- Turkish State Railways
Infobox rail network
caption = Haydarpaşa Train Station
nationalrailway = Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devlet Demiryolları
ridership = 85 million
passkm = 5,832 million
freight = 18.5 million tonnes
length = convert|8671|km|mi|0
gauge = RailGauge|sg
el = 25 kV 50 Hz AC
Turkish Republic State Railways ( _tr. Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devlet Demiryolları or TCDD) is the state corporation that operates the public
railwaysystem in Turkey. The organization was founded in 1927 to take over the operation of railways that were left within the borders of the Turkish Republic after the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, whose railway network had been run and financed by private corporations. TCDD operates over 8500 kilometres of railway lines and is a member of InterRail.
As the sole train operator in the country, TCDD operates all passenger, freight and suburban railways, including domestic and international departures. Until the opening of the Marmaray tunnel (
Bosporusundersea railway tunnel), the country will continue to have two separate railway networks (in Thraceand Anatolia) that are only connected through the Bosporus railway ferryin Istanbul.
European services (from
* "Bosphor Express (Bosfor Ekspresi)" 81032 - 4644 - 462, Route:
Istanbul, Sirkeci Terminal, Turkey- Kapikule, Turkey- Svilengrad, Bulgaria- Dimitrovgrad, Bulgaria- Rousse, Bulgaria- Bucharest, Romaniaand back.
* "Balkan Express (Balkan Ekspresi)" 490, Connects in
Dimitrovgrad, Bulgariawith Bosphor Express, Route: Dimitrovgrad, Bulgaria- Sofia, Bulgaria- Niš, Serbia- Belgrade, Serbiaand back.
* "Amity Express (Dostluk/Φιλια)" 81022 - 445, Route:
Istanbul, Sirkeci Terminal, Turkey- Uzunköprü, Turkey- Pythion, Greece- Thessaloniki, Greeceand back. This is the night train with sleeping coach.
Istanbul- ThessalonikiLine", IC 90/91, 81712, 82902, Route: Istanbul, Sirkeci Terminal, Turkey- Uzunköprü, Turkey- Pythion, Greece- Alexandroupolis, Greece- Komotini, Greece- Xanthi, Greece- Drama, Greece- Serres, Greece- Kilkis, Greece- Thessaloniki, Greeceand back. [ http://www.tcdd.gov.tr/yolcu/avrupa.htm ]
Asian (Middle-East) services (from
* "Trans-Asia Express (Trans-Asya Ekspresi)", Route:
Istanbul, Haydarpaşa Terminal, Turkey- Eskişehir, Turkey- Ankara, Turkey- Kayseri, Turkey- Sivas, Turkey- Malatya, Turkey- Elazığ, Turkey- Muş, Turkey- Tatvan, Turkey- TatvanTrainwharf, Turkey- Van Trainwharf, Turkey- Van, Turkey- Kapıköy, Turkey- Razi, Iran- Tebriz, Iran- Tahran, Iranand back.
* "Van -
TabrizLine", Route: Van, Turkey- Özalp, Turkey- Kapıköy, Turkey- Razi, Iran- Selmas, Iran- Tabriz, Iranand back.
Tahran- DamascusLine", Route: Tahran, Iran- Tebriz, Iran- Razi, Iran- Kapıköy, Turkey- Van, Turkey- Van Trainwharf, Turkey- TatvanTrainwharf, Turkey- Muş, Turkey- Elazığ, Turkey- Malatya, Turkey- Fevzipaşa, Turkey- Islahiye, Turkey- Meydanekbez, Turkey- Aleppo, Syria- Damascus, Syriaand back.
* "Taurus Express (Toros Ekspresi)", Route:
Istanbul, Haydarpaşa Terminal, Turkey- Eskişehir(Enveriye), Turkey- Kütahya, Turkey- Afyon, Turkey- Konya, Turkey- Adana, Turkey- Fevzipaşa, Turkey- Islahiye, Turkey- Meydanekbez, Turkey- Aleppo, Syria- Damascus, Syriaand back.
Gaziantep- Baghdad", temporarily suspended since the 13th March 2003, Route: Gaziantep, Turkey- Karkamış, Turkey- Akçakale, Turkey- Ceylanpınar, Turkey- Şenyurt, Turkey- Nusaybin, Turkey- Al Qamishli, Syria- El-Yaribieh, Iraq- Rabia, Iraq- Mosul, Iraq- Baghdad, Iraq[ http://www.tcdd.gov.tr/yolcu/ortadogu.htm ]
There are four independent
commuter trainservices in Turkey, two in Istanbul, one in Ankara and one in Izmir, operated by TCDD. All four services operate using either E8000 and/or E14000 electric multiple units. The systems operate at up to quarter hour headway, though they are not particularly well integrated into each cities remaining urban rail systems.
The history of Turkish Railways dates back to 1856. The first railway line in Turkey was the 130 km
İzmir- Aydınline, on which a British Company was appointed. The choice of this particular spot was not random. The İzmir - Aydın track was built because of its high commercial potential. Another reason was that this particular area had raw materials that were necessary for British industry. Also this area was important for controlling the Middle East, and at that time of the Ottoman Empire after the English were given the first license, Franceand Germany began to build up different areas where they exercised their power. Those countries tried to deliver the goods that were necessary for their industries, that they bought from the Ottoman Empire, as fast as possible to the seaports. The railways were built to be as efficient as possible, and were strategically placed, for example being within around 20 km of mines, etc. So the railways were actually placed according to the politicsof those foreign countries.
Between the years 1856 - 1922 the following tracks were built in the realm of the Ottoman Empire:
RumeliRailways 2383 km standard gauge
Rousse- Varna, 223 km, completed in 1866 by a British company; connected the Danube River to the Black Sea
Anatolia- BaghdadRailways 2424 km standard gauge, (" Baghdad Railway")
İzmir- Kasabaand its extensions 695 km standard gauge
* İzmir -
Aydınand its branches 610 km standard gauge
Damascus- Hamaand its extensions 498 km narrow and standard gauge
Jaffa- Jerusalem86 km standard gauge
* Bursa -
Mudanya42 km narrow gauge track
Ankara- Yahşihan80 km narrow gauge
Damascus- Medina1300 km narrow gauge, (" Hejaz railway")Total 9,919 km
In this case after the Republic was declared in Turkey, only 4000 km of the railway tracks that were built by foreign companies were left within the national borders. To be more precise, the young Turkish Republic inherited from the Ottoman Empire 2,282 km standard gauge lines and 70 km narrow gauge lines owned by foreign companies and 1,378 km standard gauge lines owned and operated by the former Ottoman Empire.
1923 - 1950: The railway period
Before the Republic was announced the railway tracks were build for the benefit of the foreign countries, but after the formation of the Republic in Turkey the railway tracks were built for the good of the Republic. This can be clearly seen of the industrialization plans released between 1932 and 1936 which were based on iron and coal etc. The cheapest and most efficient way to transport those goods was to build railways. In those years the financial assets of transportation were transferred to railways.
In those years of shortage, the construction of railways continued on high-speed. During the
Second World Warthe constructions slowed down. 3,578 km of the tracks that were built between 1923 and 1950, 3,208 km were completed before 1940.
At those times the railways were included in the National Economy procedures. The aim of constructing railways were stated as:
* To connect potential production centers with the natural resources.
* To connect production and consumer centers especially with seaports, and facilitate communications with rural areas.
* To connect commercially undeveloped areas, in order to speed up economic progress across the country. Through this policy 1927
Kayseri, 1930 Sivas, 1931 Malatya, 1933 Niğde, 1934 Elazığ, 1935 Diyarbakırand 1939 Erzurumwere connected to the railway network.
* To enhance national security, therefore creating a comprehensive communication network within the country with railways.
To reach those targets the railway politics were lead in two stages:
# Despite the financial problems, the railways that were owned by foreign companies were bought and nationalized, a part of it was transferred with agreements.
# Since most of the railways were concentrated in the West of Turkey, the aim was to connect the central and Eastern areas with trade centres and coasts. At this period the newly built main routes were: Ankara - Kayseri - Sivas, Sivas - Erzurum (the
Caucasusroute), Samsun - Kalin (the Sivas route), Irmak - Filyos (the Zonguldak coalroute), Adana - Fevzipaşa- Diyarbakır (the copperroute), Sivas - Çetinkaya(the ironroute). Before the Republic 70% of the routes were to the west of Ankara - Konya, after the Republic 78.6% were constructed in the east so that a balance of 46% to 54% was reached.
Between 1935 and 1945 the railways were joined. Those joinings created cycles in the railways which for example shortened the distance between Ankara - Diyarbakır from 1,324 km to 1,116 km.
1950 and after: the Golden Road period
The road system that was left from the Ottoman Empire, consisted of 13,885 km ruined surface roads, and 4.450 km stabilized roads, which totaled 18,335 km and 94 bridges. The road systems was seen until 1950 as a system to aid the railways. But instead of strengthening the rail network, the automobile roads were extended because of the Marshall plan.
After 1960 even though there were many targets that aimed at the extension of the railroads, most of the financial assets were transferred into automobile roads. Because of these politics, between the years 1950 and 1980 an average of 30 km of railroads were constructed.
In the mid 1980s in Turkey a mobilization was started to build
Autobahns, the Autobahns project was the third largest project after the Southeastern Anatolia Projectand tourismprojects. Because of those projects, until the mid 1990s about USD 2 billion were invested. In these years no investments were made to railroads, and no projects were initiated. Most of the railways (most of them more than 50 years old) were left to their own fate.
In Turkey goods are carried 94% on roads, and only 4% are carried on railroads. The share of goods transportation in Turkey by trains deceased in 50 years by 60%.
Turkey has chosen to electrify at the conventional 25 kV 50 Hz AC. The first lines electrified were the Istanbul suburban lines on the European side, from Sirkeci to Soğuksu on
December 4, 1955, and at the same time the E8000 electrical multiple units were taken into use. The Asian side suburban lines from Haydarpaşa to Gebze were electrified in 1969, while the Ankara suburban trains were electrified in 1972, on the line from Sincan to Kayaş.
February 6, 1977the track from Gebze to Adapazarı were made double trackand electrified, allowing the first main line operation of electric trains in Turkey. The line from Arifiyeoutside Adapazarı to Eskişehirwere further electrified in 1989 and in 1993 to Sincan, allowing electric train passage from Istanbul to Ankara. In 1994 the European line from Istanbul to Edirne, Kapıkuleand the Bulgarian border were also electrified. The same year the line from Divriğito İskenderunin Eastern Turkey was also electrified, though this line is not connected to the rest of the electrified network. In 2006 the Izmir suburban system was also electrified.
Tracks constructed before the Republic
Still in use
Route Opening Length (m) İzmir-Aydın Railroad Şirinyer - Buca 1860 2,452 İzmir - Sütlaç 1861 356,505 Torbalı - Tire 1883 47,541 Gaziemir - Seydiköy 1886 1,088 Alaşehir - Uşak 1887 117,810 Çatal - Ödemiş (Şehir) 1888 26,452 Goncalı - Denizli 1889 9,430 Sütlaç - Çivril 1889 30,224 Ortaklar - Söke 1890 22,012 Sütlaç - Eğirdir 1912 113,795 İzmir-Turgutlu (Kasaba) Railroad Basmane - Menemen 1865 31,680 Halkapınar - Bornova 1865 4,878 Menemen - Manisa - Turgutlu 1865 61,500 Turgutlu - Alaşehir 1875 75,790 Uşak - Afyon 1890 134,946 Manisa - Kırkağaç 1890 80,853 Kırkağaç – Bandırma 1912 195,244 Eastern Railroad Sirkeci - Yenikapı 1872 4,756 Yenikapı - Florya 1871 16,372 Florya - Hadımköy 1872 30,325 Hadımköy - Çatalca 1873 19,610 Çatalca - Hudut 1873 209,899 Karaağaç - Hudut 1873 7,137 Mandıra - Kırklareli 1912 45,594 Anatolia Railroad Haydarpaşa - Feneryolu 1872 5,088 Feneryolu - Pendik 1872 21,162 Pendik - Gebze 1873 19,681 Gebze - İzmit 1873 47,096 İzmit - Büyükderbent 1890 18,312 Büyükderbent - Mekece 1891 71,709 Mekece-Vezirhan 1891 32,831 Vezirhan - İnönü 1892 65,980 İnönü - Ağapınar 1892 55,823 Ağapınar - Yalınlı 1892 54,954 Yalınlı - Sazılar 1892 61,902 Sazılar - Beylikköprü 1892 14,317 Beylikköprü - Ankara 1892 109,516 Eskişehir - Kütahya 1894 76,984 Alayunt - Çöğürler 1895 19,631 Çöğürler - Afyon 1895 74,615 Afyon - Akşehir 1895 98,128 Akşehir - Ilgın 1896 57,641 Ilgın - Konya 1896 116,796 Arifiye - Adapazarı 1899 8,491 Baghdad Railroad Konya - Bulgurlu 1904 198,892 Bulgurlu - Ulukışla 1911 38,733 Ulukışla - Durak 1912 90,469 Durak - Yenice 1912 17,915 Southern Railroad Fevzipaşa - Meydanıekbez 1912 35,411 Border - Çobanköy - Nusaybin 1917 382,106 Derbesiye - Mardin 1917 24,340 Toprakkale - İskenderun 1912 59,220 Mersin-Tarsus-Adana Railroad Mersin - Yenice 1882 43,209 Yenice - Adana (City) 1886 23,949 Sarıkamış-Kars-Border Railroad Sarıkamış - Kars - Border
(broad line, can be converted to normal line)
1913 Before the Republic Main Routes 3,714,280 Before the Republic Secondary Routes 844,995 Before the Republic Total 4,558,995
narrow-gauge railways Track Length (m) Mudanya – Bursa 41,110 Ilıca - Palamutluk 28,391 Samsun - Çarşamba 39,465 Maden - Sarıkamış 231,940 Total 340,906
Projects under construction
The Marmaray project is a shared-rail underground
tunnelsystem which will connect the rail lines in the European and Asian sides of Istanbul under the Bosporusin Istanbul. It will thereby actually connect the European rail networks to the Middle Eastern and Asian rail networks. In addition, the tunnel will also have an important role in intracity transport, forming an east-west rail system line for the massively populated Istanbul metropolitan area. It is projected to relieve public transportation problems while increasing the percentage of the use of rail systems in public transportation from 3,6% to 27,7%. Such an increase would put Istanbul third in the world with regard to the use of public transportation, behind Tokyo (60%) and New York (31%).
High-Speed Rail Projects
Istanbul - Ankara High-Speed Track
The first high-speed railway will connect
Ankaravia Eskişehirto Istanbul. With this project, a trip from Istanbul to Ankara will take only about 3 hours at a maximum speed of 250 km/h. Trains for this section have been ordered from Spanish CAF.
Ankara - Konya
This new railway, that will dramatically shorten the travel time between
Ankaraand Konyato 70 minutes, will connect to the Istanbul-Ankara Line in Polatli. The same type of CAF trains will be used on this line.
Kars - Tblisi - Baku Railway
The foundation for the Kars-Tblisi-Baku Railway project has been laid on the 24th July 2008 in Kars in attendance of the President of the Turkish Republic Abdullah Gül, the President of Georgia Mihail Saakasvili and the President of the Republic of Azerbaidjan Ilhami Aliyev. The Railway project is expected to carry 1 million passengers, 6.5 million tons of freight in its initial phase. On short term it is predicted that 3 million passengers and 18 million tons of freight will be carried on the line. [ http://www.tcdd.gov.tr/haberler/karstiflis.htm ]
Ankara- Afyon - Uşak- İzmirline (joining to the Ankara- Konyaline in 25 km south of Polatlı)
Ankara- Yozgat- Sivasline
Ankara- Kayseriline (joining to the Ankara- Yozgat- Sivasline in Şefaatli)
Istanbul- Bursa/ Ankara- Bursaline (joining to the Istanbul- Ankaraline in Osmaneli)
Sivas- Erzincan- Erzurum- Kars line
Konya- Mersin( - Adana) line
İstanbul- Kapıkuleline (directing Sofiaat Bulgarian border)
Lake Vanbypass [ http://www.railpage.com.au/f-t11332640.htm ]
* [http://www.tcdd.gov.tr/ Turkish Republic Railways Company Website]
* [http://www.tuvasas.com.tr/ Turkish Railway Company (TÜVASAŞ) Website]
* [http://www.trainsofturkey.com/w/pmwiki.php/History.History A Short History of Turkish Railways including maps]
* [http://www.decev.org.tr/ Turkish Republic Railways Company Workers and Retired Personnel Social Aid Foundation]
* [http://www.kulturturizm.gov.tr/portal/arkeoloji_en.asp?belgeno=3858 Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture - Ankara Railway Museum]
* [http://www.ubak.gov.tr/ Republic of Turkey Ministry of Transport]
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