- Percival Mew Gull
caption= Percival Mew Gull G-AXEF at Breighton Aerodrome, UK being piloted by Tony (“Taff”) Smith on 14 July 2007, photograph by Michael Rushforth.
Percival Aircraft Company
first flight=March 1934
primary user=Civilian racer
developed from =
variants with their own articles=The Percival Mew Gull was a British racing aircraft of the 1930s. It was a small, single-engine, single-seat, low wing
monoplaneof wooden construction, normally powered by a six-cylinder de Havilland Gipsy Sixpiston engine. During its racing career it set many records and was considered a significant, efficient design, one that eventually reached a top speed of 265 mph (425 km/h) on a modest 205 hp (153 kW) in its final 1939 form. A modern-day observer has characterised the Mew Gull as "the Holy Grail of British air racing". [ [http://www.americasflyways.com/jan05story.html Percival Mew Gull: The Holy Grail of British Air Racing] Tony Smith speaks of the Real Aeroplane Company’s tiny, cream-colored monoplane as legend. “It’s the Holy Grail of British air racing,” says Smith, RAC’s chief pilot. [http://www.airspacemag.com/issues/2007/february-march/and_then_there_was_one.htm Air & Space Magazine] ] [ [http://www.americasflyways.com/jan05story.html America's flyways magazine, January 2005 Cover Story by Gary Williams: Percival Mew Gull: The Holy Grail of British Air Racing] ]
Design and development
Percival Gullalready making a name for itself as a racer, over several months in 1933-1934, Capt. Edgar W. Percival designed and built a single-seat racer derivative initially named the E1. This was developed into the E2, E2H and the E3H variants between 1934 and 1938. The sometimes-used designation "P6" is incorrect; this retrospective tag was created after Percival left the company and long after the Mew Gulls were built, thus no Mew Gulls were ever built as "P6s". With the exception of the sole E3H, "G-AFAA" - which was built after the company moved to Luton, all of the Mew gulls were built in the small factory at Gravesend.
Structurally, there was very little commonality of parts between the Gulls IV/ VI/ Vega Gull and the Mew Gull, other than a few minor components. All of the Gulls, however, did use a similar generic structure. Proprietary equipment such as engines, airscrews, spinners, instruments, undercarriage legs, wheels and tyres were generally common to all series. The Mew Gulls (apart from the E1 in its initial configuration) used a fixed, conventional oleomatic main
undercarriageand a fully castoring tailskid. Small manually-operated, split trailing-edge wing flaps were incorporated into the mainplanes, but were “...singularly ineffective even when fully extended". [Ogilvy, David F. "Motorsport, Vol.XXVIII, No. 4, April 1952.".]
The aircraft was designed for handicapped air racing which gained huge popularity in the UK during the 1920s and especially 1930s – the so-called "Golden Age" of aviation. The
King's Cup Race, an annual handicapped air racing event developed to aid in the development of British light aircraft, was considered to be the "Blue-Riband" event. Ultimately, Mew Gulls went on to win this event four times.
The prototype "G-ACND" first flew in March 1934 with a 165 hp
Napier Javelin, but it was replaced with a more powerful and reliable 200 hp Gipsy Six engine, fitted with a fixed-pitch airscrew, prior to its first race.
The King's Cup was a handicap race dating back to 1922; each racing result was compared to the time that the committee decided each contestant should have completed the course. The more an entry beat its prescribed time, the better the chance of winning. Initially King George V was to present a cup to the winner, and like the
Schneider Trophy, the same cup would be engraved and awarded to the new winner each year. After the first year's race it was decided that a new cup would be presented each year.
Percival entered the King's Cup Race in July 1934, but failed to place. The original E1 was redesigned following an accident into the much-refined E2 configuration, with much of the design work completed by Arthur Bage. In July 1935, with a 180 hp French Regnier installed, "G-ACND" competed in the
Coupe Armand Esders, a race of 1,046 miles from Deauville, France to Cannes and back. The Mew Gull was flown by Count de Chateaubrun, the Percival representative in France, and averaged 188 mph in the race. Immediately after, the original British de Havilland Gipsy Six was reinstalled. Guy de Chateaubrun subsequently became the only pilot to bail outof a Mew Gull, abandoning "G-ACND" because of fog.
In September 1935 Percival placed 1st in a 120 mile (190 km) race, and in July 1936 he finished 4th in the King's Cup Race flying "G-AEKL", the third Mew Gull and first "production" E2H. Later in August, Percival finished 7th in the 174-mile race for the Folkestone Trophy.
In September 1936 "G-AEKL", having previously been Edgar Percival's private mount, was re-engined and modified to enter in the
Schlesinger Race. The Schlesinger African Air Race was a race from England to South Africa (6,154 miles), but G-AEKL was withdrawn ten days before the Schlesinger following a fatal taxiing accident at Liverpool Speke Airport. Two other E2H Mew Gulls were entered, both of which had been built at the same time to the same specification as the modified "'KL". Both failed to finish the race to South Africa. In the 1937 King's Cup Race, "G-AEKL" was 1st with Charles Gardner at the controls. He averaged 234 mph over the 1,442-mile course. Percival flew his latest E3H "Super"-Mew "G-AFAA", the sixth and last Mew Gull built, to a third place finish and still another E2H, "G-AEXF" was raced by Alex Henshaw.
The 1938 King's Cup Race was a 1,012 mile event and this time, Alex Henshaw's much modified E2H "G-AEXF" came in 1st at 236 mph and Giles Guthrie in his "standard" E2H "G-AEKL" placed 2nd. Edgar Percival flew a third Mew Gull, the E3H ("G-AFAA") and finished 6th. Percival might easily have won, but as well as being made scratch-man by the Handicappers, he left the fine-tuning of his airscrew pitches until just before the race and his ground-crew were still tinkering with them as Alex' Henshaw took off. At this time the Bracket-Type airscrew simply did not have the pitch-range to cope with the exceptionally wide speed range of the E3H (59-265mph.). An optimisation for either cruise or takeoff and climb would inevitably compromise the other.
Alex Henshaw attempted to take the England - Cape Town Record in 1939, taking off on
5 February 1939from Gravesend Airport, landing at Wingfield Aerodromeat the Cape the next day, covering the 6,377 miles course in 39 hours and 25 minutes, averaging 209.44 mph while in the air. The return trip was just 11 minutes longer. It is interesting to note that during all of Alex Henshaw's adventures in this aircraft it was never damaged.
Henshaw sold "G-AEXF" to Frenchman Victor Vermoral in late 1939. During the Second World War, the aircraft was stored in a hangar in France with several owners continuing to hide it from German authorities. In 1950, Hugh Scrope found and bought and with Doug Bianchi's help, refurbished the aircraft to fly it back home to England. After restoration, "G-AEXF" continued its racing career but it was damaged in a landing accident in August 1951 at Shoreham. J.N. Somers, the next owner repaired it and raced "G-AEXF" again. A new owner, Ernest Crabtree, flew it last in the 1965
Manx Air Derby. By this time however, other owners had further altered this historic aircraft, resulting in lowered performance. Eventually, the derelict aircraft, found its way into the hands of a poorly run museum, where it became damp, had its wings crudely sawn off, and many parts lost to souvenir hunters. In this state, Tom Storey and Martin Barraclough acquired the aircraft and rebuilt it during the late 1970s. Wishing to make the aircraft more practical to operate, a configuration closer to its original design was chosen, making "G-AEXF" look somewhat like an E2H/E3H hybrid, painted in the white and British Racing Greenshe wore when owned by Alex Henshaw in the 1930s. "XF" was again damaged at Redhill in late 1983, when an Auster taxied into it. 'XF continued to be operated in the configuration as rebuilt by Storey and Barraclough until it was offered for sale.
In the words of the late Alex Henshaw: "At the age of seventy-five I had retired into the countryside with my wife when, one day, I was introduced to former de Havilland test pilot Desmond Penrose, who had recently acquired XF from Tom Storey. He was flying it at Redhill during the negotiation stage when he had the great misfortune to badly damage the aircraft when striking a drainage ditch that he had not been told about or had seen. Despite this setback he had purchased XF and was restoring the wreckage.
He (Penrose), went on to say that it was his initial intention to restore the machine back to its normal Percival mode, and he was unwilling to alter it to bring it to the Cape configuration, due to the extra expense involved. Also, the only person who had knowledge concerned with the alteration made at the time was, now, myself and if restoration was to be made to the Cape configuration, my expertise was essential.
I had reached an age when involvement with my little Mew Gull was the last thing I expected or really wanted. However, I was impressed with Desmond's patriotic ambition and also with his tremendous enthusiasm to conserve a perfect replica for posterity. The outcome of this agreement was that Desmond would fund the rebuild up to the amount it would cost to restore to the standard Percival mode, and that all costs beyond that point would be my responsibility, without affecting title. I was also to oversee the whole project at all times and to advise and direct on all the intricate modifications when required. I also had to guarantee the accuracy on completion"
Alex Henshaw went on to say: "Eventually Desmond was able to make the first flight from Old Warden which proved to be satisfactory other than minor problems with the engine cooling system. However, during one of the test flights that followed, disaster came once again. The engine lost power, due it is thought to carburettor icing. Surrounded by fields of standing crops with insufficient height to reach the airfield, Desmond had, perforce, to put down in a barley field that was close to hand. Ducking under power lines, the Mew Gull was three pointed 50 yards into the field. The aircraft tracked straight until the spats clogged, flinging the aircraft upside down, splitting the fuel tanks, and trapping the petrol-soaked pilot (Penrose).
By the grace of God, Desmond was not badly injured and later that day flew his Active II just just to confirm that the field he had chosen was the best of a poor choice. He later confided in me that his only conscious thought during the forced landing was my telling him 'If you have an engine failure in the Mew Gull don't expect to survive' ". [ Henshaw 1980]
In 2002, "G-AEXF" was sold to the current owner, Rob Fleming, and is now operated by The Real Aeroplane Company at the Breighton Aerodrome, Yorkshire, UK. "XF" was temporarily shipped over to the USA to fly in a "demonstration race" at the 2003
National Championship Air Racesat Reno, Nevada, the first Mew Gull to touch American soil.
The Mew Gulls were a family of "half-siblings," each tailored to the customer's demands. Six were built:
The prototype Mew Gull, designated Type E.1 was fitted with a
Napier Javelinengine, and first flew in March 1934. In October 1935, "G-ACND" was destroyed in a crash near Angoulêmeduring the Coupe Michelin.
The Type E.2, powered by a 200 hp Gipsy Six, carried the same registration as its predecessor but was almost a complete re-design. "G-ACND" was temporarily fitted with a smaller 180 hp Regnier engine to qualify for the
Coupe Armand Esdersof 1935. With the Gipsy Six reinstated, the aircraft flew in a number of later races and won the Folkestone Trophy Race.
The E.2H. Fitted with a De Havilland Gipsy Six and flown by Edgar Percival in the King's Cup and
FolkestoneTrophy Races of 1936. Sold and re-engined with a Gipsy Six Series II, "G-AEKL" was entered in the Schlesinger Racealong with"ZS-AHM" and "ZS-AHO". However, the aircraft was damaged in a fatal accident at Liverpool Speke Airport that autumn, Tom Campbell Blackbeing killed. Rebuilt in 1937, "G-AEKL" won the Newcastle Race for its new owner. Subsequently, the aircraft passed through several hands before being destroyed by German bombs at Lympne early in the war.
"The Golden City", also an E2H, was built to the order of A.M. Miller for the Schlesinger Race and powered by a Gipsy Six Series II. Miller retired at the Belgrade checkpoint. Percival re-engined the aircraft with a Gipsy Six and sold it to Bill Humble who registered it in the UK as "G-AEXF". Humble never took delivery, instead selling it to Alex Henshaw, who soon won the 1937 Folkestone Trophy with "G-AEXF". For 1938 "XF" flew with a Gipsy Six R engine to win the Kings Cup. In February 1939, then powered by a Gipsy Six Series II and with revised equipment, it set a new mark for the out-and-home Cape record – this remains a class record. Although rebuilt many times and essentially a replica, "G-AEXF" powered by a Gipsy Queen II still flies to this day in the UK.
AJD Engineering (Ipswich, UK) who restored the original Mew Gull "G-AEXF" after its crash at Shuttleworth were commissioned by the late
Alex Henshawto manufacture a static replica Mew Gull, representing the Cape configuration of "G-AEXF". This aircraft is now complete and on initial display at the RAF Museum Hendon. [ [http://www.hawker-restorations-ltd.co.uk/Static%20Mew%20Gull.html Static Mew Gull - Henshaw Rebuild] ]
"Baragwanath", was another E2H powered by a Gipsy Six Series II engine, built to the order of S.S. "Stan" Halse for the Schlesinger Race. Due to bad visibility, Halse made a forced landing in a ploughed field in
Southern Rhodesia, where the aircraft flipped onto its back and was written off. At the time of the accident, Halse was well ahead of the rest of the field, so much so, that by the time Scott and Guthrie's winning Vega Gull arrived, most of the disappointed spectators had gone home.
The one-off Type E.3H (the so-called "Super"-Mew ") was Edgar Percival's personal mount. While looking very much the same as the E2H, this was actually a completely new design, powered by a Gipsy Six Series II. It first flew in 1937 and was raced by Percival in 1937-1939. On loan for propeller trials at Hatfield during the war, "G-AFAA" was written off in a landing accident by a de Havilland pilot. The remains of this aircraft were burned with those of "G-ACND" at a Percival Aircraft garden fete at Luton Airport immediately after the war.
pecifications (Type E.1)
plane or copter?= plane
jet or prop?= prop
ref=British Civil Aircraft Since 1919 [Jackson, Aubrey J. "British Civil Aircraft since 1919, Volume 1". London: Putnam, 1974. ISBN 0-370-10006-9.]
length main= 18 ft 3 in
length alt= m
span main= 24 ft
span alt= m
height main= 6 ft 10 in
height alt= m
area main= 88 ft²
area alt= m²
empty weight main= 996 lb
empty weight alt= kg
loaded weight main= 1,460 lb
loaded weight alt= kg
useful load main= lb
useful load alt= kg
max takeoff weight main= lb
max takeoff weight alt= kg
type of prop=inline
number of props=1
power main= 165 hp
power alt= kW
max speed main= 195 mph
max speed alt= km/h
cruise speed main= 175 mph
cruise speed alt= km/h
never exceed speed main= knots
never exceed speed alt= mph, km/h
stall speed main= knots
stall speed alt= mph, km/h
range main= 550 mi
range alt= km
ceiling main= ft
ceiling alt= m
climb rate main= ft/min
climb rate alt= m/s
loading main= lb/ft²
loading alt= kg/m²
power/mass main= hp/lb
power/mass alt= W/kg
Percival Gull VI
Percival Vega Gull
* Green, Peter and Ellis, Ken. "Alex Henshaw." "Flypast" No. 310, May 2007.
* Henshaw, Alex. "Flight of the Mew Gull". London: John Murray Publishers Ltd., 1980. ISBN 0-71953-740-1.
* Henshaw, Alex. "The Fastest Ever." " Aeroplane Monthly, Vol. 8, No. 9, September 1980".
* Riding, Richard. "A Truly Remarkable Aviator." "Aeroplane Monthly", Vol. 35, No. 5, May 2007.
* Silvester, John. "Percival Aircraft 1933-1954 (Part 2)." "Aeroplane Monthly", Vol. 11, No. 118, February 1983.
* [http://www.hawker-restorations-ltd.co.uk/MewGull.html Hawker Restorations Ltd.: Percival Mew Gull]
* [http://www.americasflyways.com/jan05story.html Percival Mew Gull: The Holy Grail of British Air Racing]
* [http://www.eyerevolution.co.uk/virtual_tours/mew_gull 360 Virtual tour inside the cockpit of the Percival Mew Gull]
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