- Freedom of religion in the United States
In the United States,
freedom of religionis a constitutionally guaranteed right provided in the religion clauses of the First Amendment. Freedom of religion is also closely associated with separation of church and state, a concept which was written of by Thomas Jefferson. [cite web
url = http://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/9806/danpre.html
title = Jefferson's Letter to the Danbury Baptists
accessdate = 2006-11-30
last = Jefferson
first = Thomas
publisher = U.S. Library of Congress]
The modern legal concept of religious freedom as the union of "freedom of belief" and "freedom of worship" with the absence of any state-sponsored religion, originated in the
United States of America.
The United States Constitution addresses the issue of religion in two places: in the First Amendment, and the Article VI prohibition on religious tests as a condition for holding public office. The First Amendment prohibits the federal government from making a law "respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof" This provision was later expanded to state and local governments, through the Incorporation of the Fourteenth Amendment.
The Establishment Clause
The First Amendment "
Establishment Clause," stating that "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion," is generally read to prohibit the Federal government from establishing a national church ("religion") or excessively involving itself in religion, particularly to the benefit of one religion over another. Following the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitutionand through the doctrine of incorporation, this restriction is held to be applicable to state governments as well.
The Free Exercise Clause
Free Exercise Clause" states that Congress can not "prohibit the free exercise" of religious practices.
The Supreme Court has consistently held, however, that even though the First Amendment guarantees the right to free exercise, this right is not absolute. For example, in the 1800s, Some of the members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints traditionally practiced
polygamy, yet in " Reynolds v. United States" (1879), the Supreme Court upheld the criminal conviction of one of these members under a federal law barring polygamy. The Court reasoned that to do otherwise would set precedent for a full range of religious beliefs including those as extreme as human sacrifice.The Court stated that "Laws are made for the government of actions, and while they cannot interfere with mere religious belief and opinions, they may with practices." For example, if you were part of a religion that believed in vampirism, the First Amendment would protect your belief in vampirism, but not the practice. This principle has similarly been applied to those attempting to claim religious exemptions for smoking [cannabis] [S. v. Kuch 288 FSup. 439 (1968) ("Those who seek constitutional protections for their participation in an establishment of religion and freedom to practice its beliefs must not be permitted the special freedoms that this special sanctuary may provide merely by adopting religious nomenclature and cynically using it as a shield to protect them when participating in anti-social conduct that otherwise stands condemned.")] Failed verification|date=April 2007, or, as in the case of " Employment Division v. Smith" (1990), the use of the hallucinogen peyote. Currently, peyoteand ayahuascaare allowed by legal precedent if used in a religious ceremony; though cannabisis not.
The affirmation or denial of specific religious beliefs had, in the past, been made into qualifications for public office; however, the
United States Constitutionstates that the inauguration of a President may include an "affirmation" of the faithful execution of his duties rather than an "oath" to that effect — this provision was included in order to respect the religious prerogatives of the Quakers, a Protestant Christian denomination that declines the swearing of oaths. The U.S. Constitution also provides that "No religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification of any Office or public Trust under the United States."As of 2007, seven states have language included in their constitutions that requires state office-holders to have particular religious beliefs. These states are Texas, Massachusetts, Maryland, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee. [For instance in Texas an official may be "excluded from holding office" if he/she does not "acknowledge the existence of a Supreme Being." (i.e. God) [http://tlo2.tlc.state.tx.us/txconst/sections/cn000100-000400.html Texas Legislature Online] ] Some of these beliefs (or oaths) were historically required of jurors and witnesses in court. Even though they are still on the books, these provisions have been rendered unenforceable by U.S. Supreme Court decisions. [cite web
title=Religious Discrimination in U.S. State Constitutions
publisher=Ontario consultants on religious tolerance
Religious liberty has not prohibited states or the federal government from prohibiting or regulating certain behaviors; i.e.
prostitution, gambling, alcoholand certain drugs, although some libertarians interpret religious freedom to extend to these behaviors. However, the United States Supreme Courthas ruled that a right to privacyor a due processright does prevent the government from prohibiting adult access to birth control, pornography, or outlawing early trimester abortionsand acts of sodomy.
The "wall of separation"
Thomas Jeffersonwrote that the First Amendment erected a " wall of separationbetween church and state". James Madison, often regarded as the "Father of the Bill of Rights", [Wood, 2006b.] also often wrote of the "perfect separation", [Letter to Edward Livingston, July 10, 1822] "line of separation", [letter to Rev Jasper Adams spring 1832] "strongly guarded as is the separation between religion and government in the Constitution of the United States", [Detached Memoranda, 1820] and "total separation of the church from the state". [letter to Robert Walsh, Mar. 2, 1819] Controversy rages in the United States between those who wish to restrict government involvement with religious institutions and remove religious references from government institutions and property, and those who wish to loosen such prohibitions. Advocates for stronger separation of church and stateemphasize the plurality of faiths and non-faiths in the country, and what they see as broad guarantees of the federal Constitution. Their opponents emphasize what they see as the largely Christian heritage and history of the nation (often citing the references to "Nature's God" and the "Creator" of men in the Declaration of Independence). Some more socially conservative Christian sects, such as the Christian Reconstructionist movement, oppose the concept of a "wall of separation" and prefer a closer relationship between church and state.
Problems also arise in U.S. public schools concerning the teaching and display of religious issues. In various counties,
school choiceand school vouchershave been put forward as solutions to accommodate variety in beliefs and freedom of religion, by allowing individual school boards to choose between a secular, religious or multi-faith vocation, and allowing parents free choice among these schools. Critics of American voucher programs claim that they take funds away from public schools, and that the amount of funds given by vouchers is not enough to help many middle and working class parents.
U.S. judges often ordered alcoholic defendants to attend
Alcoholics Anonymousor face imprisonment. However, in 1999, a federal appeals court ruled this unconstitutional because the A.A. program relies on submission to a "Higher Power".
Thomas Jefferson also played a large role in the formation of freedom of religion. He created the
Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, which has since been incorporated into the Virginia State Constitution.
United States of Americawas established on foundational principles by the Declaration of Independence: [cite web
title=Declaration of Independence : July 4, 1776
publisher=The Avalon Project at Yale Law School
We hold these truths to be self-evident:That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that, to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed;(based on Thomas Jefferson's draft.)
ituation of Mormons 1820-1890
Latter Day Saint movementand Mormonismhave been the victim of religious violencebeginning with reports by founder Joseph Smith, Jr.immediately after his First Vision1820 [ [http://scriptures.lds.org/en/js_h/1/20-25 Joseph Smith - History 1:20-25] ] and continuing as the movement grew and migrated from its inception in western New Yorkto Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. The violence culminated with the death of Joseph Smith, Jr., who was killed by a mob of 200 men in Carthage Jailin 1844. Joseph Smith had surrendered himself previously to the authorities, who failed to protect him. As a result of the violence they were faced with in the East, the Mormon pioneersmigrated westwards and eventually founded Salt Lake City, and many other communities along the Mormon Corridor.
With the concept of
plural marriage, from 1830 till 1890 the Mormonfaith allowed its member to practice polygamy; since 1843 this was limited to polygyny(one man could have several women). The notion of polygamy was not only generally disdained by most of Joseph Smith's contemporaries, [In 1854 the Republican party referred to polygamy in its platform as one of the "twin relics of barbarism" (in addition to slavery). see: History of civil marriage in the U.S.] it is also contrary to the traditional Christian understanding of marriage. After 1844 the United States government passed legislation aimed specifically at the Mormon practice of polygamyuntil the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saintsofficially renounced it and Utahwas admitted to the Union. In the case of Reynolds v. United States, the U.S. supreme court clarified that "religious duty" was not a suitable defense to an indictment for polygamy. Basically a law against polygamy does not discriminate against a religion that endorses polygamy.
Smith and his followers experienced relatively low levels of persecution in New York and Ohio, although one incident involved Smith being dragged out of his home in the middle of the night and then
tarred and feathered. [ The historian Fawn M. Brodie(, 119) speculated that one of John Johnson's sons, Eli, meant to punish Joseph by having him castrated for an intimacy with his sister, Nancy Marinda Johnson. However, historian Richard Lyman Bushmanstates that hypothesis failed. Bushman feels a more probable motivation is recorded by Symonds Ryder, a participant in the event, who felt Smith was plotting to take property from members of the community and a company of citizens violently warned Smith that they would not accept those actions.] They would eventually move on to Missouri, where some of the worst atrocities against Mormons would take place. Smith declared the area around Independence, Missourito be the site of Zion, inspiring a massive influx of Mormon converts. Locals, alarmed by rumors of the strange, new religion (including rumors of polygamy),Fact|date=December 2007 attempted to drive the Mormons out. This resulted in the Mormon War, the Haun's Mill massacre, and the issue of the infamous Extermination Orderby Governor Lilburn Boggs, [ http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Extermination_Order_%28Mormonism%29 ] which ordered all Mormons to leave the state or face extinction. The majority of Mormons would flee to Illinois, where they were received warmly by the village of Commerce, Illinois. The Mormons quickly expanded the town and renamed it Nauvoo, which was one of the largest cities in Illinois at the time. [cite book | last= Arrington | first= Leonard J | coauthors= Bitton, Davis | title= The Mormon Experience: A History of the Latter-day Saints | location= Urbana, Illinois | publisher= University of Illinois Press | edition= 2 | date= March 1, 1992 | isbn= 0252062361 Page 69.] The economic, political, and religious dominance of the Mormons (Smith was mayor and captain of the local militia) inspired mobs to attack the city, and Smith was arrested for destroying the press of an anti-Mormon newspaper, although he acted with the consent of the city council. [cite web | title= The Destruction of the "Nauvoo Expositor"—Proceedings of the Nauvoo City Council and Mayor | url= http://byustudies2.byu.edu/hc/6/22.html | publisher= BYU] He was imprisoned, along with his brother Hyrum Smith, at Carthage Jail. They were attacked by a mob of about 200 men and killed.
succession crisis, most of the Mormons united under Brigham Young, who organized an evacuation from Nauvoo and from the United States itself after the federal government refused to protect the Mormons. [cite journal | last = Smith | first = Joseph Fielding | authorlink = Joseph Fielding Smith | title = Church History and Modern Revelation | volume = 4 | pages = 167–173 | publisher = Deseret Book| date= 1946-1949 ] Young and an eventual 50,000-70,000 would cross the Great Plainsto settle in the Salt Lake Valleyand the surrounding area. After the events of the Mexican-American War, the area became a United States territory. Young immediately petitioned for the addition of the State of Deseret, but the federal government declined, probablyweasel-inline because of the great size of the territory, its low population, and the dominance of the Mormons. Instead, Congress carved out the much smaller territory of Utah. Over the next 46 years, several acts of Congress were directed at Mormons, specifically to curtail the practice of polygamy and to reduce their political power. These acts included the Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act, Poland Act, and Edmunds-Tucker Act. In 1890, Church President Wilford Woodruffissued the Manifesto, ending polygamy.
upreme Court rulings
Since the 1940s, the Jehovah's Witnesses have often invoked the First Amendment's freedom of religion clauses to protect their ability to engage in the proselytizing that is central to their faith. This series of litigation has helped to define civil liberties case law in the
United Statesand Canada.
According to Shawn Peters, Jehovah's Witnesses have helped to widen the definition of civil liberties in most western societies, broadening the rights of millions of people as a result of their firm stand and determination. [cite book |title=Judging Jehovah's Witnesses: Religious Persecution and the Dawn of the Rights Revolution |first=Shawn Francis |last=Peters |publisher=University Press of Kansas |year=2002]
United States of Americaand several other countries, the legal struggles of the Jehovah's Witnesses have yielded some of the most important judicial decisions regarding freedom of religion, press and speech. In the United States, many Supreme Court cases involving Jehovah's Witnessesare now landmark decisions of First Amendmentlaw. Of the 72 cases involving the Jehovah's Witnesses that have been brought before the U.S. Supreme Court, the Court has ruled in favor of them 47 times. Even the cases that the Jehovah's Witnesses lost helped the U.S. to more clearly define the limits of First Amendment rights. Former Supreme Court Justice Harlan Stonejokingly suggested "The Jehovah's Witnesses ought to have an endowment in view of the aid which they give in solving the legal problems of civil liberties." "Like it or not," observed American author and editor Irving Dilliard, "Jehovah's Witnesses have done more to help preserve our freedoms than any other religious group."
Professor C. S. Braden wrote: "They have performed a signal service to democracy by their fight to preserve their civil rights, for in their struggle they have done much to secure those rights for every minority group in America." [cite book |title=These Also Believe |first=C.S. last=Braden]
"The cases that the Witnesses were involved in formed the bedrock of 1st Amendment protections for all citizens," said Paul Polidoro, a lawyer who argued the Watchtower Society's case before the Supreme Court in February 2002. "These cases were a good vehicle for the courts to address the protections that were to be accorded free speech, the free press and free exercise of religion. In addition, the cases marked the emergence of individual rights as an issue within the U.S. court system.
Jehovah’s Witnessesbrought several dozen cases before the U.S. Supreme Court during the 1930s and 1940s, the Court had handled few cases contesting laws that restricted freedom of speechand freedom of religion. Until then, the First Amendmenthad only been applied to Congress and the federal government.
However, the cases brought before the Court by the Jehovah's Witnesses allowed the Court to consider a range of issues: mandatory flag salute, sedition, free speech, literature distribution and military draft law. These cases proved to be pivotal moments in the formation of
constitutional law. Jehovah’s Witnesses’ court victories have strengthened rights including the protection of religious conduct from federal and state interference, the right to abstain from patriotic rituals and military service and the right to engage in public discourse.
During the World War II era, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of Jehovah's Witnesses in several landmark cases that helped pave the way for the modern civil rights movement. In all, Jehovah's Witnesses brought 23 separate First Amendment actions before the U.S. Supreme Court between
Significant cases have affirmed
rightssuch as these:
* Right to Refrain from Compulsory Flag Salute
Conscientious objectionto militaryservice
* Preaching in public (proselytizing)
The Supreme Court has consistently held fast to the rule of strict separation of church and state when matters of prayer are involved. In "
Engel v. Vitale" ( 1962) the Court ruled that government-imposed nondenominational prayer in public school was unconstitutional. In Lee v. Weisman( 1992), the Court ruled prayer established by a school principal at a middle school graduation was also unconstitutional, and in Santa Fe Independent School Dist. v. Doe( 2000) it ruled that school officials may not directly impose student-led prayer during high school football games nor establish an official student election process for the purpose of indirectly establishing such prayer. The distinction between force of government and individual liberty is the cornerstone of such cases. Each case restricts acts by government designed to establish prayer while explicitly or implicitly affirming students' individual freedom to pray.
The Court has therefore tried to determine a way to deal with church/state questions. In "
Lemon v. Kurtzman" ( 1971), the Court created a three part test for laws dealing with religious establishment. This determined that a law was constitutional if it:
# Had a
# Neither advanced or inhibited religion
# Did not foster an excessive government entanglement with religion.
However, since the 1980s, the Supreme Court has seemed to sidestep the
1981, the Court ruled that a Missouri law prohibiting religious groups from using state university grounds and buildings for religious worship was unconstitutional.Fact|date=April 2007 As a result, Congress decided in 1984that this should apply to secondary and primary schools as well, passing the Equal Access Act, which prevents public schools from discriminating against students based on "religious, political, philosophical or other content of the speech at such meetings". In 1990, the Court upheld this law when it ruled that a school board's refusal to allow a Christian Bible club to meet in a public high school classroom violated the act.Fact|date=April 2007
1993, the Court ruled that religious groups must be allowed to use public schools after hours if the same access is granted to other community groups. Fact|date=April 2007
1995, the Supreme Court found that the University of Virginiawas unconstitutionally withholding funds from a religious student magazine.Fact|date=April 2007
Under the doctrine of Incorporation, the first amendment has been made applicable to the states. Therefore the states must guarantee the freedom of religion in the same way the federal government must.
Many states have freedom of religion established in their constitution, though the exact legal consequences of this right vary for historical and cultural reasons. Most states interpret "freedom of religion" as including the freedom of long-established
religious communitiesto remain intact and not be destroyed. By extension, democracies interpret "freedom of religion" as the right of each individual to freely choose to convert from one religion to another, mix religions, or abandon religion altogether.
Problems sometimes arise in the workplace concerning religious observance when a private employer discharges an employee for failure to report to work on what the employee considers a
Holy dayor a day of rest. In the United States, the view that has generally prevailed is that firing for any cause in general renders a former employee ineligible for unemployment compensation, but that this is no longer the case if the 'cause' is religious in nature, especially an employee's unwillingness to work on his or her sabbath.
1944, a joint committee of the Federal Council of Churches of Christin America and the Foreign Missions Conferenceof North America, formulated a “Statement on Religious Liberty”
:“Religious Liberty shall be interpreted to include freedom to worship according to conscience and to bring up children in the faith of their parents; freedom for the individual to change his religion; freedom to preach, educate, publish and carry on missionary activities; and freedom to organise with others, and to acquire and hold property, for these purposes.”
Freedom of religion restoration
Following increasing government involvement in religious matters, Congress passed the 1993
Religious Freedom Restoration Act. [cite web
title=USC 42, Chapter 21B: "Religious Freedom Restoration"
publisher=United States Code
accessdate=2007-04-18] A number of states then passed corresponding acts (e.g., Missouri passed the Religious Freedom Restoration Act). [cite web
title=Religious freedom restoration act
publisher=State of Missouri
Situation of Native Americans
The situation of
Native Americans in the United Stateshas been problematic since the initial European colonization of the Americas. Aside from the general issues in the relations between Europeans and Native Americans, there has been a historic suppression of Native American religions as well as some current charges of religious discriminationagainst Native Americans by the U.S. government, that need to be considered.
With the practice of the Americanization of Native Americans, Native American children were sent to Christian boarding schools where they were forced to worship as Christians and traditional customs were banned. [ [http://www.amnestyusa.org/amnestynow/soulwound.html "Soul Wound: The Legacy of Native American Schools"] -Andrea Smith writing for
Amnesty InternationalMagazine on the historic government policy of forcing over 100,000 Native American children to attend Christian boarding schools, and the subsequent social reverberations of "widespread sexual and physical abuse" suffered at the hands of school administrators.] Until the Freedom of Religion Act 1978, "spiritual leaders [of Native Americans] ran the risk of jail sentences of up to 30 years for simply practicing their rituals." [www.religioustolerance.org - [http://www.religioustolerance.org/nataspir2.htm Native American Spirituality] ] The traditional indigenous Sun Dancewas illegal from the 1880s (Canada) or 1904 (USA) to the 1980s.
Current charges of religious discrimination have largely centered on the
eagle feather law, the use of ceremonial peyote, and the repatriationof Native American human remains and cultural and religious objects:
eagle feather law, which governs the possession and religious use of eagle feathers, was written with the intention to protect then dwindling eagle populations on one hand while still protecting traditional Native American spiritual and religious customs, to which the use of eagle feather is central, on the other hand. As a result, the possession of eagle feathers is restricted to ethnic Native Americans, a policy that is seen as controversial for several reasons.
Peyote, a spineless cactus found in the desert southwest and Mexico, is commonly used in certain traditions of Native American religion and spirituality, most notably in the Native American Church. Prior to the passage of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act (AIRFA) in 1978, and as amended in 1994, the religious use of peyote was not afforded legal protection. This resulted in the arrest of many Native Americans and non-Native Americans participating in traditional indigenous religion and spirituality. Many individuals today encounter harassment and persecution by their employers for ingesting peyotewhile participating in the Native American Church because the cactus contains the psychotropic drug mescaline, a controlled substance.
*Native Americans often hold strong personal and spiritual connections to their ancestors and often believe that their remains should rest undisturbed. This has often placed Native Americans at odds with archaeologists who have often dug on Native American burial grounds and other sites considered sacred, often removing artifacts and human remains – an act considered sacrilegious by many Native Americans. For years, Native American communities decried the removal of ancestral human remains and cultural and religious objects, charging that such activities are acts of
genocide, religious persecution, and discrimination. Many Native Americans called on the government, museums, and private collectors for the return of remains and sensitive objects for reburial. The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act(NAGPRA), which gained passage in 1990, established a means for Native Americans to request the return or "repatriation" of human remains and other sensitive cultural, religious, and funerary items held by federal agencies and federally assisted museums and institutions.
Religion in the United States
Religious affiliations of United States Presidents
Separation of church and state in the United States
First Amendment to the United States Constitution
Establishment Clause of the First Amendment
Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment
Status of religious freedom by country
United States religious history
Human rights and the United States
International Religious Freedom Act of 1998
url = http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/rightsof/roots.htm
title = Rights of the People - The Roots of Religious Liberty
accessdate = 2007-04-07
publisher = U.S. Department of State, International Information Programs
url = http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/rightsof/modern.htm
title = Rights of the People - Religious liberty in the Modern era
accessdate = 2007-04-07
publisher = U.S. Department of State, International Information Programs
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