- Agriculture in the Soviet Union
Agriculturein the Soviet Unionwas organized into a system of state and collective farms, known as sovkhozes and kolkhozes, respectively. Organized on a large scale and relatively highly mechanized, the Soviet Union was one of the world's leading producers of cereals, although bad harvests (as in 1972 and 1975) necessitated imports and slowed the economy. The 1976- 1980five-year plan shifted resources to agriculture, and 1978 saw a record harvest. Cotton, sugar beets, potatoes, and flaxwere also major crops.
However, despite immense land resources, extensive machinery and chemical industries, and a large rural work force, Soviet agriculture was relatively unproductive, hampered in many areas by the
climate(only 10 percent of the Soviet Union's land was arable), and poor worker productivity.
Conditions were best in the temperate black earth belt stretching from
Ukrainethrough southern Russiainto the west, spanning the extreme southern portions of Siberia.
Following a grain crisis in 1928,
Joseph Stalinestablished the USSR's system of state and collective farms when he moved to replace the NEPwith collective farming, which grouped peasants into collective farms (" kolkhozes") and state farms (" sovkhozes").
Stalin's campaign of forced collectivization was a major factor explaining the sector's poor performance. Collectivization relied on a system of internal passports to keep farmers tied to the land. This has been referred to as a form of "neo-serfdom", in which the Communist bureaucracy replaced the former landowners. [Merle Fainsod, "How Russia is Ruled", Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., revised edition (1970), p. 570.] The first response of most farmers to this loss of freedom was to slaughter and consume their farm animals. In the new state and collective farms, outside directives failed to take local growing conditions into account. Also, interference in the day-to-day affairs of peasant life often bred resentment and worker alienation across the countryside. The human toll was very large with millions, perhaps as many as 3 million, dying from famine in the wake of collectivisation. ["The Economics of Soviet Agriculture" by Leonard E. Hubbard, pp. 117-18] In the collective and state farms, low labor productivity was a consequence for the entire Soviet period.Fact|date=August 2008
The "sovkhozy" tended to focus on larger scale production than the "kolkhozy" and had the ability to specialize in certain crops. The government tended to supply them with better machinery and
fertilizers. Labor productivity (and in turn incomes) tended to be higher on the "sovkhozy". Workers in state farms received wages and social benefits, whereas those on the collective farms tended to receive a portion of the net income of their farm, based, in part, on the success of the harvestand their individual contribution.
Although accounting for a small share of cultivated area, private plots produced a substantial share of the country's
meat, milk, eggs, and vegetables.Fact|date=August 2008 Although never more than 4 percent of the arable land in the USSR, private plots consistently produced roughly a quarter to a third of agricultural produce. Private plots were among many attempts made to restructure Soviet farming.Fact|date=August 2008 However, the weak worker incentives and managerial autonomy, which were the crux of the problem, were not addressed.Fact|date=August 2008
Although the Soviet Union was the world's second leading agricultural producer and ranked first in the production of numerous commodities, agriculture was a net drain on the economy. Fact|date=August 2008
Efficiency of collective farming
The theory behind collectivisation was that it would replace the small-scale unmechanised and inefficient
farms that were then commonplace in the Soviet Union with large-scale mechanised farms that would produce foodfar more efficiently. Lenin saw private farming as a source of capitalist mentalities and hoped to replace farms with either "sovkhozy" which would make the farmers "proletarian" workers or "kolkhozy" which would at least be collective in nature. However, most observers say that despite isolated successes , collective farms and sovkhozes were inefficient, the agricultural sector being weak throughout the history of the Soviet Union . Hedrick Smith, wrote in "The Russians" (1976) that according to Soviet statistics, one fourth of the value of agricultural production in 1973 was produced on the private plots peasants were allowed (2% of the whole arable land) .
These claims of "inefficiency" have, however, been criticised by at least one Western economist. It has been asserted that statistics based on value rather than volume of production give one view of reality, as public-sector food was heavily subsidised and sold at much lower prices than private-sector produce. In addition, the 2–3% of arable land allotted as private plots does not include the large area allocated to the peasants as pasturage for their private livestock; combined with land used to produce grain for fodder, the pasturage and the private plots total almost 20% of all Soviet farmland. cite web | title= "Soviet Agriculture: A Critique of the myths constructed by Western critics" | url=http://www.usm.maine.edu/eco/joe/works/Soviet.html | accessdate = 2007-04-22] It has also been claimed that private farming also turns out to be relatively inefficient, taking roughly 40% of all agricultural labour to produce only 26% of all output by value. Finally, such claims tend to discuss only a small number of consumer products and do not take into account the fact that the kolkhozy and sovkhozy produced mainly grain, cotton, flax, forage, seed, and other non-consumer goods with a relatively low value per unit area.
Economist Joseph E. Medley of the University of Southern Maine, US, while admitting to some inefficiency in Soviet agriculture, denounces the "myths" of failure propounded by Western critics. He believes it to be ideological in nature and emphasises " [t] he possibility that socialized agriculture may be able to make valuable contributions to improving human welfare".
Agriculture of Russia
Agriculture of Imperial Russia
Famines in Russia and USSR
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