Chernozem


Chernozem
Chernozem
Chernozemic soil
Chernozem Image
Chernozem field in Black Dirt Region of Orange County, New York, USA
Used in: WRB, other
WRB code: CH
Profile: AhBC
Parent material: loess
Climate: humid continental[citation needed]

Chernozem (Ukrainian: Чорнозем, transliterated: chornozem; Russian: чернозём, transliterated: chernozyom; Serbo-Croatian: Чернозем/Černozem, Bulgarian: Чернозем, transliterated: chernozem; meaning: black soil), also known as "black land"[1] or "black earth", is a black-coloured soil containing a high percentage of humus[2] 7% to 15%, and high percentages of phosphoric acids, phosphorus and ammonia. Chernozem is very fertile and produces a high agricultural yield.

Contents

Where found

Global distribution

There are two "Chernozem belts" in the world: from Northern Serbia, northern Bulgaria (Danubian Plain) and southern Romania (Wallachian Plain), to northeast Ukraine across the Black Earth Region and southern Russia into Siberia, and the other in the Canadian Prairies. Similar soil types occur in Texas and Hungary. It has a large depth, often more than 40 inches (1 m) and up to 250 inches (6 metres) in Ukraine. The terrain can also be found in small quantities elsewhere (for example, on 1% of Polish territory). It also exists in Northeast China, near Harbin.

The sale of agricultural land has been illegal in Ukraine since 1992; despite this a black market in farmland there is one of the largest illegal markets in farmland, with approximately $900 million in annual sale.[3]

Canadian and United Nations soil classification

Chernozemic soils are a soil type in the Canadian system of soil classification and the United Nations' FAO soil classification.

They develop deep cracks during hot weather, which helps in the proper aeration of the soil. These soils are sticky when wet and difficult to work on unless tilled immediately after the first shower or during the pre-monsoon period.[citation needed]

Chernozemic soil type equivalents, in Canadian, FAO, and USA soil taxonomy
Canadian FAO United States
Chernozemic Kastanozem, Chernozem, Greyzem, Phaeozem Borolls
Brown Chernozem Kastanozem (aridic) Aridic Boroll subgroups
Dark Brown Chernozem Kastanozem (Haplic) Typic Boroll subgroups
Black Chernozem Chernozem Udic Boroll subgroups
Dark Grey Chernozem Greyzem Boralfic Boroll subgroups, Albolls
Source: Pedosphere.com.

See also

References

  1. ^ "blackland". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2008. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/blackland. Retrieved 2008-07-07. 
  2. ^ "chernozem". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2008. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/chernozem. Retrieved 2008-07-07. 
  3. ^ Black market for black earth, Kyiv Post (9 November 2011)

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Chernozem — (del ruso: чернозём, chernozëm) es un tipo de tierra o suelo negro rico en humus (del 3 al 13%) y uno de los más fértiles para la agricultura puesto que no requiere fertilizantes. Se encuentra en algunas regiones semiáridas de clima frío a… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • chernozem — 1842, from Rus. chernozem, lit. black earth, from chernyi black + zemlya earth, soil …   Etymology dictionary

  • chernozem — [cher′nə zem΄, cher′ nəzyôm΄] n. [Russ < chernyi, black + zemlya, earth: for IE base see HOMAGE] a black topsoil, rich in humus and lime, found in grasslands of central European Russia …   English World dictionary

  • Chernozem — Véase también: Terra preta El río Ternivka atravesando la estepa ucraniana, una de las regiones geográficas típicas en las que se forma la tierra negra o (chernozëm). Chernozem (en ruso: чернозём, transliterado como chernozëm o chernoziom, en …   Wikipedia Español

  • Chernozem —    A darkly colored soil, chernozem or “black earth” contains high percentages of humus, phosphorus, and ammonia, thus making it one of the most fertile types of soil on Earth. There are two chernozem belts in the world; one is the Black Earth… …   Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation

  • chernozem — ● tchernozem ou tchernoziom ou chernozem nom masculin (russe tchernozem, terre noire) Sol type des steppes continentales froides et sèches de l Est européen (Ukraine) et que l on retrouve dans certaines zones du centre du Canada. (Il est… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Chernozem — Tchernoziom Le Tchernoziom (du russe : чернозём, contraction de tchernaia zemlia, « terre noire » ou riche en humus) est un type de sol. On rencontre également dans certains textes les termes Tchernozem et Chernozem, ce dernier… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • chernozem — /cherr neuh zem , chair /; Russ. /chyirdd nu zyawm /, n. a soil common in cool or temperate semiarid climates, very black and rich in humus and carbonates. [1835 45; < Russ chernozëm, equiv. to chërn(yi) black + o O + zëm, var., in compounds, of… …   Universalium

  • chernozem — juosvažemis statusas T sritis ekologija ir aplinkotyra apibrėžtis Automorfinis karbonatingas dirvožemis, susidaręs stepių ir miškastepių srityse po daugiametėmis žolėmis įvairiose uolienose (išskyrus smėlius), daugiausia karbonatinguose… …   Ekologijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • chernozem — noun Etymology: Russian, from chërnyĭ black + zemlya earth Date: 1841 any of a group of dark colored zonal soils with a deep rich humus horizon found in regions (as the grasslands of central North America) of temperate to cool climate •… …   New Collegiate Dictionary


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