Common bunt

Common bunt

Common bunt, also known as stinking smut and covered smut is a disease of both spring and winter wheats. It is caused by two very closely related fungi, Tilletia tritici (syn. Tilletia caries) and T. laevis (syn. T. foetida).



Plants with common bunt may be moderately stunted but infected plants cannot be easily recognized until near maturity and even then it is seldom conspicuous. After initial infection, the entire kernel is converted into a sorus consisting of a dark brown to black mass of teliospores covered by a modified periderm, which is thin and papery. The sorus is light to dark brown and is called a bunt ball. The bunt balls resemble wheat kernels but tend to be more spherical. The bunted heads are slender, bluish-green and may stay greener longer than healthy heads. The bunt balls change to a dull gray-brown at maturity, at which they become conspicuous. The fragile covering of the bunt balls are ruptured at harvest, producing clouds of spores. The spores have a fishy odor. Intact sori can also be found among harvested grain. [1][2]

Disease cycle

Millions of spores are released at harvest and contaminate healthy kernels or land on other plant parts or the soil. The spores persist on the contaminated kernels or in the soil. The disease is initiated when soil-borne, or in particular seed-borne, teliospores germinate in response to moisture and produce hyphae that infect germinating seeds by penetrating the coleoptile before plants emerge. Cool soil temperatures (5° to 10°C) favor infection. The intercellular hyphae become established in the apical meristem and are maintained systemically within the plant. After initial infection, hyphae are sparse in plants. The fungus proliferates in the spikes when ovaries begin to form. Sporulation occurs in endosperm tissue until the entire kernel is converted into a sorus consisting of a dark brown to black mass of teliospores covered by a modified periderm, which is thin and papery.


Well-defined pathogenic races have been found among the bunt population, and the classic gene-for-gene relationship is present between the fungus and host.


Control of common bunt includes using clean seed, seed treatments chemicals and resistant cultivars. Historically, seed treatment with organomercury fungicides reduced common bunt to manageable levels. Systemic seed treatment fungicides include carboxin, difenoconazole, triadimenol and others and are highly effective. However,in Australia and Greece, strains of T. laevis have developed resistance to polychlorobenzene fungicides.

See also

Karl Johanssvamp, Iduns kokbok.png Fungi portal

External links


  1. ^ Wiese, M.V. (1987). Compendium of wheat diseases. American Phytopathological Society. pp. 124 pp.. 
  2. ^ Martens, J.W.; W.L. Seaman, T.G. Atkinson (1984). Diseases of field crops in Canada. Canadian Phytopathological Society. pp. 160 pp.. 

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • Bunt — may mean:* Bunt (music), a musical instrument loosely related to the electric guitar, popularised by the cult British pop band Disco Bitch in the mid 1990s. * Bunt (aerobatics), an aerobatic maneuver also known as an outside loop * Bunt… …   Wikipedia

  • bunt — bunt1 bunter, n. /bunt/, v.t. 1. (of a goat or calf) to push with the horns or head; butt. 2. Baseball. to bat (a pitched ball) very gently so that it rolls into the infield close to home plate, usually by holding the bat loosely in hands spread… …   Universalium

  • Bunt (baseball) — A Little League baseball player squares around to bunt. A bunt is a special type of offensive technique in baseball or fastpitch softball. In a bunt play, the batter loosely holds the bat in front of the plate and intentionally taps the ball into …   Wikipedia

  • Bunt (community) — Infobox Ethnic group caption = Shilpa Shetty • Ajit, Baron Shetty• Aishwarya Rai group = Bunt pop = region1 = Tulu Nadu, Bangalore, Mumbai languages = Tulu, Kannada religions = Hinduism, Jainism related = Nair, TuluvaThe Bunts are a Tulu speaking …   Wikipedia

  • Sacrifice bunt — In baseball, a sacrifice bunt (also called a sacrifice hit) is the act of deliberately bunting the ball in a manner that allows a runner on base to advance to another base. The batter is almost always sacrificed (and to a certain degree that is… …   Wikipedia

  • Slap bunt — Slap bunting is an offensive softball/baseball technique where the idea behind the skill is to hit the ball to a place on the infield that s farthest from the place where the out needs to be made [ Walker, Kirk (2007). The Softball Drill Book… …   Wikipedia

  • Wheat diseases — In EuropeCereals are at risk from numerous diseases due to the level of intensification necessary for profitable production since the 1970s. More recently varietal diversification, good plant breeding and the availability of effective fungicides… …   Wikipedia

  • Wheat — This article is about the plant. For other uses, see Wheat (disambiguation). Wheat Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranke …   Wikipedia

  • Tilletia tritici — Taxobox | name = Tilletia tritici regnum = Fungi divisio = Basidiomycota classis = Ustilaginomycetes ordo = Tilletiales familia = Tilletiaceae genus = Tilletia species = T. tritici binomial = Tilletia tritici binomial authority = (Bjerk.) G.… …   Wikipedia

  • Heinrich Carl Weltzien — (* 7. März 1928 in Krefeld) ist ein deutscher Agrarwissenschaftler und Phytopathologe. Er war Direktor und Professor am Institut für Pflanzenkrankheiten der landwirtschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Bonn. Biographie Weltzien machte 1946 das… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

Поделиться ссылкой на выделенное

Прямая ссылка:
Нажмите правой клавишей мыши и выберите «Копировать ссылку»