- Amlaíb Conung
Amlaíb Conung (died 870s) ( _no. Óláfr) was a Norse or Norse-Gael leader in
Irelandand Scotlandin the years after 850. Together with his brothers Ímarand Auislehe appears frequently in the Irish annals.
Amlaíb has often been seen as the same person as
Olaf the Whiteof the Landnámabókand other Icelandic sagas. The Irish annals, and the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland, are much older than these, and in some respects are source materials for the Icelanders. These say little about Amlaíb's kin, and what they do say contradicts the Icelandic accounts.
Annals of Ulsterreport the arrival of Amlaíb in Ireland in 853:cquote|Amlaíb, son of the king of Lochlann [Laithlinde] , came to Ireland, and the foreigners of Ireland submitted to him, and he took tribute from the Irish. [Annals of Ulster, s.a. 853.] The Fragmentary Annals expand on this:cquote|Also in this year, i.e. the sixth year of the reign of Máel Sechlainn [that is Máel Sechnaill mac Maíl Ruanaid] , Amlaíb Conung, son of the king of Lochlann, came to Ireland, and he brought with him a proclamation of many tributes and taxes from his father, and he departed suddenly. Then his younger brother Ímar came after him to levy the same tribute. [Fragmentary Annals, § 239; Anderson, "ESSH", pp. 281–284. Ó Corráin, p. 7, dates this to 852–853.]
Lochlann, originally Laithlinn or Lothlend, the land where Amlaíb's father Gofraid, or Guðrøðr, was a king is often identified with
Norway, but it is not universally accepted that it had such a meaning in early times. [Ó Corráin, pp. 9 ff.] Several historians have proposed instead that in early times, and certainly as late as the battle of Clontarfin 1014, Laithlinn refers to the Norse and Norse-Gael lands in the Hebridesthe Isle of Man, the Northern Islesand parts of mainland Scotland. [Ó Corráin, pp. 14–21; "Cambridge History of Scandinavia", p. 204.] Whatever the original sense, by the twelfth century, when Magnus Barefootundertook his expedition to the West, it had come to mean Norway. [Ó Corráin, pp. 22–24.]
Amlaíb returned to Ireland by 856 when he and Ímar are presumed to have aided Máel Sechnaill. "Great warfare between the heathens and Mael Sechnaill, supported by Norse-Irish" is reported by the Annals of Ulster. [Annals of Ulster, s.a. 856; Ó Corráin, p. 29.] In 857 Amlaíb and Ímar "inflicted a rout on Caitill the Fair and his Norse-Irish in the lands of Munster. [Annals of Ulster, s.a. 857.] " Although there is no certain evidence to suggest that this Caitill is the same person as the
Ketil Flatnoseof later sagas, it has been suggested that they are the same person. [Anderson, "ESSH", p. 286, note 1; Crawford, p. 47.]
By 859 Amlaíb and Ímar were aiding
Cerball mac Dúnlainge, King of Osraige, against Máel Sechnaill, plundering in Meath. They may also have joined with Áed Finnliath, who succeeded Máel Sechnaill as High King of Ireland, in raiding Meath again in 862, by which time Amlaíb was married to a daughter of Áed. In 864, Conchobar mac Donnchado, the King of Mide, was put to death by drowning on Amlaíb's orders.
Amlaíb and his brother Auisle "went with the foreigners of Ireland and Scotland to
Fortriu, plundered the entire Pictish country and took away hostages from them" in either 864 or 866. The Chronicle of the Kings of Albaappears to say that they overwintered in Scotland. [Anderson, "ESSH", pp. 292, 296–297 & 353–353.] Áed Finnliath, at about this time, was engaged in destroying Viking " longphorts", or encampments, along the north coasts of Ireland, a campaign that may have been made easier by the absence of Amlaíb and Auisle's army, then in eastern Scotland. A family dispute resulted in Auisle's death in 867, apparently killed by Amlaíb, and this may have encouraged Cennétig mac Gaíthéne, king of the Loígis of modern County Laois, to destroy a longphort at Clondalkinthat year, and then to raid Dublinitself. [Ó Corráin, pp. 32–33.]
In 870, Amlaíb returned to Scotland with Ímar and laid siege to
Dumbarton Rock, chief fortress of the Britons of Strathclyde. They captured it after a siege of four months, returning to Dublin in 871 with 200 ships and they "brought with them in captivity a great prey of Angles, Britons and Picts. [Anderson, "ESSH", pp. 301–303.] A siege of this duration was exceptional, and the captives may have included the king of Alt Clut, Artgal, who according to the Annals of Ulster the next year was "slain by the counsel of Causantín mac Cináeda", or Constantine I, probably meaning that Constantine refused to pay ransom for the captured king of Strathclyde. These informative entries in the Annals of Ulster help to understand the short reference in the Chronicle of the Kings of Scotland, version A, which says that Amlaíb returned "at the head of 100 [ships?] , [and was] killed by Constantine". According to the Annals of Ulster it was Artgal who was killed by Constantine. [Anderson, "ESSH", p. 304.] "
In the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland, it is said that Amlaíb returned to Lochlann to aid his father in a war in 871. [Anderson, "ESSH", pp. 303–304.] With this, he disappears from the Irish annals.
Marriages and children
Olaf the White was said to have been married to
Aud the Deep-Minded, daughter of Ketil Flatnose, a son, Thorstein the Red, being born of the marriage. Thorstein and Aud do not appear in Irish sources. [For a statement of the evidence, accepting that Olaf and Amlaíb are one and the same, see Crawford, pp. 57–58 & 192.]
Amlaíb Conung is said in the Fragmentary Annals to have been a son-in-law of Áed Finnliath mac Néill. Elsewhere the Fragmentary Annals, when reporting the death of Óisle, refer to "the daughter of Cináed" as Amlaíb's wife. It is suggested that the reference to Áed is mistaken, and that Amlaíb's wife was a daughter of Cináed mac Conaing, who had been drowned by Máel Sechnaill in 851. [Anderson, "ESSH", pp. 305–312.] An alternative suggestion is that the Cináed in question is Cináed mac Ailpín (known in English as Kenneth MacAlpin, which would have made Amlaíb a brother-in-law of his killer Constantine I, a son of Kenneth. [Smyth, p. 192.]
A number of sons of Amlaíb are known. Of these, Carlus was killed at the battle of Cell ua nDaigri in 868, fighting alongside Flann mac Conaing, brother and successor of Cináed, who is suggested to have been Amlaíb's father-in-law. Therefore it is likely that Carlus was fighting alongside his maternal relatives. [Recorded in the
Annals of the Four Masters, 866.9.] Oistin was killed in 875 "by Halfdan, by stratagem." [Anderson, "ESSH", p. 350–352; Halfdan was killed in 877, probably by Oistin's foster-father Barid.]
* Anderson, Alan Orr, "Early Sources of Scottish History A.D 500–1286", volume 1. Reprinted with corrections. Paul Watkins, Stamford, 1990. ISBN 1-871615-03-8
* Byrne, Francis J., "Irish Kings and High-Kings." B.T. Batsford, London, 1973. ISBN 0-7134-5882-8
* Crawford, Barbara, "Scandinavian Scotland." Leicester University Press, Leicester, 1987. ISBN 0-7185-1282-0
* Helle, Knut (ed.), "The Cambridge History of Scandinavia. Volume 1: Prehistory to 1520." Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003. ISBN 0-521-47299-7
* Ó Corrain, Donnchad, "The Vikings in Scotland and Ireland in the Ninth Century", "Peritia", vol 12, pp296–339. ( [http://www.ucc.ie/celt/Vikings%20in%20Scotland%20and%20Ireland.pdf etext (pdf)]
* Smyth, Alfred P., "Warlords and Holy Men: Scotland AD 80–1000." Reprinted, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 1998. ISBN 0-7486-0100-7
* [http://celt.ucc.ie/index.html CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts] at
University College Cork. The Corpus of Electronic Texts includes the "Annals of Ulster" and "the Four Masters", the "Chronicon Scotorum" and the "Book of Leinster" as well as Genealogies, and various Saints' Lives. Most are translated into English, or translations are in progress
* [http://www.arts.ed.ac.uk/scothist/booklets/sh1/documents-alba.html Chronicle of the Kings of Alba]
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