Pan-Islamism (اتّحاد الاسلام) is a
politicalmovement advocating the unity of Muslims under one Islamic stateor a Caliphate. [Ottomanism, Pan-Islamism,and the Caliphate; Discourse at the Turn of the 20th Century, American University in Cairo,The Middle East Studies Program [http://www.aucegypt.edu/academic/mesc/PDF/Barqiyya%20feb.04.pdf] ] While Pan-Arabismadvocates the unity and independence of Arabs regardless of religion, pan-Islamism advocates the unity and independence of Muslims regardless of ethnicity.
The model of pan-Islamism aims to follow what can be described as the early years of Islam - the reign of Muhammad and the early caliphate - when the Muslim world was united and strong as one state.
In the modern era,
Jamal al-Din al-Afghanipromoted unity among Muslims to resist colonial occupation of Muslim lands. Al-Afghani's policies were highly progressive according to grad student Danielle Costa:
Afghani believed that to live in the modern world demanded changes in Muslim ways of organizing society, and that it must try to make those changes while remaining true to itself. Islam, Afghani believed, was not only compatible with reason, progress and social solidarity, the bases of modern civilization, but if properly interpreted it positively enjoined them. [ Afghani's Vision of a Pan-Islamic Civilization, by Danielle Costa ,
TUFTSUniversity [http://www.indyflicks.com/danielle/papers/paper13.htm] ]
While Afghani's interest in
Islamic law and theologywas scant, ["Faith and Power" by Edward Mortimer Vintage; Vintage Books, 1982)] later Pan-Islamism in the post-colonial world was strongly associated with Islamism. Leading Islamists such as Sayyid Qutb, Abul Ala Maududi, and Ayatollah Khomeiniall stressed their belief that a return to traditional Sharialaw would make Islam united and strong again.
In the period of decolonialism following World War II, nationalism overshadowed
Islamism. In the Arab world secular pan-Arab parties - Baathand Nasserist parties - had offshoots in almost every Arab country, and took power in Egypt, Libya, Iraq and Syria. Islamists suffered severe repression; it's major thinker Syed Qutb, was imprisoned, underwent torture and was later executed.
Following the stunning defeat of Arab armies in the
Six-Day War, Islamism and Pan-Islam began to reverse their releative position of popularity with nationalism and pan-Arabism. In 1979 the Iranian Revolutionousted Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavifrom power, and ten years later the Afghan Muslim mujahideen successfully forced the Soviet Union from Afghanistan. These events galvanised Islamists the world over and heightened their popularity with the Muslim public. Throughout the Middle-East, and in particular Egypt, the various branches of the Muslim Brotherhoodhave significantly challenged the secular nationalist or monarchical Muslim governments. In Pakistanthe Jamaat-e-Islamienjoyed popular support especially since the formation of the MMA, and in Algeria the FISwas expected to win the cancelled elections in 1992. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Hizb-ut-Tahrirhas emerged as a Pan-Islamist force in Central Asiaand in the last five years has developed some support the Arab world. [http://jamestown.org/terrorism/news/article.php?articleid=2370234 Hizb-ut-Tahrir's Growing Appeal in the Arab World] Jamestown Foundation]
Historical Shi'a-Sunni relations
*Azmi Özcan. " [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN9004106324&id=s04pus5jBNwC&dq=pan-islamism Pan-Islamism: Indian Muslims, the Ottomans and Britain (1877-1924)] ", Brill Academic Publishers, 1997,
*Nazir Ahmad Khan Chaudri. " [http://books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC00698646&id=sm4LAAAAIAAJ&dq=%22pan-islamism%22&q=%22pan-islamism%22&pgis=1 Commonwealth of Muslim States: a plea for Pan-Islamism] ", al-Ahibba (Friends of the Muslim World Muhibban-e-Alam-e-Islami), 1972.
*M. Naeem Qureshi. " [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN9004113711&id=czKYZPyoyx0C&dq=%22pan-islamism%22 Pan-Islam in British Indian Politics: A Study of the Khilafat Movement, 1918-1924] ", Brill Academic Publishers, 1999,
* [http://www.indyflicks.com/danielle/papers/paper13.htm al-Afghani's Vision of a Pan-Islamic Civilization]
* [http://www.cis-ca.org/voices/a/afghni.htm al-Afghani Bibliography]
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Pan-Islamism — Pan Islamic /pan is lam ik, lah mik, iz /, adj. /pan is lah miz euhm, iz , is leuh miz , iz /, n. the idea or advocacy of a political union of all Muslim nations. [1880 85; PAN + ISLAMISM] * * * … Universalium
pan-islamism — noun see pan islam * * * Pan Islamic /pan is lam ik, lah mik, iz /, adj. /pan is lah miz euhm, iz , is leuh miz , iz /, n. the idea or advocacy of a political union of all Muslim nations. [1880 85; PAN + ISLAMISM] * * * Pan Isˈlamism noun An… … Useful english dictionary
pan-Islamism — /pæn ˈɪzləmɪzəm/ (say pan izluhmizuhm) noun the idea or advocacy of a union of all Muslim nations in one political body. –pan Islam /pæn ˈɪzlam/ (say pan izlahm), noun –pan Islamic /pæn ɪzˈlæmɪk/ (say pan iz lamik), adjective … Australian English dictionary
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party — Parti Islam Se Malaysia ڤرتي اسلام س مليسيا 马来西亚伊斯兰党 பான் மலேசிய இஸ்லாமிய கட்சி Leader Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat (Spiritual Advisor) … Wikipedia
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