parker (like Deirdre, a red haired woman) as Indiana's sidekick, and also introduced afterwords to the series, regarding the novel's historical context. [cite book|author=Martin Caidin|title=Indiana Jones and the Sky Pirates|publisher=Bantam Books|month=November | year=1993|url=http://www.randomhouse.com/bantamdell/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9780553561920|isbn=978-0-553-56192-0] [cite book|author=Martin Caidin|title=Indiana Jones and the White Witch|publisher=Bantam Books|month=March | year=1994|url=http://www.randomhouse.com/bantamdell/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9780553561944|isbn= 978-0-553-56194-4] Caidin became ill,cite web|title=Max McCoy interview|publisher=TheRaider.net|date=2002-10-31|url=http://www.theraider.net/features/interviews/max_mccoy.php|accessdate=2008-03-01] so Max McCoy took over in 1995 and wrote the final four novels. McCoy set his books nearer to "Raiders", which informed his characterization of Indy. "The "Raiders" Indy was a bit darker [...] Not evil, just a shade rougher, and a little closer to Belloq than he would like to admit. In "Raiders", Indy had to decide to be a hero," he said. McCoy gave a sample to his editors, featuring the crystal skull, which became the prologue of the first book.cite news|author=Eddie Mishan|title=Interview with Max McCoy|publisher=The Indy Experience|date=2004-10-28|url=http://www.theindyexperience.com/interviews/max_mccoy_interview.php|accessdate=2008-03-01] The skull became a recurring story, which concludes when Indy gives it up in the final novel. McCoy spent a longer time researching his novels, and Lucas's involvement was limited. LucasFilm also had to censor sexual or outlandish elements of his novels, in order to make McCoy's adult sensibilities appeal to younger readers, and they also rejected time travel in the final book because it was too science-fictional. Sallah, Lao Che, Rene Belloq and the Nazis made appearances, and McCoy also pitted Indy against Benito Mussolini's fascists and the Japanese. Indy has a doomed romance with Alecia Dunstin, a red-haired librarian at the British Museum, in this cycle. [cite book|author=Max McCoy|title=Indiana Jones and the Philosopher's Stone|publisher=Bantam Books|year=1995|isbn=978-0-553-56196-8] [cite book|author=Max McCoy|title=Indiana Jones and the Dinosaur Eggs|publisher=Bantam Books|year=1996|url=http://www.randomhouse.com/bantamdell/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9780553561937|isbn=978-0-553-56193-7] [cite book|author=Max McCoy|title=Indiana Jones and the Hollow Earth|publisher=Bantam Books|year=1997|url=http://www.randomhouse.com/bantamdell/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9780553561951|isbn=978-0-553-56195-1] [cite book|author=Max McCoy|title=Indiana Jones and the Secret of the Sphinx|publisher=Bantam Books|year=1999|url=http://www.randomhouse.com/bantamdell/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9780553561975|isbn=978-0-553-56197-5] A novel involving the spear of destiny was dropped because Dark Horse Comics was developing the idea.

"IGN" journalist Scott Chitwood felt, "Bantam never marketed [the books] very well and many people never knew they existed." He asked former Bantam editor Tom Dupree in 2000, why they were not published in hardback. He answered, "Indy is just a better educated, more erudite, more human [Doc Savage|Doc [Savage] . Who wants to pay $22 for an adventure novel? Keep them at the paperback price, then if Indy 4 gets closer to reality, maybe we might rethink." [cite news|author=Scott Chitwood|title=The Lost Adventures of Indiana Jones|publisher=2000-02-23|url=http://uk.movies.ign.com/articles/033/033996p1.html|accessdate=2008-03-01] In February 2008, the novelizations of the first three films were published in one edition. [cite book|title=The Adventures of Indiana Jones|publisher=Del Ray Books|month=February | year=2008|url=http://www.randomhouse.com/rhpg/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9780345501271|isbn=978-0-345-50127-1] James Rollins's "Kingdom of the Crystal Skull" novelization arrived the following May. [cite book|author=James Rollins|title=Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull|publisher=Del Ray Books|month=May | year=2008|url=http://www.randomhouse.com/rhpg/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9780345501288|isbn=978-0-345-50128-8] Children's novelizations of all four films were published by Scholastic in 2008. [Cite news | title = Indiana Jones Junior Novelizations On the Way | url = http://www.starwars.com/community/news/films/news20080219b.html | author = | publisher = StarWars.com | date = 2008-02-19 | accessdate = 2008-02-19] MacGregor is writing new books for Ballantine for early 2009, [cite web | title = Works | publisher = Rob MacGregor's official site | url = http://www.robmacgregor.net/works.htm | accessdate=2008-03-01] as is Steve Perry, whose "Army of the Dead" is due April 28, 2009. [cite book|author= [Steve Perry (author)|Steve Perry|title=Indiana Jones and the Army of the Dead|publisher=Ballantine Books|pages=352|url=http://www.randomhouse.com/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9780345506986|isbn=978-0-345-50698-6]

Find Your Fate

The franchise has also produced several "Find Your Fate" novels too, in a similar way to the "Goosebumps" series. They were written by a series of different authors:

R.L. Stine
*"Indiana Jones and the Curse of the Horror Island"
*"Indiana Jones and the Giants of the Silver Tower"
*"Indiana Jones and the Cult of the Mummy’s Crypt"
*"Indiana Jones and the Ape Slaves of Howlings Island"

Other authors
*"Indiana Jones and the Eye of the Fates" - by Richard Wenk
*"Indiana Jones and the Legion of Death" - by Richard Wenk
*"Indiana Jones and the Dragon of Vengeance" - by H. William Stine and Megan Stine
*"Indiana Jones and the Mask of the Elephant" - by H. William Stine and Megan Stine
*"Indiana Jones and the Lost Treasure of Sheba" - by Rose Estes
*"Indiana Jones and the Cup of the Vampire" - by Andrew Helfer
*"Indiana Jones and the Gold of Genghis Khan" - by Ellen Weiss

Young

;Random House
* "Young Indiana Jones and the Plantation Treasure" - by William McCay
* "Young Indiana Jones and the Tomb of Terror" - by Les Martin
* "Young Indiana Jones and the Circle of Death" - by William McCay
* "Young Indiana Jones and the Secret City" - by Les Martin
* "Young Indiana Jones and the Princess of Peril" - by Les Martin
* "Young Indiana Jones and the Gypsy Revenge" - by Les Martin
* "Young Indiana Jones and the Ghostly Riders" - by William McCay
* "Young Indiana Jones and the Curse of Ruby Cross" - by William McCay
* "Young Indiana Jones and the Titanic Adventure" - by Les Martin
* "Young Indiana Jones and the Lost Gold of Durango" - by Megan Stine and H. William Stine
* "Young Indiana Jones and the Face of the Dragon" - by William McCay
* "Young Indiana Jones and the Journey to the Underworld" - by Megan Stine and H. William Stine
* "Young Indiana Jones and the Mountain of Fire" - by William McCay
* "Young Indiana Jones and the Pirates' Loot" - by J.N. Fox
* "Young Indiana Jones and the Eye of the Tiger" - by William McCay
* "Young Indiana Jones and the Mask of the Madman" - by Megan Stine and H. William Stine
* "Young Indiana Jones and the Ring of Power" - Megan Stine
* "The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: The Mummy's Curse" - by Megan Stine and H. William Stine
* "The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: Field of Death" - by Les Martin
* "The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: Safari Sleuth" - by A.L. Singer
* "The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: The Secret Peace" - by William McCay
* "The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: The Trek of Doom" - by Les Martin
* "The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: Revolution!" - by Gavin Scott
* "The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: Race to Danger" - by Stephanie Calmenson
* "The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: Prisoner of War" - by Sam Mclean

;Bantam BooksThe Young Indiana Jones Chronicles:

* "The Valley of The Kings" - by Richard Brightfield
* "South of the Border" - by Richard Brightfield
* "Revolution in Russia" - by Richard Brightfield
* "Masters of the Louvre" - by Richard Brightfield
* "African Safari" - by Richard Brightfield
* "Behind the Great Wall" - by Richard Brightfield
* "The Roaring Twenties" - by Richard Brightfield
* "The Irish Rebellion" - by Richard Brightfield

;Ballantine Books

"Young Indiana Jones:"
* "The Mata Hari Affair" - by James Luceno
* "The Mummy's Curse" - by Parker Smith

;Graphic novels
* "The Curse of the Jackal" - by Dan Barry
* "The Search for the Oryx" - by Dan Barry
* "The Peril of the Fort" - by Dan Barry

;Non-fiction books
* "Lost Diaries of Young Indiana Jones" by Eric D. Weiner
* "The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: On the Set and Behind the Scenes" by Dan Madsen
* "Indiana Jones Explores Ancient Egypt" - by John Malam
* "Indiana Jones Explores Ancient Rome" - by John Malam
* "Indiana Jones Explores Ancient Greece" - by John Malam
* "Indiana Jones Explores The Vikings" - by John Malam
* "Indiana Jones Explores The Incas" - by John Malam
* "Indiana Jones Explores The Aztecs" - by John Malam

Comic books

Attractions

George Lucas has collaborated with Walt Disney Imagineering on four occasions to create Indiana Jones attractions for Disney theme parks worldwide:

* The "Indiana Jones Epic Stunt Spectacular!" show opened at the Disney's Hollywood Studios in Lake Buena Vista, Florida in 1989.
* The "Indiana Jones et le Temple du Péril" rollercoaster opened at Disneyland Paris in Marne-la-Vallee, France, in 1993.
* The "Indiana Jones and the Temple of the Forbidden Eye" opened in Disneyland in Anaheim, California, in 1995.
* The "Indiana Jones and the Temple of the Crystal Skull" opened at Tokyo DisneySea in Chiba, Japan, with the park in 2001.clear

References

*
*cite book|last= Hearn | first=Marcus | title =The Cinema of George Lucas| publisher =Harry N. Abrams Inc, Publishers| year =2005| location =New York | id =ISBN 0-8109-4968-7
*cite book | last = McBride | first =Joseph | authorlink =Joseph McBride | title = Steven Spielberg | publisher =Faber and Faber | year =1997 | location =New York City | id = ISBN 0-571-19177-0

External links

* [http://www.indianajones.com Official site]
** [http://shop.indianajones.com/ Indiana Jones Shop]
* [http://www.theraider.net/ TheRaider.net]
* [http://www.boxofficemojo.com/franchises/chart/?id=indianajones.htm Indiana Jones series] at Box Office Mojo
*Wikia|indianajones|Indiana Jones


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