Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo


Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo

Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo (Cuenca Province, c. 1612-Madrid, 10 February, 1667) was a Spanish Baroque portrait and landscape painter, the most distinguished of the followers of Velázquez, whose style he imitated more closely than did any other artist. [ López Rey, José: "Velázquez", p. 207 ] A fine painter himself, Mazo was a master of landscape, as proven by his most celebrated work "View of Saragossa".

Life

Little is really known about Mazo’s early life. The date and place of his birth are uncertain. Apparently, he was born in Cuenca as his parents, Hernando Martinez and Lucia Bueno del Mazo, were from that province. However, some sources consider Madrid as his native city. The date of his birth has been estimated around 1612 since it is known that his mother was born in 1596 and he married in 1633 when he probably was in his early twenties. [ López Rey, José: "Velázquez", p. 204 ] .

The whereabouts of his training remain a mystery. He must have been in Velázquez workshop sometimes before his marriage, so it is quite posible that, like Velázquez himself, he had been his future father in law's apprentice. Mazo followed the same path and married the famous painter’s only surviving daughter, Francisca de Silva Velázquez y Pacheco, on August 21, 1633, at the Church of Santiago in Madrid. [ López Rey, José: "Velázquez", p. 204 ] . [ López Rey, José: "Velázquez", p. 204 ] . Philip IV and the Prime Minister, Olivares, served as the couple’s sponsors. The marriage was the event that guaranteed Mazo’s future success at court. Velázquez immediately arranged a royal appointment and on February 23, 1634, he transferred to Mazo his position of Usher of the King’s Chamber, with the permission of the King. From this it can be assumed that Mazo was then already a disciple of the famous painter, and from that date, he was closely associated with his father-in-law with whom he lived and collaborated. Velázquez furthered Mazo's career with a steady hand and secured palace appointments for him and later for Mazo’s children.

Early career

In 1643, Mazo became master of drawing and personal painter of the heir to the Spanish Crown, Baltasar Carlos, Prince of Asturias, who in 1645 became godfather of his fifth child. Baltasar Carlos commissioned him to copy hunt scenes by Paul de Vos, Rubens, Jordaens and other Flemish painters. [ López Rey, José: "Velázquez", p. 207 ] .Mazo accompanied the prince to Aragón in 1646. During this trip, he painted the famous View of Saragossa and a last portrait of the young prince who died unexpectedly, at the age of sixteen. After the death of the prince, Philip IV decreed that the perquisites that Mazo had been receiving be continued, and kept him employed as a painter.

Mazo first expressed his talent copying works of Venetian masters in the royal collections, such as Tintoretto, Titian, and Paul Veronese, a task that he performed with assiduity and success. His colorful work as a copyist opened his way to the secrets of the great masters of his time, especially Rubens and Jordaens. Such copies must have considerably cut down the time available for his original work. So did the production of replicas after Velázquez royal portraits that he painted like the one of Infanta Margarita of Austria that today is exhibited next to the original one in a Viennese museum. Nevertheless, Mazo still felt free to follow his own bent for brilliancy of execution and true to life naturalism.

Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo signed his works rarely, which furthered the confusion with the work of Velázquez, making it difficult to separate the authorship of their paintings. In fact, there are few extant paintings that scholars agree are his. These include "View of Saragossa" (1646, Prado); "Portrait of Queen Mariana in Mourning Dress" (1666, National Gallery, London); and "The Family of the Painter" (c. 1660-1665), Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna). He has some of his works in the Prado, near those of his mentor.

Although Mazo acquired great skills as a portrait painter, some of his most interesting works are hunting pieces and landscapes in which he developed a more personal style with respect for reality. They are animated with multitudes of figures treated with extreme detail. His landscapes are works of great observations as his "View of Saragossa" and " Stag Hunt at Aranjuez" works commissioned by Philip IV. He also painted some still lifes. In 1657 Mazo traveled to Italy trying to recover the dowry of his eldest daughter Ines who had become a widow in Naples. During this trip, Mazo painted "The Arch of Tito" that shows the influence of Roman landscapes.

Personal Style

Mazo’s works owe credit above all to Velázquez, whose style he was long compelled to emulate in court portraits. However, Mazo shows in his paintings a personality of his own. His portraits exhibit startling naturalism and marvelously executed. Mazo was specially skillful in painting small figures, a cardinal element in both his hunting scenes and the landscapes he painted as in his most celebrate work "View of Saragossa". [ López Rey, José: "Velázquez", p. 207 ]

Mazo’s palette was rather like that of Velázquez, except for a penchant often shown for stressing blue or bluish tints. [ López Rey, José: "Velázquez", p. 207 ] .The departure from his master style was in his way of shaping people and things by highlights which flash the pictorial image towards the surface of the painting, even from the background. [ López Rey, José: "Velázquez", p. 207 ] . As a counterbalance, an explicit, even emphatic, perspective design marks out the spatial confines of the composition, making it appear squarish. [ López Rey, José: "Velázquez", p. 207 ] . A further departure from Velázquez is his luxurious depiction of detail or incident, which he achieved with brilliant, depthless strokes, whether on the figure of a sitter, a curtain on a wall, a floor, the surface of a river, or plain grounds. [ López Rey, José: "Velázquez", p. 207 ] .These stylistic traits reveal Mazo’s own personality as an artist. [ López Rey, José: "Velázquez", p. 207 ] .For centuries, Mazo’s paintings were attributed to Velázquez, but modern art criticism, techniques and knowledge have been able to separate their works.

Official Court Painter

As long as Velázquez lived, Mazo wrought all of his art in his father-in-law's studio. After Velázquez's death in 1660, Philip IV appointed him as the official court painter on April 19, 1661, while his son Gaspar took his former position as Usher to the Chamber. At the death of Philip IV in 1665, Mazo kept his position at court under the regency of Queen Mariana, whose portrait in mourning dress (National Gallery, London, 1666) is one of his few signed works. In this period, he painted a portrait of Infanta Margarita also in mourning dress, before she left Spain to marry the Austrian Emperor. Mazo held his position as official court painter until his death in Madrid on February 9, 1667.

Descendants

Juan Bautista Martinez del Mazo's first wife Francisca Silva Velázquez (1619–1654) gave him seven children; she died shortly after the last child was born. His second wife, Francisca de La Vega, shown in his painting "The Family of the Painter", died in 1665; they had four sons. His third wife was his sister-in-law, Ana de la Vega, who survived him and remarried. Through the offspring of his daughter Maria Teresa Martinez del Mazo y Velázquez (1648-1692), his direct descendants include Queen Sofía, Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands, King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, Albert II of Belgium, Hans Adam II of Liechtenstein, and members of many other European royal families.

Notes

Bibliography

*López- Rey, José, "Velázquez", Taschen, 1999. ISBN 3822865338.
*Mallory, Nina A, "El Greco to Murillo: Spanish pinting in the Golden Age, 1556-1700 ",Icon Editions,1990. ISBN 0064355314.
*cite book| first=Pedro de| last=Madrazo| year=1872| title=Catálogo Descriptivo e Histórico del Museo del Prado de Madrid (Parte Primera: Escuelas Italianas y Españolas)| editor = | pages= pages 442-444| publisher=M. Rivadeneyra|location=Calle del Duque de Osuna #3; Original from Oxford University, Digitized May 1, 2007| id=|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=Tu8HAAAAQAAJ&pg=PP7&dq=Catalogo+Prado+Madrazo&as_brr=1| authorlink=


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  • Juan Bautista Martinez del Mazo — Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo (* etwa 1612 in der Provinz Cuenca, Spanien; † 10. Februar 1667 in Madrid) war ein spanischer Porträt und Landschafts Maler des Barock, der sich in seinem Stil sehr stark an seinem Schwiegervater Diego Velázquez… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Juan Bautista Martinez del Mazo — Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo (vers 1612 1667) est un peintre espagnol de l ère baroque. Il devint le beau fils de Diego Vélasquez en épousant la fille de ce dernier, Francisca, et put dès lors intégrer la cour… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Juan Bautista Martínez Del Mazo — (vers 1612 1667) est un peintre espagnol de l ère baroque. Il devint le beau fils de Diego Vélasquez en épousant la fille de ce dernier, Francisca, et put dès lors intégrer la cour du roi Philippe IV d Espagne sous la protection de son puissant… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Juan bautista martínez del mazo — (vers 1612 1667) est un peintre espagnol de l ère baroque. Il devint le beau fils de Diego Vélasquez en épousant la fille de ce dernier, Francisca, et put dès lors intégrer la cour du roi Philippe IV d Espagne sous la protection de son puissant… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo — (* etwa 1612 in der Provinz Cuenca, Spanien; † 10. Februar 1667 in Madrid) war ein spanischer Porträt und Landschaftsmaler des Barock, der sich in seinem Stil sehr stark an jenem seines Schwiegervaters Diego Velázquez orientierte. Werke (Auszug) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo — es un pintor español nacido Beteta (Cuenca), localidad de Castilla La Mancha, hacia 1611; murió en Madrid en 1667. Se sabe muy poco de la vida de este pintor hasta que en agosto de 1633 contrajo matrimonio con Francisca, una hija de Velázquez… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo — Vista de Zaragoza, Museo del Prado. Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo (Cuenca, Castilla La Mancha, 1605 Madrid, 1667) fue un pintor español, yerno y ayudante de Velázquez. Fue bautizado el 22 de mayo de 1605 en la …   Wikipedia Español

  • Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Martínez. Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo (1605 1667) est un peintre espagnol de l ère baroque …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Martínez del Mazo —   [mar tinɛȓ ȓɛl maθo], Juan Bautista, spanischer Maler, Mazo, Juan Bautista Martínez del …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Bautista del Mazo — Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo (* etwa 1612 in der Provinz Cuenca, Spanien; † 10. Februar 1667 in Madrid) war ein spanischer Porträt und Landschafts Maler des Barock, der sich in seinem Stil sehr stark an seinem Schwiegervater Diego Velázquez… …   Deutsch Wikipedia


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