Twickenham


Twickenham

infobox UK place
country = England
map_type = Greater London
region= London
population=
official_name= Twickenham
latitude= 51.4486
longitude= -0.3369
os_grid_reference= TQ155735
london_borough= Richmond
post_town= TWICKENHAM
postcode_district= TW1, TW2
postcode_area=TW
dial_code= 020
constituency_westminster= Twickenham
static_

static_image_caption=Twickenham from the air showing Twickenham stadium, The Stoop and the college
london_distance=

Twickenham is a suburb in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, in south west London.

It is best known as the home of Twickenham Stadium — the headquarters of the Rugby Football Union. Over the years the stadium has encouraged the growth of the disproportionately large number of public houses and restaurants in the area. Twickenham is also notable for its arts heritage and is the home of the Royal Military School of Music at Kneller Hall. Historical variants of the name include "Tuiccanham" and "Twittenham". It is also home to Harlequins, a rugby union and league club who play at The Stoop.

History

Pre-Norman

Excavations have shown settlements in the area dating from the Early Neolithic, possibly Mesolithic periods. Occupation seems to have continued through the Bronze Age, the Iron Age and the Roman occupation. The area was first mentioned in a charter of 13 June 704 AD (as 'Tuican hom' and 'Tuiccanham') to cede the area to Waldhere, Bishop of London, 'for the salvation of our souls.' [First written mention of 'Tuican hom' [http://www.twickenham-museum.org.uk/detail.asp?ContentID=12] ] The charter is signed with 12 crosses. The signatories included Swaefred of Essex, Cenred of Mercia and Earl Paeogthath.

Norman

In Norman times Twickenham was part of the Manor of Isleworth - itself part of the Hundred of Hounslow (mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086). [ Twickenham in the Domesday Book [http://www.twickenham-museum.org.uk/detail.asp?ContentID=218] ] The manor had belonged to Ælfgār, Earl of Mercia in the time of Edward the Confessor, but was granted to Walter de Saint-Valery (Waleric) by William I of England after the Norman Conquest of England in 1066.

The area was farmed for the next several hundred years, while the river provided opportunities for fishing, boatbuilding and trade. Suggestions that Twickenham ever possessed a fortification (later the tower of St Mary's parish church) are completely erroneous.

17th century

Bubonic Plague spread to the town in 1605. 67 deaths were recorded. It appears that Twickenham had a Pest House (short for "pestilence") in the 17th century, although the location is not known.

There was also a Watch House in the middle of the town, with stocks, a pillory and a whipping post — its owner charged to "ward within and about this Parish and to keep all Beggars and Vagabonds that shall lye abide or lurk about the Towne and to give correction to such...".

In 1633 construction began on York House. It was occupied by Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester in 1656 and later by Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon. It is now occupied by the borough council.

1659 saw the first mention of the Twickenham Ferry, although ferrymen had already been operating in the area for many generations. Sometime before 1743 a 'pirate' ferry appears to have been started by Twickenham inhabitants. There is speculation that it operated to serve 'The Folly' — a floating hostelry of some kind. Several residents wrote to the Lord Mayor of the City of London:

The Plague struck again in 1665; 24 deaths were recorded.

18th century

Gunpowder manufacture on an industrial scale started in the area in the 18th century, on a site between Twickenham and Whitton on the banks of the River Crane. There were frequent explosions and loss of life. On 11 March 1758 one of two explosions was felt in Reading, Berkshire, and in April 1774 another explosion terrified people at church in Isleworth.

In 1772 three mills blew up, shattering glass and buildings in the neighbourhood. Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford wrote complaining to his friend and relative Henry Seymour Conway, then Lieutenant General of the Ordnance, that all the decorative painted glass had been blown out of his windows at Strawberry Hill.

The powder mills remained in operation until 1927 when they were closed. Much of the site is now occupied by Crane Park, in which the old Shot Tower, mill sluices and blast embankments can still be seen. Much of the area along the river next to the Shot Tower is now a nature reserve.

Later

The 1818 Enclosure Award led to the development of convert|182|acre|km2 of land to the west of the town centre largely between the present day Staines and Hampton Roads, new roads - Workhouse Road, Middle Road, 3rd, 2nd and 1st Common Roads (now First-Fifth Cross Roads respectively) - being laid out [Twickenham in 1818: The year of the Enclosure, T.H.R.Cashmore, Borough of Twickenham Local History Society Paper 38, 1977] . During the 18th century and 19th century a number of fine houses were built and Twickenham became a popular place of residence for people of 'Fashion and Distinction' (see "Residents" section below). Further development was stimulated by the opening of Twickenham station in 1848. In 1894 Twickenham Urban District Council was formed. In 1902 the council bought Radnor House as the home of the leglislature. The council bought and occupied York House in 1924. (Radnor House was destroyed by a Luftwaffe bomb during the Blitz of 1940).

Electricity was introduced to Twickenham in 1902 [Borough of Twickenham Local History Society Paper 37: The Coming of Electricity to Twickenham, A.C.B.Urwin 1977] and the first trams arrived the following year.

In 1926 Twickenham was constituted as a municipal borough. Eleven years later the urban district Councils of Teddington, Hampton & Hampton Wick merged with Twickenham. In 1965 the former area of the boroughs of Twickenham, Richmond and Barnes were combined to form the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames; the council offices and chamber are still located in Twickenham at York House and in the adjacent civic centre.

The Member of Parliament for Twickenham has been Liberal Democrat Dr Vincent Cable since his first election in 1997. Twickenham (UK Parliament constituency) includes St Margaret's, Whitton, Heathfield, Teddington, Hampton, Fulwell, Hampton Hill and Hampton Wick.

Geography

The town is bordered on the south-eastern side by the River Thames and Eel Pie Island — which is connected to the Twickenham embankment by a narrow footbridge erected in 1957, prior to which access was by means of a hand-operated ferry that was hauled across using a chain on the riverbed. The land adjacent to the river, from Strawberry Hill in the south to Marble Hill Park in the north, is occupied by a mixture of luxury dwellings, formal gardens, public houses and a newly built park and leisure facility.

In the south, in Strawberry Hill, lies St Mary's University College, Twickenham (the oldest Catholic college in the United Kingdom), historically specialising in sports studies, teacher training, religious studies and the humanities Drama studies and English literature. Strawberry Hill was originally a small cottage in two or three acres (8,000 or 12,000 m²) of land by the River Thames. Horace Walpole, a son of the politician Robert Walpole, rented the cottage in 1747 and subsequently bought it and turned it into one of the incunabula of the Gothic revival. The college shares part of its campus with Walpole's Strawberry Hill. On adjacent land were the villa and garden of the poet Alexander Pope. A road just north of the campus is named Pope's Grove, and a local landmark next to the main road is the Pope's Grotto, a public house where Pope's landmark informal garden used to be. Near this hostelry lie St Catherine's school for girls and St James's school for boys, formerly a convent, in a building on the site of Pope's white stucco villa and the location of Pope's original — surviving — grotto.

There are a large number of fine houses in the area, many of them Victorian. Radnor Gardens lies opposite the Pope's Grotto.

Twickenham proper begins in the vicinity of the Pope's Grotto, with a large and expensive residential area of (mostly) period houses to the west, and a number of exclusive properties to the east, on or near the river. Further to the north and west lies the district of Whitton, an area of Twickenham, once of allotments and farm land, but now of 1930s housing.

The fashionable district of St Margarets lies immediately to the east of central Twickenham, across the river from Richmond, and is popular for its attractive tree-lined residential roads and an eclectic range of shops and cafés. Much of St Margarets next to the River Thames was formerly Twickenham Park, the estate of Sir Francis Bacon, the 16th century philosopher and Lord Chancellor. St Margarets is also the home of Twickenham Studios, one of London's most important film studios. The London suburb of Isleworth lies to the north of Twickenham and St Margarets.

Education

Notable people

* Steve Allen, LBC radio presenter
* Anne of Great Britain
* Sir Francis Bacon, Lord Chancellor of England
* Trevor Baylis, inventor of the clockwork radio
* Sean Blowers, Actor
* Richard Doddridge Blackmore, author of "Lorna Doone"
* Charles Calvert (MP)
* Linford Christie, athlete
* Samuel Cunard, shipping magnate
* Elvis Costello, singer
* Gerry Cowper, actress
* Michael Crawford, actor
* Peter Davison, actor
* Charles Dickens - rented a flat at [http://www.tellingtrails.co.uk/pages/individuals/dickenspage.html#twickdickens Ailsa Park Villas] , St Margarets in 1838
* Greg Dyke, ex-BBC director general
* The Fades, indie rock band
* Sir Henry Fielding, magistrate, novelist and dramatist, author of "Tom Jones"
* Maria Anne Fitzherbert, morganatic wife of the Prince Regent, later King George IV
* Claire Forlani, actress
* Justine Frischmann, lead singer of rock band Elastica
* David Garrick, actor
* Dorris Henderson, folk singer & song writer
* John Hooker
* Jane Horrocks, actress
* Thomas Hudson, painter
* Edward Ironside (businessman and author of "The History and Antiquities of Twickenham")
* James Johnston (Secretary of State)
* Sir Godfrey Kneller, painter
* King Manoel II of Portugal, exiled King of Portugal
* Walter de la Mare OM, poet
* Paul Miller, radio DJ on BBC local radio
* Georgia Moffett, actress
* Lady Mary Wortley Montagu
* Dermot Morgan, "Father Ted" actor
* Mystery Jets, relatively successful indie rock band
* Noah and the Whale, folk rock band
* Howard Pearce, governor of the Falkland Islands
* Louis Philippe, sometime king of the French. His descendants lived in the area for the latter part of the 19th century.
* Nigel Planer, actor
* Alexander Pope, poet and writer
* Andrzej Panufnik, composer
* Peter Sallis, actor, star of "Last of the Summer Wine" and voice of Gromit's master, Wallace, in the Aardman Animations films
* Sir Robert Shirley
* Sir John Suckling, poet
* Isaac Swainson, botanist, owner of botanical garden at Heath Lane Lodge.
* Sir Ratan Tata (1871-1918), Indian industrialist and philanthropist, last private owner of York House
* Alfred Lord Tennyson, British Poet Laureate
* Pete Townshend of The Who, rock musician
* J.M.W. Turner, painter and poet
* Thomas Twining
* Horace Walpole, writer of gothic fiction, Prime Minister's son and resident of Strawberry Hill
* Lady Wentworth
* Paul Whitehead (Secretary and Steward of the notorious Hell-Fire Club)
* Members of The Yardbirds, rock musicians
* Keira Knightley, actress from Teddington
* Matthew Athauda, entrepreneur

Local geography

Nearest places

* Feltham
* Ham
* Hampton
* Hampton Hill
* Hampton Wick
* Kingston upon Thames
* Richmond
* St Margarets
* Teddington
* Whitton
* Isleworth

Nearest tube stations

* Richmond station

Nearest railway stations

* Fulwell railway station
* Richmond station
* St Margaret's railway station
* Strawberry Hill railway station
* Twickenham railway station
* Whitton railway station

References

External links

* [http://www.twickenhamtown.com Twickenham Town Centre]
* [http://www.richmond.gov.uk The London Borough of Richmond Upon Thames Council]
* [http://www.twickenham-museum.org.uk The Twickenham Museum]
* [http://www.twicksoc.org.uk The Twickenham Society]
* [http://www.twickenham-online.co.uk/ Twickenham Online]
* [http://www.richmond.gov.uk/home/leisure_and_culture/local_history_and_heritage/local_studies_collection/local_history_notes.htm Library Local History Notes on houses and persons mentioned.]
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/g2/story/0,3604,1241502,00.html The Guardian Pass Notes column on Twickenham]
* [http://www.rttimes.co.uk Richmond and Twickenham Times newspaper]
* [http://gallery.beautifulengland.net/main.php?g2_itemId=13603 Photographs of Twickenham]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Twickenham — (spr. Tuikkenhäm), Dorf südwestlich von London in der englischen Grafschaft Middlesex, an der Eisenbahn von London nach Windsor, Kirche mit dem Grabmal Pope s, prächtige Landhäuser; 6300 Ew …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Twickenham — (spr. twíckenĕm), Stadt in der engl. Grafschaft Middlesex, an der Themse, oberhalb London, Richmond gegenüber, Lieblingsaufenthalt literarischer Berühmtheiten (Essex. Bacon, Hyde, Pope und Fielding), mit einer alten Kirche, Museum, zahlreichen… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Twickenham — (spr. twickĕnämm), Stadt in der engl. Grafsch. Middlesex, an der Themse, oberhalb London [Karte: Großbritannien und Irland I, 11], (1901) 20.991 E., beliebter Landaufenthalt …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Twickenham — quartier résidentiel de l aggl. londonienne; env. 70 000 hab. Stade de rugby …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Twickenham — [twik′ən əm] former borough in Middlesex, England, near London: now part of Richmond …   English World dictionary

  • Twickenham — London Borough of Richmond upon Thames Lage in Greater London Status London Borough Region …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • twickenham — ˈtwik(ə)nəm adjective Usage: usually capitalized Etymology: from Twickenham, England : of or from the municipal borough of Twickenham, England : of the kind or style prevalent in Twickenham * * * /twik euh neuhm/, n. a former borough, now part of …   Useful english dictionary

  • Twickenham — 51° 26′ 55″ N 0° 20′ 13″ W / 51.4486, 0.3369 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Twickenham — Original name in latin Twickenham Name in other language Tuikenem, ista tvikanahama, teuwikeuneom, Туикенем State code GB Continent/City Europe/London longitude 51.4454 latitude 0.32968 altitude 9 Population 0 Date 2010 10 17 …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • Twickenham — geographical name former municipal borough SE England in Middlesex, now part of Richmond upon Thames …   New Collegiate Dictionary


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