Mainstream

Mainstream

Mainstream is, generally, the common current thought of the majority.[1] However, the mainstream is far from cohesive; rather the concept is often considered a cultural construct[citation needed].

As such, the mainstream includes all popular culture, typically disseminated by mass media. The opposite of the mainstream are subcultures, countercultures, cult followings, and (in fiction) genre. Additionally, mainstream is sometimes a codeword used for an actual ethnocentric or hegemonic subculture point of view, especially when delivered in a culture war speech. It is often used as a pejorative term by subcultures who view ostensibly mainstream culture as not only exclusive but artistically and aesthetically inferior. In the United States, mainline churches are sometimes referred to synonymously as "mainstream."[2][3]

Contents

In film

Mainstream films can best be defined as commercial films that are made by major entertainment studios or companies that are owned by international media conglomerates. Because of better financing, these films can afford more expensive actors, wide releases or limited releases, and are sold at popular retail stores. Films made by major studios or companies that are not owned by a media conglomerate, such as lionsgate, are also considered to be mainstream and are often referred to as mainstream independent films. The alternative to mainstream films are low budget films, art films, and experimental films.

In the media

Mainstream media, or mass media, is generally applied to print publications, such as newspapers and magazines that contain the highest readership among the public, along with radio formats and television stations that contain the highest viewing and listener audience, respectively. This is in contrast to various independent publications, such as alternative weekly newspapers, specialized magazines in various organizations and corporations, and various electronic sources such as podcasts and blogs (Though certain blogs are more mainstream than others given their association with a mainstream source)[citation needed].

In music

Mainstream music denotes music that is familiar and unthreatening to the masses, as for example popular music, pop music, middle of the road music, pop rap or pop rock; Mainstream jazz is generally seen as an evolution of be-bop, which was originally regarded as radical[citation needed].

Opposing mainstream music is the music of subcultures. This exists in virtually all genres of music and is found commonly in punk rock, indie rock, alternative/underground hip hop, anti-folk and heavy metal, among others. In the 1960s this music was exemplified by the music of the hippie counterculture.

Punk rock has distinguished itself from other non-mainstream genres by self-asserting an active anti-mainstream social movement that resists commercialism and corporate control[citation needed]. The punk subculture generally frowns upon major label bands that play punk music that disavows the DIY punk ethic, and views them as synonymous with mainstream music[citation needed]. Several anti-corporate and not-for-profit forms of alternative protest have surfaced in the punk underground, such as self-made publications known as zines, where there is greater freedom to discuss controversial (usually far left) political issues[citation needed] such as discrimination, LGBT community issues, feminism, antitheism, and veganism. These principles have also been adopted to a certain extent also in heavy metal and alternative hip hop cultures, amongst others, but not to the same degree as punk[citation needed].

In science

Mainstream science is scientific inquiry in an established field of study that does not depart significantly from orthodox theories. In the philosophy of science, mainstream science is an area of scientific endeavor that has left the process of becoming established. New areas of scientific endeavor still in the process of becoming established are generally labelled protoscience or fringe science. A definition of mainstream in terms of protoscience and fringe science [4] can be understood from the following table: [5]

Systematized as scientific definition
Treated with scientific method
Tries to be science or just looks like science
Superstitions Pseudoscience Fringe science Protoscience Mainstreamscience

By its standard practices of applying good scientific methods, mainstream is distinguished from pseudoscience as a demarcation problem and specific types of inquiry are debunked as junk science, cargo cult science and scientific misconduct etc.

In sociology

Mainstream pressure, through actions such as peer pressure, can force individuals to conform to the mores of the group (e.g., an obedience to the mandates of the peer group). Some, such as those of modern Hipster culture, have stated that they see mainstream as the antithesis of individuality.

Gender mainstreaming

The difference of male and female, in the sense that human beings are distinguished as non-conformant.

Education

Mainstreaming is the practice of bringing disabled students and into the “mainstream” of student life. Mainstreamed students attend some classes with typical students and other classes with students that have similar disabilities. Mainstreaming represents a midpoint between full inclusion (all students spend all day in the regular classroom) and dedicated, self-contained classrooms or special schools (disabled students are isolated with other disabled students).

References

  1. ^ "Princeton Edu definition" http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=mainstream
  2. ^ Caldwell, John. "Faith in school: as mainstream churches continue to wrestle with homosexuality, some religious colleges are taking an increasingly welcoming attitude toward gay students,", The Advocate Sept 2, 2003
  3. ^ Baer, Hans A. "Black Mainstream Churches; Emancipatory or Accommodative Responses to Racism and Social Stratification in American Society?" Review of Religious Research Vol. 30, No. 2 (Dec., 1988), pp. 162-176
  4. ^ Reflections on the reception of unconventional claims in science, newsletter Center for Frontier Sciences, Temple University (1990).
  5. ^ Thomas Kuhn: Reflections on my critics. In: Imre Lakatos and A. Musgrave: Criticism and the growth of knowledge. Cambridge University Press, London (1974), pp. 231–278.

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См. также в других словарях:

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  • mainstream — main stream n. The prevailing opinion or practise; as, the doctor avoided using therapies outside the mainstream of modern medical practice. [PJC] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • mainstream — ● mainstream nom masculin (mot anglais signifiant courant principal) Style des musiciens fidèles à la tradition du jazz des années 1930 et 1940, par opposition au jazz traditionnel et au jazz moderne. ● mainstream (synonymes) nom masculin (mot… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • mainstream — (n.) also main stream, main stream, principal current of a river, 1660s, from MAIN (Cf. main) (adj.) + STREAM (Cf. stream) (n.); hence, prevailing direction in opinion, popular taste, etc., a figurative use first attested in Carlyle (1831).… …   Etymology dictionary

  • mainstream — (izg. mèinstrim) m DEFINICIJA žarg. 1. najšire prihvaćen način mišljenja ili djelovanja 2. glazb. umjerena struja u jazzu i pop glazbi, dopadljiva širem krugu slušatelja [rock mainstream] ETIMOLOGIJA engl …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • mainstream — ► NOUN ▪ normal or conventional ideas, attitudes, or activities. ► ADJECTIVE ▪ belonging to or characteristic of the mainstream …   English terms dictionary

  • mainstream — main stream v. t. (Education) TO place (a student) in regular school classes; used especially of mentally or physically handicapped children. [WordNet 1.5] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • mainstream — [adj] prevailing accepted, average, common, conventional, current, dominant, established, general, normal, popular, predominant, primary, regular, standard, typical, widespread; concept 530 Ant. heterodox …   New thesaurus

  • mainstream — ▪ I. mainstream main‧stream 1 [ˈmeɪnstriːm] noun 1. the mainstream of something the most usual way of doing something or thinking about something: • Depression era laws have kept banks out of the mainstream of financial change. 2. the mainstream… …   Financial and business terms


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