- Religious segregation
Religious segregation is the separation of people according to their
religion. The term has been applied to cases of religious-based segregation occurring as a social phenomenon [cite web|url=http://www.jstor.org/pss/3120328|title=Religious Segregation in the Schools of Northern Ireland|last=Knox|first=H. M.|work=British Journal of Educational Studies|year=1973|month=10 "... [S] egregated schooling, although in theory open to all, is in practice availed of by virtually only one denomination...." Also refers to pre-Partition religious schools which retained their exclusively Catholic demographics after Partition.] , as well as to segregation arising from laws, whether explicit or implict [cite book|title=American Cultural Pluralism and Law|last=Norgren|first=Jill|coauthors=Nanda, Serena|isbn=0275986926|publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group|year=2006|pages=132, quoting U.S. Supreme Court Justice Anthony Kennedyin " Board of Education of Kiryas Joel Village School District v. Grumet": "... [D] rawing school district lines along the religious lines of the village impermissibly involved the state in accomplishing the religious segregation."] . The similar term religious apartheid has also been used for situations where people are separated based on religion [cite web|url=http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2000/septemberweb-only/26.0b.html|title=Pakistan's Christians Demand End to 'Religious Apartheid' at Polls|work=Christianity Today|last=Akkaro|first=Anta|accessdate=2008-08-18|date=2000-09-01] , including sociological phenomena [cite episode|title=Religion In Schools|url=http://www.teachers.tv/video/24057|series=The Big Debate|airdate=2008-01-29|minutes=0:09:29 and 0:11:52, in which Rabbi Dr Jonathan Romain says (at 0:09:29): "If you have separate Jewish, Catholic, Muslim, Sikh, Hindu schools, essentially you’re segregating children, you’re separating children" and (at 0:11:52): "It’s a religious apartheid society we’re creating."] .
Bosnia and Herzegovina
From education [ [http://www.isaintel.com/site/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=161&Itemid=1 Bosnia: Teaching intolerance] by Anes Alic, "
Transitions online/ Open Society Institute", June 12, 2008] to sports, from municipalities[ [http://www.wrmea.com/archives/Jan_Feb_2007/0701038.html A Tale of Two Cities: The Struggle to Return Continues in Bosnia] , Peter Lippman, " Washington Report on Middle East Affairs", January/February 2007, pages 38-39] to cantons and entities, from language policyto regional flagsand coat of arms, the strict and sometimes unpeaceful separation between Muslim Bosniaks, Orthodox Serbsand Roman Catholic Croatsis present in most of BiH’s territory. Jonathan Steeleof " The Guardian" has argued that Bosnia and Herzegovinais "a dependent, stifled, apartheid regime". In his view, the U.N. control of Bosnia under the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina, which he described as "UN-sanctioned liberal imperialism", creates "dependency, stifles civil society, and produces a highly visible financial apartheid in which an international salariat lords it over a war-wounded and jobless local population." [Steele, Jonathan. [http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,,1639818,00.html Today's Bosnia: a dependent, stifled, apartheid regime] . " The Guardian", November 11, 2005.]
Indian society is divided into several thousands of casteand sub-caste. In the Indian caste system, a Dalit, often called an "untouchable", or an "outcaste", is a person who according to traditional Hindu belief does not have any "varnas". In the context of traditional Hindu society, Dalit status has often been historically associated with occupations regarded as ritually impure, such as any occupation involving killing, handling of animal cadavers or night soil(human feces). As a result, Dalits were commonly banned and segregated from full participation in Hindu social life (they could not enter the premises of a temple), while elaborate precautions were observed to prevent incidental contact between Dalits and other Hindus. [ [http://hrw.org/english/docs/2007/02/13/india15303.htm India: ‘Hidden Apartheid’ of Discrimination Against Dalits (Human Rights Watch, 13-2-2007)] ] . Although generally identified with Hinduism, the caste system was also observed among followers of other religions in the Indian subcontinent, including some groups of Muslims and Christians [Francis Buchanan, Indian Census Record, 1883] . The Indian Constitution has outlawed caste-based discrimination, in keeping with the socialist, secular, democraticprinciples that founded the nation. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/country_profiles/1154019.stm BBC profile] , India] . Caste barriers have mostly broken down in large cities [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/hinduism/living/caste.shtml BBC, Religion and ethics, Hinduism] ] , though persist in rural areas of the country. The caste system, in various forms, does continue to play a major role in the Indian society and politics. [cite book
title=Caste, Society and Politics in India from the Eighteenth Century to the Modern Age
publisher=Cambridge University Press
doi=10.2277/0521264340] [cite web
accessdate=2007-05-17] With the prominence of
Hindu reform movementsin the 19th century, as well as the rising political power of Dalits in Independent India, Constitutional Laws have been passed banning the practice of segregation of Dalits, and affirmative action has been implemented to equalize the historical imbalance and underrepresentation of Dalits in society.
Londonis far more segregated on religious grounds than by race. 25% of London's seven million residents live in religiously segregated neighbourhoods. [ [http://www.24dash.com/news/Housing/2007-09-04-London-s-neighbourhoods-segregated-by-religion London's neighbourhoods 'segregated by religion'] ] [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2005/sep/19/race.socialexclusion Britain 'sleepwalking to segregation'] ]
March 1, 2004, the official Saudi government websitestated that Jews were forbidden from entering the country. ["The official tourism website stated that Jews were banned from entering the country; however, it was not enforced in practice." United States Department of State. [http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2004/41731.htm Saudi Arabia] , Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2004, February 28, 2005.] cite news
title=Jews barred, said Saudi Web site
February 28, 2004
In the Holy Cities of
Meccaand Medina, both of which are located in Saudi Arabia, only Muslims are allowed. Non-Muslims may not enter or travel through Mecca; attempting to enter Mecca as a non-Muslim can result in penalties such as a fine Sandra Mackey's account of her attempt to enter Mecca in cite book|last=Mackey|first=Sandra|title=The Saudis: Inside the Desert Kingdom|year=1987|pages=63-64|publisher=W. W. Norton & Company|isbn=0393324176] ; being in Mecca as a non-Muslim can result in deportation. [cite book|title=An A To Z Of Places And Things Saudi|last=Cuddihy|first=Kathy|pages=148|year=2001|publisher=Stacey International|isbn=1900988402]
This restriction has caused problems for Western companies providing services in these cities, as they must hire only Muslims to perform work within the city, or else find ways for its employees to do their work from outside city limits.
Bell Canada, which provided telephone service to Mecca and Medina in the 1980s [cite web|url=http://www.bce.ca/en/news/releases/be/1987/11/12/4083.html|title=BCI One Year Extension Of Saudi Contract|date=1987-11-12|publisher=Bell Canada Enterprises|last=Orr|first=David] , had offices outside city limits to house its non-Muslim employees. [cite book|last=Mackey|first=Sandra|title=The Saudis: Inside the Desert Kingdom|year=1987|pages=63-64] The company was brought before the Canadian Human Rights Tribunalin the late 1970s for discriminating in employment on the basis of religion (as well as gender). [cite web|url=http://www.chrt-tcdp.gc.ca/search/view_html.asp?doid=10&lg=_e&isruling=0|title=In the matter of the complaint of Canadian Human Rights Commission alleging discrimination in employment by Bell Canada|date=1981-01-30|work=Canadian Human Rights Tribunal]
Egyptprohibits the marriage between Muslim women and non-Muslim men. [ [http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5gWAdeTNMOeMfyPaOwrYpODjNAQJA Egypt Copt jailed 45 years after father's conversion] , AFP, 2007] Under Islamic law, non-Muslim males must convert to Islamto marry Muslim women, but non-Muslim women need not convert to marry Muslim men. Muslim women are prohibited from marrying Christian men.
Islam is the official religion of
Iran, which is a theocracy led by an Ayatollah, a clerical position. Iran consigns non-Muslim monotheists to the status of dhimmis, both officially and by custom.cite web |date= 2003-08-01|title=Discrimination against religious minorities in Iran |author=International Federation for Human Rights |publisher=fdih.org |accessdate=2006-10-20 |url=http://www.fidh.org/IMG/pdf/ir0108a.pdf] The U.S. State Department has identified "reports of imprisonment, harassment, intimidation, and discrimination based on religious beliefs" in Iran.cite web
title=International Religious Freedom Report 2006 - Iran
author=U.S. Department of State
publisher=U.S. Department of State] The Muslim Network for Baha'i Rights has reported cases of
Baha'istudents being expelled from universitydue to their religion. [cite web|url=http://www.bahairights.org/2007/07/18/bahais-in-iran-deprived-of-their-education/|title=Baha’i children in Egypt not being admitted to schools because of their faith|work=Muslim Network for Baha'i Rights|accessdate=2008-08-03] [cite web|url=http://www.mideastyouth.com/2008/07/06/schools-out-for-the-bahais/|title=School's Out for the Baha'is|accessdate=2008-08-03|work=Mideast Youth] [cite web|url=http://news.bahai.org/story/575|title=Confidential Iran memo exposes policy to deny Baha'i students university education|work=Baha'i World News Service|accessdate=2008-08-03] According to the Times Higher Education, Baha'i educators are required to renounce their faith in order to teach in Iranian universities. [cite web|url=http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=203640§ioncode=26|title=Segregation in Iran|work=Times Higher Education|accessdate=2008-08-03|publisher=TSL Education Ltd.] Baha'i is not among the recognized "recognized religious minorities" in the Constitution of Iran. [cite web|url=http://www.fidh.org/IMG/pdf/ir0108a.pdf|title=Discrimination against religious minorities in IRAN|page=6|publisher=FIDH|accessdate=2008-08-03] The Baha'i faith is considered apostate in Iran [cite web|url=http://www.iranian.ws/iran_news/publish/article_26173.shtml|accessdate=2008-08-03|title=Iran: Religious minority reports arson attacks|work=Persian Journal] [cite web|url=http://www.abc.net.au/rn/talks/8.30/relrpt/stories/s892997.htm|title=Islam and apostasy|description=Interview with Ibn Warraq|work=The Religion Report|publisher=ABC Radio National (Australia)|accessdate=2008-08-05] because it believes in a prophet ( Bahá'u'lláh) more recent than Muhammad. [cite web|url=http://www.clarionledger.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080719/FEAT04/807190313/1022|title=Baha'i believers know freedom and oppression|work=Clarion Ledger|accessdate=2008-08-03]
Jim Crow laws
*Ottoman Millet system
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