Global Peace Index


Global Peace Index
World map of the Global Peace Index 2011. Countries appearing more green are ranked as more peaceful, countries appearing more red are ranked as less peaceful.
Change of number of countries in each GPI class from 2007-2011.

The Global Peace Index (GPI) is an attempt to measure the relative position of nations' and regions' peacefulness. It is the product of Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP) and developed in consultation with an international panel of peace experts from peace institutes and think tanks with data collected and collated by the Economist Intelligence Unit. The list was launched first in May 2007, then continued on May 2008, 2 June 2009, 10 June 2010 and most recently on 25 May 2011. It is claimed to be the first study to rank countries around the world according to their peacefulness. It ranks 153 countries (up from 121 in 2007). The study is the brainchild of Australian entrepreneur Steve Killelea and is endorsed by individuals such as Kofi Annan, the Dalai Lama, archbishop Desmond Tutu, former Finnish President Martti Ahtisaari, Muhammad Yunus, economist Jeffrey Sachs, former president of Ireland Mary Robinson, and former US president Jimmy Carter. Factors examined by the authors include internal factors such as levels of violence and crime within the country and factors in a country's external relations such as military expenditure and wars.

Contents

Methodology

The research team was headed by The Economist Intelligence Unit in conjunction with academics and experts in the field of peace. They measured countries' peacefulness based on wide range of indicators, 23 in all (originally 24 indicators, but one was dropped in 2008). A table of the indicators is below.[1] In the table, UCDP stands for the Uppsala Conflict Data Program maintained by the University of Uppsala in Sweden, EIU for The Economist Intelligence Unit, UNSCT for the United Nations Survey of Criminal Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems, ICPS is the International Center for Prison Studies at King's College London, IISS for the International Institute for Strategic Studies publication The Military Balance 2007, SIPRI for the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute Arms Transfers Database, and BICC for the Bonn International Center for Conversion.

#
Indicator
Source
Year(s)
Coding
1 Number of external and internal wars fought UCDP 2004 to 2009 Total number[2]
2 Estimated deaths due to external wars UCDP 2010 Total number[2]
3 Estimated deaths due to internal wars UCDP 2010 Total number[2]
4 Level of organized internal conflict EIU 2010 to 2011 Qualitative scale, ranked 1 to 5
5 Relations with neighbouring countries EIU 2010 to 2011 Qualitative scale, ranked 1 to 5
6 Level of perceived criminality in society EIU 2010 to 2011 Qualitative scale, ranked 1 to 5
7 Number of refugees and displaced persons as percentage of population UNHCR and IDMC 2009 to 2010 Refugee population by percentage of the origin country's population
8 Political instability EIU 2010 to 2011 Qualitative scale, ranked 1 to 5
9 Level of respect for human rights (political terror scale) Amnesty International 2009 Qualitative measure
10 Potential for terrorist acts EIU 2010 to 2011 Qualitative scale, ranked 1 to 5
11 Number of homicides UNCTS 2005 to 2009 Intentional homicides, including infanticide, per 100,000 people
12 Level of violent crime EIU 2010 to 2011 Qualitative scale, ranked 1 to 5
13 Likelihood of violent demonstrations EIU 2010 to 2011 Qualitative scale, ranked 1 to 5
14 Number of jailed persons ICPS 2010 Persons incarcerated per 100,000 people
15 Number of police and security officers UNCTS 2008 to 2010 Civil security officers per 100,000 people[3]
16 Military expenditure as a percentage of GDP IISS 2009 to 2010 Cash outlays for armed forces, as a percentage of GDP[4]
17 Number of armed services personnel IISS 2010 Full-time military personnel per 100,000 people
18 Imports of major conventional weapons SIPRI 2009 to 2010 Imports of major conventional weapons per 100,000 people[5]
19 Exports of major conventional weapons SIPRI 2009 to 2010 Exports of major conventional weapons per 100,000 people[5]
20 Funding for UN peacekeeping missions IEP 2007 to 2010 Total number
21 Number of heavy weapons IEP 2009 Weapons per 100,000 people[6]
22 Ease of access to small arms and light weapons EIU 2010 to 2011 Qualitative scale, ranked 1 to 5
23 Military capability or sophistication EIU 2010 to 2011 Qualitative scale, ranked 1 to 5

Indicators not already ranked on a 1 to 5 scale were converted by using the following formula: x=(x-Min(x))/(Max(x)-Min(x)) where Max(x) and Min(x) are the highest and lowest values for that indicator of the countries ranked in the index. The 0 to 1 scores that resulted were then converted to the 1 to 5 scale. Individual indicators were then weighted according to the research team's judgment of their importance. The scores were then tabulated into two weighted sub-indices: internal peace, weighted at 60% of a country's final score, and external peace, weighted at 40% of a country's final score.[7]

The main findings of the Global Peace Index are[8]:

  • Peace is correlated to indicators such as income, schooling and the level of regional integration
  • Peaceful countries often shared high levels of transparency of government and low corruption
  • Small, stable countries which are part of regional blocks are most likely to get a higher ranking.

Statistical analysis was applied to discover more specific drivers of peace. Specifically, the research team looked for indicators that were included and excluded from the index that had high levels of correlation with the overall score and rank of countries. Among the statistically significant indicators that were not used in the analysis were the functionality of a country's government, regional integration, hostility to foreigners, importance of religion in national life, corruption, freedom of the media and GDP per capita.[9]

Notably absent from the 2007 study are Belarus, Iceland, many African nations, Mongolia, North Korea, and Afghanistan. They were not included because reliable data for the 24 indicators was not available.[10] Most of these countries are included in the 2010 Index, which now ranks 149 countries worldwide.

Criticism and response to criticism

The Economist, in publishing the index, admitted that, "the index will run into some flak." Specifically, according to The Economist, the weighting of military expenditure "may seem to give heart to freeloaders: countries that enjoy peace precisely because others (often the USA) care for their defense." The true utility of the index may lie not in its specific rankings of countries now, but in how those rankings change over time, thus tracking when and how countries become more or less peaceful.[11]

The Peace Index has been criticised for not including indicators specifically relating to violence against women and children. Riane Eisler, writing in the Christian Science Monitor, argued that, "to put it mildly, this blind spot makes the index very inaccurate." She mentions a number of specific cases, including Egypt, where she claims 90% of women are subject to genital mutilation and China, where, she says, "female infanticide is still a problem," according to a 2000 UNICEF study.[12]

The Index has been widely recognized and is used by a number of organizations and think tanks worldwide including the World Bank,[13] the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD),[14] and Wikiprogress.[15]

Professor Jeffrey Sachs, Director of the Earth Institute at Columbia University said: "The GPI continues its pioneering work in drawing the world’s attention to the massive resources we are squandering in violence and conflict. The lives and money wasted in wars, incarcerations, weapons systems, weapons trade, and more, could be directed to ending poverty, promoting education, and protecting the environment. The GPI will not only draw attention to these crucial issues, but help us understand them and to invest productively in a more peaceful world."[16]

The Index has received endorsements from a number of major international figures, including the former Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan, former President of Finland and 2008 Nobel Peace Prize laureate Martti Ahtisaari, the Dalai Lama, archbishop Desmond Tutu, Muhammad Yunus, and former United States President Jimmy Carter.[17] Steve Killelea, the Australian philanthropist who conceived the idea of the Index, argues that the Index "is a wake-up call for leaders around the globe."[18]

Global Peace Index rankings

Nations considered more peaceful have lower index scores. Countries with rankings in green are in the most peaceful 20% for that year; those in red are in the bottom 20%.[19]

Country 2011 Rank 2011 Score 2010 Rank 2010 Score 2009 Rank 2009 Score 2008 Rank 2008 Score 2007 Rank 2007 Score
 Iceland 1 1.148 2 1.212 4 1.225 1 1.176
 New Zealand 2 1.279 1 1.188 1 1.202 4 1.350 2 1.363
 Japan 3 1.287 3 1.247 7 1.272 5 1.358 5 1.413
 Denmark 4 1.289 7 1.341 2 1.217 2 1.343 3 1.377
 Czech Republic 5 1.320 12 1.360 11 1.328 17 1.501 13 1.524
 Austria 6 1.337 4 1.290 5 1.252 10 1.449 10 1.483
 Luxembourg 7 1.341 13 1.341 9 1.446
 Finland 7 1.352 9 1.352 9 1.322 8 1.432 6 1.447
 Canada 8 1.355 14 1.392 8 1.311 11 1.451 8 1.481
 Norway 9 1.356 5 1.322 2 1.217 3 1.343 1 1.357
 Slovenia 10 1.358 11 1.358 9 1.322 16 1.491 15 1.539
 Ireland 11 1.370 6 1.337 12 1.333 6 1.410 4 1.396
 Qatar 12 1.398 15 1.394 16 1.392 33 1.694 30 1.702
 Sweden 13 1.401 10 1.354 6 1.269 13 1.468 7 1.478
 Belgium 14 1.413 17 1.400 15 1.359 15 1.485 11 1.498
 Germany 15 1.416 16 1.398 16 1.392 14 1.475 12 1.523
 Switzerland 16 1.421 18 1.424 18 1.393 12 1.465 14 1.526
 Portugal 17 1.453 13 1.366 14 1.348 7 1.412 9 1.481
 Australia 18 1.455 19 1.467 19 1.476 27 1.652 25 1.664
 Malaysia 19 1.467 22 1.539 26 1.561 37 1.721 37 1.744
 Hungary 20 1.495 20 1.495 27 1.575 18 1.576 18 1.575
 Uruguay 21 1.521 24 1.568 25 1.557 21 1.606 24 1.661
 Poland 22 1.545 29 1.618 32 1.599 31 1.687 27 1.683
 Hong Kong 23 1.608 23 1.657
 Slovakia 23 1.576 21 1.536 24 1.539 20 1.576 17 1.571
 Singapore 24 1.585 30 1.624 23 1.533 29 1.673 29 1.692
 Netherlands 25 1.628 27 1.610 22 1.531 22 1.607 20 1.620
 United Kingdom 26 1.631 31 1.631 35 1.647 49 1.801
 Republic of China (Taiwan) 27 1.638 35 1.664 37 1.652 44 1.779 36 1.731
 Spain 28 1.641 25 1.588 28 1.577 30 1.683 21 1.633
 Kuwait 29 1.667 39 1.693 42 1.680 45 1.786 46 1.818
 Vietnam 30 1.670 38 1.691 39 1.664 37 1.720 35 1.729
 Costa Rica 31 1.681 26 1.590 29 1.578 34 1.701 31 1.702
 Laos 32 1.687 34 1.661 45 1.701 51 1.810
 United Arab Emirates 33 1.690 44 1.739 40 1.667 42 1.745 38 1.747
 Bhutan 34 1.693 36 1.665 40 1.667 26 1.616 19 1.611
 Botswana 35 1.695 33 1.641 34 1.643 46 1.792 42 1.786
 France 36 1.697 32 1.636 30 1.579 36 1.707 34 1.729
 Croatia 37 1.699 41 1.707 49 1.741 60 1.926 67 2.030
 Chile 38 1.710 28 1.616 20 1.481 19 1.576 16 1.568
 Malawi 39 1.740 51 1.813 47 1.711 73 2.024 68 2.038
 Romania 40 1.742 45 1.749 31 1.591 24 1.611 26 1.682
 Oman 41 1.743 23 1.561 21 1.520 25 1.612 22 1.641
 Ghana 42 1.752 48 1.781 52 1.761 40 1.723 40 1.765
 Lithuania 43 1.760 42 1.713 43 1.687 41 1.723 43 1.788
 Tunisia 44 1.765 37 1.678 44 1.698 47 1.797 39 1.762
 Italy 45 1.775 40 1.701 36 1.648 28 1.653 33 1.724
 Latvia 46 1.793 54 1.827 54 1.773 39 1.723 47 1.848
 Estonia 47 1.798 46 1.751 38 1.661 35 1.702 28 1.684
 Mozambique 48 1.809 47 1.779 53 1.765 50 1.803 50 1.909
 Panama 49 1.812 61 1.878 59 1.798 48 1.797 45 1.798
 South Korea 50 1.829 43 1.715 33 1.627 32 1.691 32 1.719
 Burkina Faso 51 1.832 57 1.852 71 1.905 81 2.062
 Zambia 52 1.833 51 1.813 58 1.779 53 1.856 53 1.930
 Bulgaria 53 1.845 50 1.785 56 1.775 57 1.903 54 1.936
 Namibia 54 1.850 59 1.864 65 1.841 77 2.042 64 2.003
 Argentina 55 1.852 71 1.962 66 1.851 56 1.895 52 1.923
 Tanzania 56 1.858 55 1.832 59 1.796 58 1.919 57 1.966
 Mongolia 57 1.880 92 2.101 89 2.040 88 2.155
 Morocco 58 1.887 58 1.861 63 1.811 63 1.954 48 1.893
 Moldova 59 1.892 66 1.938 75 1.925 83 2.091 72 2.059
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 60 1.893 60 1.873 50 1.755 66 1.974 75 2.089
 Sierra Leone 61 1.904 53 1.818
 Gambia 62 1.910 63 1.890
 Albania 63 1.912 65 1.925 75 1.925 79 2.044
 Jordan 64 1.918 68 1.948 64 1.832 65 1.969 63 1.997
 Greece 65 1.947 62 1.887 57 1.778 54 1.867 44 1.791
 Paraguay 66 1.954 77 2.019 73 1.916 70 1.997 55 1.946
 Cuba 67 1.964 72 1.964 68 1.856 62 1.954 59 1.968
 Indonesia 68 1.979 67 1.946 67 1.853 68 1.983 78 2.111
 Ukraine 69 1.995 97 2.115 82 2.010 84 2.096 80 2.150
 Swaziland 69 1.995 73 1.966
 Cyprus 71 2.013 76 2.013 48 1.737 52 1.847 51 1.915
 Nicaragua 72 2.021 64 1.924 61 1.801 59 1.919 66 2.020
 Egypt 73 2.023 49 1.784 54 1.773 69 1.987 73 2.068
 Brazil 74 2.040 83 2.048 85 2.022 90 2.168 83 2.173
 Equatorial Guinea 75 2.041 68 1.948 61 1.801 64 1.964 71 2.059
 Bolivia 76 2.045 81 2.037 81 1.990 78 2.043 69 2.052
 Senegal 77 2.047 79 2.031 80 1.984 71 2.011 65 2.017
 Macedonia 78 2.048 83 2.048 88 2.039 87 2.119 82 2.170
 Trinidad and Tobago 79 2.051 94 2.107 87 2.035 98 2.230 94 2.286
 People's Republic of China 80 2.054 80 2.034 74 1.921 67 1.981 60 1.980
 Gabon 81 2.059 74 1.981 51 1.758 55 1.878 56 1.952
 United States of America 82 2.063 85 2.056 83 2.015 97 2.227 96 2.317
 Bangladesh 83 2.070 87 2.058 90 2.045 86 2.118 86 2.219
 Serbia 84 2.071 90 2.071 78 1.951 85 2.110 84 2.181
 Peru 85 2.077 89 2.067 79 1.972 80 2.046 70 2.056
 Cameroon 86 2.104 106 2.210 95 2.073 92 2.182 76 2.093
 Angola 87 2.109 86 2.057 100 2.105 110 2.364 112 2.587
 Guyana 88 2.112 91 2.095
 Montenegro 89 2.113
 Ecuador 90 2.116 101 2.185 109 2.211 100 2.274 87 2.219
 Dominican Republic 91 2.125 93 2.103 70 1.890 82 2.069 74 2.071
 Guinea 92 2.126
 Kazakhstan 93 2.137 95 2.113 84 2.018 72 2.018 61 1.995
 Papua New Guinea 94 2.139 95 2.113 93 2.059 95 2.224 88 2.223
 Nepal 95 2.152 82 2.044
 Liberia 96 2.159 99 2.148
 Uganda 96 2.159 100 2.165 103 2.140 114 2.391 104 2.489
 Republic of the Congo 98 2.165 102 2.192 106 2.202 117 2.417
 Rwanda 99 2.185 75 2.012 86 2.027 76 2.030
 Mali 100 2.188 109 2.240 96 2.086 99 2.238
 Saudi Arabia 101 2.192 107 2.216 104 2.167 108 2.357 90 2.246
 El Salvador 102 2.215 103 2.195 94 2.068 89 2.163 89 2.244
 Tajikistan 103 2.225
 Eritrea 104 2.227
 Madagascar 105 2.239 77 2.019 72 1.912 43 1.770 41 1.766
 Jamaica 106 2.244 98 2.138 102 2.111 96 2.226 81 2.164
 Thailand 107 2.247 124 2.393 118 2.353 118 2.424 105 2.491
 Turkmenistan 108 2.248 117 2.295 101 2.110 102 2.302
 Armenia 109 2.260 113 2.266
 Uzbekistan 109 2.260 110 2.242 106 2.202 111 2.377 110 2.542
 Kenya 111 2.276 120 2.369 113 2.266 119 2.429 91 2.258
 Belarus 112 2.283 105 2.204 98 2.103 94 2.194
 Haiti 113 2.288 114 2.270 116 2.330 109 2.362
 Kyrgyzstan 114 2.296
 Cambodia 115 2.301 111 2.252 105 2.179 91 2.179 85 2.197
 Syria 116 2.322 115 2.274 92 2.049 75 2.027 77 2.106
 Honduras 117 2.327 125 2.395 112 2.265 104 2.335 98 2.390
 South Africa 118 2.353 121 2.380 123 2.437 116 2.412 99 2.399
 Iran 119 2.356 104 2.202 99 2.104 105 2.341 97 2.320
 Niger 119 2.356
 Mexico 121 2.362 107 2.216 108 2.209 93 2.191 79 2.125
 Azerbaijan 122 2.379 119 2.367 114 2.327 101 2.287 101 2.448
 Bahrain 123 2.398 70 1.956 69 1.881 74 2.025 62 1.995
 Venezuela 124 2.403 122 2.387 120 2.381 123 2.505 102 2.453
 Guatemala 125 2.405 112 2.258 111 2.218 103 2.328 93 2.285
 Sri Lanka 126 2.407 133 2.621 125 2.485 125 2.584 111 2.575
 Turkey 127 2.411 126 2.420 121 2.389 115 2.403 92 2.272
 Cote d'Ivoire 128 2.417 118 2.297 117 2.342 122 2.451 113 2.638
 Algeria 129 2.423 116 2.277 110 2.212 112 2.378 107 2.503
 Mauritania 130 2.425 123 2.389 124 2.478 120 2.435
 Ethiopia 131 2.468 127 2.444 128 2.551 121 2.439 103 2.479
 Burundi 132 2.532 131 2.577
 Myanmar 133 2.538 132 2.580 126 2.501 126 2.590 108 2.524
 Georgia 134 2.558 142 2.970
 India 135 2.570 128 2.516 122 2.433 107 2.355 109 2.530
 Philippines 136 2.574 130 2.574 114 2.327 113 2.385 100 2.428
 Lebanon 137 2.597 134 2.639 132 2.718 132 2.840 114 2.662
 Yemen 138 2.670 129 2.573 119 2.363 106 2.352 95 2.309
 Colombia 139 2.700 138 2.787 130 2.645 130 2.757 116 2.770
 Zimbabwe 140 2.722 135 2.678 134 2.736 124 2.513 106 2.495
 Chad 141 2.740 141 2.964 138 2.880 135 3.007
 Nigeria 142 2.743 137 2.756 129 2.602 129 2.724 117 2.898
 Libya 143 2.816 56 1.839 46 1.710 61 1.927 58 1.967
 Central African Republic 144 2.869 136 2.753 133 2.733 134 2.857
 Israel 145 2.901 144 3.019 141 3.035 136 3.052 119 3.033
 Pakistan 146 2.905 145 3.050 137 2.859 127 2.694 115 2.697
 Russia 147 2.966 143 3.013 136 2.750 131 2.777 118 2.903
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 148 3.016 140 2.925 139 2.888 128 2.707
 North Korea 149 3.092 139 2.855 131 2.717 133 2.850
 Afghanistan 150 3.212 147 3.252 143 3.285 137 3.126
 Sudan 151 3.223 146 3.125 140 2.922 138 3.189 120 3.182
 Iraq 152 3.296 149 3.406 144 3.341 140 3.514 121 3.437
 Somalia 153 3.379 148 3.390 142 3.257 139 3.293
Note: There have been changes to the methodology for the 2010 data.[20]

See also

References

  1. ^ All information in indicator table from "Global Peace Index: Indicators". Vision of Humanity. http://www.visionofhumanity.com/GPI_Indicators/index.php. Retrieved 2007-10-07. 
  2. ^ a b c In this case, a conflict is defined as, "a contested incompatibility that concerns government and/or territory where the use of armed force between two parties, of which at least one is the government of a state, results in at least 25 battle-related deaths in a year."
  3. ^ Excludes militia and national guard forces.
  4. ^ This includes, "cash outlays of central or federal government to meet the costs of national armed forces—including strategic, land, naval, air, command, administration and support forces as well as paramilitary forces, customs forces and border guards if these are trained and equipped as a military force."
  5. ^ a b This includes transfers, purchases, or gifts of aircraft, armoured vehicles, artillery, radar systems, missiles, ships, engines
  6. ^ Weapons defined in four categories: armoured vehicles, artillery, combat aircraft, major fighting ships.
  7. ^ "Global Peace Index: Methodology". Vision of Humanity. http://www.visionofhumanity.com/WPI_Methodology/index.php. Retrieved 2007-10-07. 
  8. ^ First Global Peace Index Ranks 121 Countries, PP Newswire
  9. ^ "Global Peace Index: Drivers of Peace". Vision of Humanity. http://www.visionofhumanity.com/WPI_PeaceDrivers/index.php. Retrieved 2007-10-07. 
  10. ^ Charles, Deborah (May 30, 2007). "New Peace Index Ranks US Among Worst Nations". Reuters. http://www.commondreams.org/archive/2007/05/30/1553/. Retrieved 2007-08-09. 
  11. ^ "Give peace a rating". The Economist. May 31, 2007. http://www.economist.com/world/international/displaystory.cfm?story_id=9266967. Retrieved 2007-08-09. 
  12. ^ Eisler, Riane (July 26, 2007). "Dark underbelly of the world's most 'peaceful' countries". Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0726/p09s01-coop.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-09. 
  13. ^ "Homicide Rate Dataset". 1995-2008. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTCPR/Resources/407739-1267651559887/Homicide_Rate_Dataset.pdf. Retrieved 2010-06-16. 
  14. ^ "Measuring the Progress of Societies". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. http://www.oecd.org/pages/0,3417,en_40033426_40033828_1_1_1_1_1,00.html. 
  15. ^ http://wikiprogress.org/w/index.php?title=2010_Global_Peace_Index_Released
  16. ^ "World-less peaceful in 2010 report". PR Newswire. http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/global-peace-index-world-less-peaceful-in-2010-report-violence-impacting-global-economy-7-trillion-annually-95831889.html. Retrieved 2010-06-15. 
  17. ^ "Endorsers for GPI". Vision of Humanity. http://www.visionofhumanity.com/endorsementsForGPI/index.php. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  18. ^ "Norway rated most peaceful nation". BBC News. 2007-05-30. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/6704767.stm. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  19. ^ All information in the table of rankings from: Both are linked from: Vision of Humanity (2008). "EIU Reports - Documents - Global Peace Index". http://www.visionofhumanity.org/gpi/documents/results-report.php. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  20. ^ Global Peace Index - Methodology and Data Sources

External links



Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Global peace index — Cliquer pour agrandir La paix dans le monde selon le classement de 2007 : en bleu, les pays en paix, et en rouge les pays en guerre Le Global Peace Index est un essai de classer les pays du monde selon leur degré de pacifisme. Ce classement… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Global Peace Index — Weltkarte des Global Peace Index 2011 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Global Peace Index — Cliquer pour agrandir La paix dans le monde selon le classement de 2007 : en bleu, les pays en paix, et en rouge les pays en guerre Le Global Peace Index est un essai de classer les pays du monde selon leur degré de pacifisme. Ce classement… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Global Peace and Justice Auckland — (GPJA) describes itself as a network of people who provide a platform for individuals and groups to discuss and organise co operatively on peace and justice issues. [ [http://gpja.org.nz/about Global Peace and Justice Auckland website] ] They are …   Wikipedia

  • Peace and conflict studies — Peace Research redirects here Peace and conflict studies is a social science field that identifies and analyses violent and nonviolent behaviours as well as the structural mechanisms attending social conflicts with a view towards understanding… …   Wikipedia

  • Peace Journalism — Peace Media , Conflict Resolving Media , Conflict Sensitive Journalism , Conflict Solution Journalism , Reporting the World , Constructive Conflict Coverage, and Peacebuilding Media redirect here. A comparison of peace journalism and war… …   Wikipedia

  • Peace Industry — The Peace Industry is defined as comprising those industries that ‘Thrive in Peace’, i.e. businesses that see their markets expand and their costs diminish as levels of violence decrease and peacefulness increases.The term was first used at the… …   Wikipedia

  • Peace movement — A peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars), minimize inter human violence in a particular place or type of situation, often linked to the goal of achieving world peace.… …   Wikipedia

  • Peace churches — are Christian churches, groups or communities advocating Christian pacifism. The term historic peace churches refers specifically to three church groups: the Church of the Brethren, the Mennonites, and the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers).… …   Wikipedia

  • Global Energy Network Institute — (GENI) is a research and education organization founded by Peter Meisen in 1986 and registered as a 501(c)(3) non profit organization in 1991. GENI s focus is on the interconnection of electric power transmission networks between nations and… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.