Brigham Young University

Brigham Young University

Infobox University
name = Brigham Young University
latin_name =

image_size = 150px
image_caption = Seal of Brigham Young University
motto = No official motto.cite web| last = Walch| first = Tad | title = BYU not alone in using motto 'enter to learn'| publisher = Deseret News| date = 2007-08-04| url =,1249,695197761,00.html| accessdate = 2008-06-14 ] Unofficial mottoes include: "The glory of God is intelligence" [Nussbaum, Martha. Cultivating Humanity. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997. ISBN 0674179498 pp. 290.]
"Enter to learn, go forth to serve" "The world is our campus" [cite web| title =Campus| work =About BYU| publisher =Brigham Young University| year= 2007| url =| accessdate =2007-08-19 ]
established = October 16, 1875
type = Private coeducational
staff = 1,200 full-time, 900 part-time
faculty = 1,600 full-time, 550 part-time
president = Cecil O. Samuelson
students = 34,067 [ Fall 2005 enrollments per The Chronicle of Higher Education, August 31, 2007. ]
undergrad = 26,928 full-time, 3,314 part-time
postgrad =
doctoral =
city = Provo
state = Utah
country = USA
campus = Suburban, convert|560|acre|km2
free_label =
free =
colors = Dark blue, White, and Tan [cite web| title =Football Quick Facts| publisher =BYU Athletics| year= 20068| url =| accessdate = 2008-10-05] color box|#001E4Ccolor box|#FFFFFFcolor box|#C5AF7D
fight song = The Cougar Song
mascot = Cosmo the Cougar
nickname = Cougars
endowment = $289,647,000 [cite web|title = Endowment Funds of the 120 degree-granting institutions with the largest amounts: Fiscal year 1996 |url = ]
affiliation = The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
website =

Brigham Young University (BYU), located in Provo, Utah, United States, is a private, coeducational research university owned by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormon Church). It is the oldest existing institution within the LDS Church Educational System, is America's largest religious university, and has the second-largest private university enrollment in the United States. [cite web |url= |title=The Lord's University |accessdate=2008-05-01 |last=Naparsteck |first=Martin |format= |publisher="The Salt Lake Tribune" ] [cite web |url= |title=GW Law's Utah Connection |date=2004-07-01 |last=Freedman |first=Jamie L. |accessdate=2008-05-01 |format= |work=GW Magazine ] [cite web |url= |title=UoP About Us |accessdate=2008-05-03 |format= |work=Illustrates BYU second only to UoP in private school enrollment.] Approximately 98% of the 34,000 students at BYU are Mormon; two-thirds of its American students come from outside the state of Utah. [cite web| title =About BYU - Demographics | publisher | year= 2007 | url = | accessdate =2007-08-19 ]

BYU students are required to adhere to a strict honor code, which mandates behavior in line with Mormon teachings (including prohibitions on extra-marital sex and the consumption of drugs and alcohol) in addition to academic honesty. Furthermore, the Honor Code requires BYU students to adhere to a dress code. Approximately 97% of male BYU graduates have taken a two-year hiatus from their studies at some point to be Mormon missionaries, and 32% of BYU women graduates have been missionaries as well. Many BYU students obtain a level of foreign language proficiency while being Mormon missionaries, and BYU has many foreign language classes. Over 75% of BYU students have some foreign language proficiency. [cite web |url= |title=About BYU: Languages |accessdate=2008-02-25 |] The university's primary focus is on undergraduate education, but it also has 68 master's and 25 doctoral degree programs, including a Juris Doctorate program. About 70% of student tuition is funded by LDS Church tithing funds, making tuition relatively less expensive than at similar private universities. [cite web| last =Madsen| first =Grant| title =BYU number two value after BYU-Hawaii, says "Consumers Digest"| publisher =BYU News| date= 2004-05-04| url =| accessdate = 2007-08-19 ]


Early days

According to the Brigham Young University mission statement, "The mission of [BYU] is to assist individuals in their quest for perfection and eternal life." BYU is thus considered by its leaders to be at heart a religious institution, wherein, ideally, religious and secular education is interwoven in a way that encourages the highest standards in both areas.cite web| last = Peer| first = Larry H. | title = Beethoven's Kiss: On the Odd Reasons for Brigham Young's Excellent University| work = BYU Speeches| publisher = BYU| date = 2003-12-02| url =| accessdate = 2008-01-21] It is not uncommon for LDS scriptures to be referred to and prayers to be spoken in classes. In fact, it is encouraged, though left to the instructor's discretion. This weaving of the secular and the religious aspects of a religious university go back as far as Brigham Young himself, who told Karl G. Maeser when the Church purchased the school: "I want you to remember that you ought not to teach even the alphabet or themultiplication tables without the Spirit of God." [cite web| title = Teaching with the Spirit:A Broader Definition| work = Focus on Faculty| date = Winter 1993| url =| accessdate = 2008-01-21|format=PDF] BYU is also considered by many Latter-day Saints, as well as some university and Church leaders to be "The Lord's University". This phrase is used in reference to the school's perceived mission as an "ambassador" to the world for the LDS Church and thus, for Jesus Christ. [cite web| last = Rector| first = Hartman Jr. | title = Go Forth to Serve| work = BYU Speeches| publisher = BYU| date = 1975-03-25| url =| accessdate = 2008-01-21] In the past, some students and faculty have expressed dissatisfaction with this nickname, as it sometimes gives students the idea that university authorities are always divinely inspired and never to be contradicted. [cite web| last = Waterman| first = Bryan| coauthors = Brian Kagel| title = The Lord's University:Freedom and Authority at BYU | publisher = Signature Books| url =| accessdate = 2008-02-26] Leaders of the school, however, acknowledge that the nickname represents more a goal that the university strives for, and not its current state of being. Leaders encourage students and faculty to help fulfill the goal by following the teachings of their religion, adhering to the school's honor code, and serving others with the knowledge they gain while attending. [cite web| last = Eyring| first = Henry B. | title = A Consecrated Place| work = BYU Speeches| publisher = BYU| url =| accessdate = 2008-01-21] [cite web| last = Oaks| first = Dallin H.| title = The Formula for Success at BYU| work = BYU Speeches| publisher = BYU| date = 1979-09-11| url =| accessdate = 2008-01-21]

BYU mandates that its students be religiously active. [cite web| url =| title = The Honor Code | accessdate = 2007-05-06 | author = Brigham Young University| quote = Participate regularly in church services] Both LDS and Non-LDS students are required to provide an endorsement from an ecclesiastic (religious) leader with their application for admittance.cite web| url =| title = Continuing Student Ecclesiastical Endorsement | accessdate = 2007-05-06 | author = Brigham Young University] LDS BYU students can choose to affiliate with the local congregation (ward) where they reside or the corresponding student ward. Over 900 rooms on BYU campus are used for the purposes of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints congregations. More than 150 congregations meet on BYU campus each Sunday. "BYU's campus becomes one of the busiest and largest centers of worship in the world" with about 24,000 persons attending church services on campus. [cite news| coauthors = Photography by Bradley H. Slade| title = Sunday at School | work = BYU Magazine | publisher = Brigham Young University| pages = 26-31| date = Spring 2007]

Some 97% of male BYU graduates and 32% of female graduates took a hiatus from their undergraduate studies at one point to serve as LDS missionaries. Male students typically go on their missions shortly after turning 19 years old. This often occurs during or at the end of their freshman year. Female students may begin their missionary service anytime after turning 21. For males, a full-time mission is two years in length, and for females it lasts 18 months.cite web| title = Brigham Young University Reaffirmation of Accreditation 2006 Executive Summary| publisher = BYU| year = 2006| url =| accessdate = 2008-01-21]

Honor code

All students and faculty, regardless of religion, are required to agree to adhere to an honor code. Early forms of the BYU Honor Code are found as far back as the days of the Brigham Young Academy and early school President Karl G. Maeser. Maeser created the "Domestic Organization", which was a group of teachers who would visit students at their homes to see that they were following the schools moral rules prohibiting obscenity, profanity, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The Honor Code itself was not created until about 1940, and was used mainly for cases of cheating and academic dishonesty. President Wilkinson expanded the Honor Code in 1957 to include other school standards. This led to what the Honor Code represents today: rules regarding chastity, dress, grooming, drugs and alcohol. A signed commitment to live the honor code is part of the application process, and must be adhered by all students, faculty, and staff. Students and faculty found in violation of standards are either warned or called to meet with representatives of the Honor Council. In rare cases, students and faculty can be expelled from the school or lose tenure.cite web| last = Bergera| first = Gary James | coauthors = Ronald Priddis| title = Chapter 3: Standards & the Honor Code| work = Brigham Young University: A House of Faith| publisher = Signature Books| year = 1985| url =| accessdate = 2008-01-21]


BYU's social and cultural atmosphere is unique. The high rate of enrollment at the university by members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints results in an amplification of LDS cultural norms; BYU was ranked by "The Princeton Review" in 2008 as 14th in the nation for having the happiest students and highest quality of life.cite web| title = 2008 Best 366 Colleges Rankings| publisher = The Princeton Review| year = 2008| url =| accessdate = 2008-01-21] However, the quirkiness and sometimes "too nice" culture is often caricatured, for example, in terms of marrying early and being very conservative.

One of the characteristics of BYU most often pointed out is its reputation for emphasizing a "marriage culture." [cite web| title = Study focuses on BYU marriage perceptions| work = Daily Universe| publisher = BYU| date = 2005-04-29| url =| accessdate = 2008-01-21] Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints highly value marriage and family, as well as marriage within the faith.cite web| last = Clark| first = Natalie | title = BYU marriage rates higher than national average | work = Daily Universe| publisher = BYU| date = 2005-10-03| url =| accessdate = 2008-01-21] Approximately 51% of the graduates in BYU's class of 2005 were married. This is compared to a national marriage average among college graduates of 11%. BYU students on average marry at the age of 22, according to a 2005 study, while the national average age is 25 years for men and 27 for women.Many visitors to BYU, and Utah Valley as a whole, report being surprised by the culturally conservative environment. Brigham Young University's Honor Code, which all BYU students agree to as a condition of studying at BYU, prohibits the consumption of alcoholic beverages, tobacco, etc. As mentioned earlier, The Princeton Review has rated BYU the "#1 stone cold sober school" in the nation for several years running, an honor which the late LDS Church president Gordon B. Hinckley had commented on with pride. According to the Uniform Crime Reports, incidents of crime in Provo are lower than the national average. Murder is rare, and robberies are about 1/10th the national average. [cite web| title = Provo UT Crime Statistics (2006 Crime Data)| publisher =| url =| accessdate = 2008-01-21]


As of November 2007, BYU has approximately 362,000 living alumni. [cite news | url = | title = Alumni Figures | publisher = BYU Alumni Association | accessdate = 2008-05-12 ] Alumni relations are coordinated and activities are held at the new Gordon B. Hinckley Alumni and Visitors Center.

Over 21 BYU graduates have served in the U.S. Senate and U.S. House of Representatives, such as former Dean of the U.S. Senate Reed Smoot (class of 1876). [cite web | url =| title = Brigham Young University | publisher = University of Utah | accessdate = 2008-05-12 ] Cabinet members of American presidents include former Secretary of Agriculture to President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Ezra Taft Benson '26 and Rex E. Lee '60, who was U.S. Solicitor General under President Ronald Reagan.cite news | url =| title = Ezra Taft Benson| work = Grandpa Bill's G.A. Pages | accessdate = 2008-05-09 ] [cite news | url =| title = Where Much Is Given| work = BYU Speeches | accessdate = 2008-05-09 ] Mitt Romney, former Governor of Massachusetts and 2008 Republican Presidential Candidate, was valedictorian of his class in 1971. [cite web | url =| title = About Mitt Romney | publisher = | accessdate = 2008-05-09 ]

BYU alumni in academia include former Dean of the Harvard Business School Kim B. Clark and Michael K. Young '73, current President of The University of Utah. [cite web | url = | title = Kim B. Clark, President | publisher = BYU-Idaho | accessdate = 2008-05-12 ] [cite web | url =| title = Michael K. Young | publisher = University of Utah | accessdate = 2008-05-09 ] The University also graduated Nobel Prize winner Paul D. Boyer, [cite web | url =| title = Paul D. Boyer| publisher = Nobel Foundation | accessdate = 2008-05-10 ] as well as Philo Farnsworth (co-inventor of the electronic television) and Harvey Fletcher (inventor of the hearing aid). [cite web | url = | title = Patents and Technical Progress--A Study of Television | first = W. Rupert | last = Maclaurin | work = The Journal of Political Economy | month = April | year = 1950 | publisher = The University of Chicago Press | accessdate = 2008-05-10 ] [cite web | url =| title = In Loving Memory of Harvey Fletcher | publisher = | accessdate = 2008-05-10 ] Three of BYU's twelve presidents were alumni of the University. Additionally, alumni of BYU who have served as business leaders include Citigroup CFO Gary Crittenden '76, [cite web |url= |title=Citi Names Gary Crittenden as Chief Financial Officer |accessdate=2008-05-07 |publisher=Citigroup] [cite web |url= |title=Alumnus Named Citigroup CFO, Marriott School Honored Alumni |accessdate=2008-05-07 |publisher= [ Marriott Magazine] ] former Dell CEO Kevin Rollins '84, [cite web |url= |title=Kevin Rollins: Executive Profile |accessdate=2008-05-07 |publisher="BusinessWeek"] Deseret Book CEO Sheri L. Dew, [cite web | url =,1249,375015072,00.html| title = Sheri Dew: Living the Unexpected Life | publisher = Deseret News | accessdate = 2008-05-07 ] and Matthew K. McCauley, CEO of children's clothing company Gymboree. [cite web | url = | title = America's Youngest CEOs | publisher = "Forbes Magazine" | accessdate = 2008-05-21 ] In literature and journalism, BYU has produced several best-selling authors, including Orson Scott Card '75, [cite web | url =| accessdate = 2008-05-08 | title = Orson Scott Card bio| work = ] Brandon Sanderson '00 & '05, [cite web | url =| title = Local Author | publisher = Daily Herald | accessdate = 2008-05-07 ] and Stephenie Meyer '95. [cite web | url =| title = Eclipse Expectations | publisher = Daily Herald | accessdate = 2008-05-07 ] Other media personalities include award-winning ESPN sportscaster and former Miss America Sharlene Wells Hawkes '86 and former co-host of CBS's "The Early Show" Jane Clayson Johnson '90. [cite web | url =| title = Sharlene Hawkes| publisher = Miss America Organization | accessdate = 2008-05-07 ] [cite web | url = | title = Communication Day | publisher = BYU-Idaho | accessdate = 2008-05-10 ] In entertainment and television, BYU is represented by Jon Heder '02 (best known for his role as Napoleon Dynamite), [cite web | url =,,20039725,00.html| accessdate = 2008-05-08 | title = Jon Heder and His Wife Have a Girl| work = People Magazine ] Golden Globe-nominated Aaron Eckhart '94, [cite web | url =| accessdate = 2008-05-08 | title = Aaron Eckhart| work = LDS bios] "Jeopardy!" all-time champion Ken Jennings '00, [cite web | url = | accessdate = 2008-05-08 | title = Ken Jennings bio| work = ] and Richard Dutcher, the "Father of Mormon Cinema." [cite web | url = | accessdate = 2008-05-08 | title = LDS Film| work = ] In the music industry BYU is represented by former "American Idol" contestant Carmen Rasmusen and Mormon Tabernacle Choir director Mack Wilberg. [cite web | url = | title = Former 'Idol' Releases First Album | publisher = BYU NewsNet | accessdate = 2008-05-22 ] [cite web | url = | title = Mack Wilberg | publisher = Oxford University Press | accessdate = 2008-05-13 ]

BYU has also produced several leaders of religion. Alumni have comprised several General Authorities of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, including two church presidents (Thomas S. Monson '74 and Ezra Taft Benson '26), [cite web | url = | title = Thomas S. Monson | publisher = LDS Church | accessdate = 2008-05-07 ] five apostles (D. Todd Christofferson '69, David A. Bednar '76, Jeffrey R. Holland '65 & '66, Dallin H. Oaks '54, and Reed Smoot 1876), [cite web | url = | title = David A. Bednar | publisher = BYU-Idaho | accessdate = 2008-05-07 ] and two General Relief Society Presidents (Julie B. Beck '73 and Belle Spafford '20). [cite web | url = | title = News of the Church| publisher = LDS Church | accessdate = 2008-05-13 ]

A number of BYU alumni have found success in professional sports, representing the University in 7 MLB World Series, 5 NBA Finals, and 25 NFL Super Bowls. [cite web | url = | title = BYU Football – In the Pros| publisher = BYU Athletics | accessdate = 2008-05-10 ] In baseball, BYU alumni include All-Stars Rick Aguilera '83, Wally Joyner '84, and Jack Morris '76. [cite web | url =| title = Rick Aguilera| publisher = Baseball Reference| accessdate = 2008-05-10 ] Professional basketball players include three-time NBA Finals champion Danny Ainge '81 and three-time Olympic medalist Krešimir Ćosić '73. [cite web | url = | title = Danny Ainge| publisher = Boston Celtics| accessdate = 2008-05-12 ] BYU also claims notable professional football players including Super Bowl MVP Steve Young '84 & '94, Heisman Trophy winner Ty Detmer '90, and two-time Super Bowl winner Jim McMahon '81. [cite web | url = | title = Steve Young| publisher = Pro Football Hall of Fame| accessdate = 2008-05-11 ] In golf, BYU alumni include two major championship winners: Johnny Miller ('69) at the 1973 U.S. Open and 1976 British Open and Mike Weir ('92) at the 2003 Masters. [cite web | url =| title = Richard Zokol | publisher = Mike Weir official website | accessdate = 2008-05-12 ]

See also

* List of Brigham Young University faculty
* List of presidents of Brigham Young University


External links

* [ Official BYU athletics site]
* [ The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints]
* [ BYU Television]
* [ A Pictorial History of BYU]
* [ Brigham Young Academy - Brigham Young High School]

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