] It was not until Rome had deposed the Pontic and Armenian kings that the rule of Ariobarzanes was established (63 BC). In the civil wars Cappadocia was now for
Pompey, now for Caesar, now for Antony, now against him. The Ariobarzanes dynasty came to an end and a certain Archelaus reigned in its stead, by favour first of Antony and then of Octavian, and maintained tributary independence until AD 17, when the emperor Tiberius, on Archelaus' death in disgrace, reduced Cappadocia at last to a Roman province. Much later it was a region of the Byzantine Empire.
Cappadocia contains several underground cities (see
Kaymaklı Underground City), largely used by early Christians as hiding places before they became a legitimate religion. The Cappadocian Fathersof the 4th century were integral to much of early Christian philosophy. It also produced, among other people, another Patriarch of Constantinople, John of Cappadocia, who held office 517–520. For most of the Byzantine era it remained relatively undisturbed by the conflicts in the area, first with the Sassanid Empireand later against the Islamic expansion led by Arabs.
Cappadocia shared an always changing relation with the neighbouring
Armenia, by that time a region of the Empire. The Arabhistorian Abu Al Farajpurports the following about Armenian settlers in Sivas, during the 10th century: "Sivas, in Cappadocia, was dominated by the Armenians and their numbers became so many that they became vital members of the imperial armies. These Armenians were used as watch-posts in strong fortresses, taken from the Arabs. They distinguished themselves as experienced infantry soldiers in the imperial army and were constantly fighting with outstanding courage and success by the side of the Romans in other words Byzantine". [Schlumberger, Un Emperor byzantin au X siècle, Paris, Nicéphore Phocas, Paris, 1890, p. 251] As a result of the Byzantine military campaigns, the Armenians spread into Cappadocia and eastward from Ciliciainto the mountainous areas of northern Syriaand Mesopotamia. This immigration was increased further after the decline of the local imperial power and the establishment of the Crusader Statesfollowing the 4th Crusade. Cappadocia became part of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, a state formed in the 12th century by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljukinvasion of Armenia and a close ally of the Crusaders.
Battle of Manzikertin 1071, various Turkish clansunder the leadership of the Seljuks began settling in Anatolia. With the rise of Turkish power in Anatolia, Cappadocia slowly became tributary to the Turkish states that were established to the east and to the west, and some of the population converted to Islam. By the end of the early 12th century, Anatolian Seljukshad established their sole dominance over the region. With the decline and the fall of the Konya-based Seljuks in the second half of the 13th century, they were gradually replaced by the Karaman-based Beylikof Karamanoğlu, who themselves were gradually succeeded by the Ottoman Empireover the course of the 15th century. Cappadocia remained part of the Ottoman Empire for the centuries to come, and remains now part of the modern state of Turkey. A fundamental change occurred in between when a new urban center, Nevşehir, was founded in the early 18th century by a grand vizierwho was a native of the locality ( Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Pasha), to serve as regional capital, a role the city continues to assume to this day.
In the meantime many former Cappadocians had shifted to a Turkish dialect (written in
Greek alphabet, "Karamanlıca"), and where the Greek languagewas maintained (Sille, villages near Kayseri, Pharasa town and other nearby villages), it became heavily influenced by the surrounding Turkish. This dialect of Greek is known as "Cappadocian Greek". Following the 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey, the language is now only spoken by a handful of the former population's descendants in modern Greece.
The area is a famous and popular tourist destination, as it has many areas with unique geological, historic and cultural features.
The region is southwest of the major city
Kayseri, which has airlineand railroad service to Ankaraand Istanbul.
The Cappadocia region is largely underlain by sedimentary rocks formed in lakes and streams, and
ignimbritedeposits erupted from ancient volcanoes approximately 9 to 3 million years ago (late Mioceneto Plioceneepochs). The rocks of Cappadocia near Göremeeroded into hundreds of spectacular pillars and minaret-like forms. The volcanic deposits are soft rocks that the people of the villages at the heart of the Cappadocia Region carved out to form houses, churches, monasteries. Göreme became a monastic center between 300-1200 AD. First period settlement in Göreme reaches to the Roman period from Christianity. Yusuf Koç, Ortahane, Durmus Kadir and Bezirhane churches in Göreme, houses and churches carved into rocks till to Uzundere, Bağıldere and Zemi Valley carries the mystical side of history today. The Göreme Open Air Museum is the most visited site of the monastic communities in Cappadocia and is one of the most famous sites in central Turkey. It is a complex comprising more than 30 rock-carved churches and chapels containing some superb frescoes, dating from the 9th to the 11th centuries.
In 1975 a study from three small villages in central Cappadocia—Tuzköy, Karain and Sarhdr—found that
mesotheliomacases caused 50% of all deaths. Initially, this was attributed to erionite, a mineral with similar properties to asbestos, but detailed epidemiological investigation demonstrated that the substance causes the disease mostly in families with a genetic predisposition to mineral fiber carcinogenesis. The studies are being extended to other parts of the region. [
* [http://www.livius.org/cao-caz/cappadocia/cappadocia.html Cappadocia on Livius]
* [http://www.aksaray.gov.tr/eng/index.html Aksaray Governor's Office]
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