Campobasso


Campobasso

Infobox CityIT
img_coa = Campobasso-Stemma.png official_name = Comune di Campobasso
name=Campobasso
region = Molise
province = Campobasso (CB)
elevation_m = 700
area_total_km2 = 55
population_as_of = December 31, 2004
population_total = 51633
population_density_km2 =852
timezone = CET, UTC+1
coordinates = coord|41|34|N|14|40|E|display=inline,title
mapx=41.350
mapy=14.660
frazioni = Santo Stefano
telephone = 0874
postalcode = 86100
gentilic = Campobassani
saint = St. George
day = April 23
mayor = Giuseppe Di Fabio (since June 14, 2004)
website = [http://www.comune.campobasso.it www.comune.campobasso.it]

Campobasso (Campobassan Dialect: "Kambuàš") is the capital city of the Molise region in Italy. It is located in the high basin of the Biferno river, surrounded by the Sannio and Matese mountains. Campobasso is renowned for the craftmanship of blades (including scissors and knives), historically documented since the 14th century. It also famous for the production of pears and scamorza (cheese).

Climate

The city climate is continental of Appenninic kind. During winter the snowfalls are frequent. The most rainy season is autumn with about 81 mm in november. With an average temperature of about 12°C, Molise's capital is considered one of the coldest cities of Italy.

History

The origins of Campobasso are still disputed. According to the most agreed theory, the city was founded before the 8th century as a fortified camp by the Lombards, on the steep of the hill where a castle is. The original name was "Campus vassorum", meaning the city was in origin the seat of the vassals of the Duke of Spoleto.

After the Norman conquest of Southern Italy, Campobasso lost its connotation of a defensive strongpoint and gained a role as a trading and administration centre.

From 1330 to 1745 the city was ruled by the Monforte-Gambatesa, who built the castle and established a mint. Later it was ruled by the Di Capua, Gonzaga, Vitagliano, Carafa and Romano families.

In 1763 the citizens abandoned the old city and settled in the lower valley. The current city was expanded in 1814 by the King of Naples Joachim Murat, and lies on the "Campo Basso" ("Low field").

In the October and November 1943 Campobasso was the centre of fights between the Allies and German troops. Several buildings and plant were destroyed, and 38 citizens were killed. In 1995 the city received the Bronze Medal for Civil Valour for the harsh work made by the Campobassani to clean all territory from dangerous unexploded warheads, a work that lasted well into 1948.

Main sights

The main attraction of Campobasso is the "Castello Monforte", built in 1450 by the local ruler Nicola II Monforte, over Lombard of Norman ruins. The castle has Guelph merlons and lies on a commanding point, where traces of ancient settlements (including Samnite walls) have been found. The current construction is the result of later rebuildings after the earthquakes of 1456 and 1805.

Next to the castle is the "Chiesa della Madonna del Monte" (Santa Maria Maggiore), erected in the 11th century and rebuilt in 1525. It houses a precious wooden statue of the "Incoronata" from 1334. At the feet of the castle, the church of St. George is probably the most ancient church of Campobasso, built around the year 1000 AD over the ruins of a Pagan temple.

The main church is the Cathedral, or "Chiesa della Santissima Trinità" (Church of the Holy Trinity), was built in 1504 outside the city walls. It was destroyed by an earthquake in 1805 and a new Neoclassical edifice was built in 1829.

The church of "San Bartolomeo" is a Romanesque building from the 11th century, in limestone. The interior has a nave and two aisles.

"San Leonardo" (14th century) has a façade mixing Gothic and Romanesque elements, and a side mullioned window with vegetables decorations influenced by the Apulian architecture of the period.

"Villa de Capoa", recently restored, is a noteworthy garden with statues and a wide variety of vegetable species, including sequoias, Norway Spruces, cypresses and Lebanon Cedars.

Transportation

Railways

The railway traffic is guaranteed by the station located in the center of the city and managed by Trenitalia, through what pass two lines: the Termoli-Vairano and the Benevento-Campobasso. In this station all the trains stop, and the main destinations are Rome, Naples, Benevento, Pescara and Termoli.

Roads and highways

The road traffic is regulated by the State Roa Sannitica, by the State Road SS645 Del Tappino and by the State Road 647 Fondo Valle del Biferno.

Recently The Molise Region and the Anas got unified in the Autostrade del Molise S.p.A. to realize the Termoli-San Vittore Highway that will connect the city to San Vittore del Lazio, making the travels from/to Rome faster.

Public transport

The urban public transport consists in 23 lines of autobus managed by the SEAC s.r.l. (Campobasso).

Urban lines:
* Line 1N: 1 Nero - Via Carducci - Zona Ind.le;
* Line 1R: 1 Rosso - Viale Manzoni - Via Labanca;
* Line 2: P.D'Ovidio - Via Scarano;
* Line 3: P.D'Ovidio - Cimitero;
* Line 4: Macchie;
* Line 5: Piazza Pepe - Via Vico;
* Line 6: Piazza Pepe - Viale Manzoni;
* Line 7: Colle dell'Orso - Mascione;
* Line 8: Licei;
* Line 9": Ospedale - Cattolica;
* Line 10: San Giovanni (Via Mazzini);
* Line 11: San Giovanni (Via Vazzieri);
* Line 13: Cacciapesci;
* Line 14: Calvario - Colle Leone;
* Line 15: Cese;
* Line 16: Coste di Oratino;
* Line 18: Feudo;
* Line 19: Foce;
*Line 20: Istituto Geometri;
*Line 21: Limiti Inchiusi;
*Line 22: San Lorenzo;
*Line 23: Monacesca;
*Line T: Terminal.

Image gallery


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