Smut (fungus)

Smut (fungus)

The smuts are fungi, mostly Ustilaginomycetes (of the class Teliomycetae, subphylum Basidiomycota), that cause plant disease.

Smuts affect grasses, notably including cereal crops such as maize. They initially attack the plant's reproductive system, forming galls which darken and burst, releasing fungal spores which infect other plants nearby.

A smut infestation is controlled by removing and destroying the infected plants. In Agriculture, this process is known as destruction of the initial inoculum.

Sugarcane smut

Sugarcane smut or "culmicolous smut" is caused by the fungus "Ustilago scitaminea". The smut 'whip' is a curved black structure which emerges from the leaf whorl. Sugarcane smut causes significant losses to the economic value of a sugarcane crop. Sugarcane smut has recently been found in the Eastern Seaboard Areas of Australia, which is one of the world's highest-yielding sugar areas.

Corn smut

Corn smut, ("Ustilago maydis"), which infects maize, is a delicacy in Mexico, and Brazil, originally enjoyed by the Aztecs. It enlarges the ear of corn and fills it with sooty spores. Corn smut causes millions of dollars in crop damage every year. However, the immature galls of corn smut remain a popular delicacy and is deliberately cultivated in some areas as "huitlacoche".

ee also

*Loose smut, "Ustilago nuda"
*Covered smut "Tilletia tritici" (syn. "T. caries") and "T. laevis" (syn. "T. foetida")

External links

* [http://helios.bto.ed.ac.uk/bto/FungalBiology/grassmut.htm#top "Smut Fungi" from Deacon, J: "Fungal Biology", Blackwell Publishing, 2005]


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См. также в других словарях:

  • smut fungus — noun any fungus of the order Ustilaginales • Syn: ↑smut • Derivationally related forms: ↑smut (for: ↑smut) • Hypernyms: ↑fungus • H …   Useful english dictionary

  • flag smut fungus — noun a smut fungus causing a smut in cereals and other grasses that chiefly affects leaves and stems and is characterized chains of sori within the plant tissue that later rupture releasing black masses of spores • Hypernyms: ↑smut, ↑smut fungus… …   Useful english dictionary

  • green smut fungus — noun fungus causing green smut in rice • Syn: ↑Ustilaginoidea virens • Hypernyms: ↑fungus • Member Holonyms: ↑Ustilaginoidea, ↑genus Ustilaginoidea …   Useful english dictionary

  • Smut — may refer to: * Smut (fungus), a group of plant parasitic fungi * Smut (comics), an adult British comic title dating back to the 1980s * A colloquial term for obscenity * A colloquial term for pornography * Smut (song), satirical song on… …   Wikipedia

  • fungus — fungic /fun jik/, adj. funguslike, adj. /fung geuhs/, n., pl. fungi /fun juy, fung guy/, funguses, adj. n. 1. any of a diverse group of eukaryotic single celled or multinucleate organisms that live by decomposing and absorbing the organic… …   Universalium

  • smut ball — noun 1. : the spore mass into which the ovary of the host is converted by the stinking smut organism compare bunt II 2. : puffball * * * smut ball, 1. the ball of black powder into which an ear of grain is changed by the smut fungus. 2. =… …   Useful english dictionary

  • smut gall — noun : an abnormal growth composed of the tissues of the host and a smut fungus (as in boil smut of corn) …   Useful english dictionary

  • smut — /smut/, n., v., smutted, smutting. n. 1. a particle of soot; sooty matter. 2. a black or dirty mark; smudge. 3. indecent language or publications; obscenity. 4. Plant Pathol. a. a disease of plants, esp. cereal grasses, characterized by the… …   Universalium

  • smut — ► NOUN 1) a small flake of soot or dirt. 2) indecent or obscene talk, writing, or pictures. 3) a disease of cereals caused by a fungus, in which parts of the ear change to black powder. ► VERB (smutted, smutting) 1) mark with smuts. 2) …   English terms dictionary

  • smut — A fungal disease of cereal grains caused by species of Ustilago and characterized by dark brown or black masses of spores on the plants; e.g., corn s. (U. maydis); loose s. of wheat (U. nuda) * * * smut smət n any of various destructive diseases… …   Medical dictionary


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