Malaysian general election, 1990

Malaysian general election, 1990

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General elections were held in Malaysia on 21 October 1990.[1] The result was a victory for the UMNO-led Barisan Nasional, which won 127 of the 180 seats. Voter turnout was 72.3%.


The Muslim opposition parties, Parti Melayu Semangat 46 (S46) led by Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah , teamed up with Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS), Barisan Jemaah Islamiah Se-Malaysia (BERJASA) and Parti Hizbul Muslimin Malaysia (HAMIM) to form the Angkatan Perpaduan Ummah. On the other hand, Parti Melayu Semangat 46 (S46), Democratic Action Party (DAP) and Parti Bersatu Sabah (PBS), which withdrew from the Barisan Nasional at the eleventh hour of the general election, teamed up as Gagasan Rakyat. However, these two opposition alliances coorperated in the election but not openly due to the sensitivity of the cooperation between secular Democratic Action Party (DAP) and the Islamic Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) working together.

The Muslim alliance; Angkatan Perpaduan Ummah (APU) won all 39 state seats in Kelantan to form the state government, with 24 seats going to PAS and 15 for Semangat 46.[2]. The national or federal level was won by the UMNO Baru-led Barisan Nasional under Mahathir Mohamad on the ideology of Ketuanan Melayu (Malay Supremacy).

Meanwhile, in the national level, the general election was won by the Barisan Nasional coalition under incumbent Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad to form the federal government.


Party Votes % Seats +/-
Barisan Nasional 2,985,392 53.4 127 -21
Democratic Action Party 985,228 7.6 20 -4
Semangat 46 826,398 14.8 8 New
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party 391,813 7.0 7 +6
Parti Bersatu Sabah 128,260 2.3 14 New
Other parties and independents 276,136 4.9 4 0
Invalid/blank votes 158,498 - - -
Total 5,751,725 100 180 +3
Source: Nohlen et al


  1. ^ Nohlen, D, Grotz, F & Hartmann, C (2001) Elections in Asia: A data handbook, Volume II, p152 ISBN 0199249598
  2. ^ Francis Kok-Wah Loh, Francis Loh Kok Wah, Boo Teik Khoo, Khoo Boo Teik (2002). Democracy in Malaysia: Discourses and Practices. Routledge. p. 95. ISBN 0700711619. 

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