- Convention of Kanagawa
On March 31, 1854, the Convention of Kanagawa (日米和親条約 Nichibei Washin Jōyaku , "Japan-US Treaty of Amity and Friendship") or Kanagawa Treaty (神奈川条約 Kanagawa Jōyaku ) was concluded between Commodore Matthew C. Perry of the U.S. Navy and the Tokugawa shogunate.
Treaty of Peace and Amity (1854)
The treaty opened the Japanese ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to United States trade and guaranteed the safety of shipwrecked U.S. sailors; however, the treaty did not create a basis for establishing a permanent residence in these locations. The treaty did establish a foundation for the Americans to maintain a permanent consul in Shimoda. The arrival of the fleet would trigger the end of Japan's 200 year policy of seclusion (Sakoku).
Perry initially refused to deal with Japanese officials and demanded to speak with the Japanese Head of State. At the time, Shogun Tokugawa Ieyoshi was the de-facto ruler of Japan; for the Emperor to interact in any way with foreigners was out of the question. Perry concluded the treaty with representatives of the Shogun, led by plenipotentiary Hayashi Akira (林韑ら) and the text was reluctantly endorsed subsequently by Emperor Komei.
The Treaty was ratified on 21 February 1855.
The Kanagawa treaty was followed by the United States-Japan Treaty of Amity and Commerce, the "Harris Treaty" of 1858, which allowed the establishment of foreign concessions, extraterritoriality for foreigners, and minimal import taxes for foreign goods. The Japanese chafed under the "unequal treaty system" which characterized Asian and western relations during this period.
The Kanagawa treaty became a significant causative factor leading to serious internal conflicts within Japan — an upheaval which was only resolved in 1867 with the end of the Tokugawa shogunate and the beginning of the Meiji Restoration.
Similar treaties were subsequently negotiated by the United Kingdom (Anglo-Japanese Friendship Treaty, October 1854), the Russians (Treaty of Shimoda, 7 February 1855), the French (Treaty of Amity and Commerce between France and Japan, 9 October 1858).
Kanagawa Treaty House
- Hayashi Akira
- Sō Yoshinori
- Anglo-Japanese Friendship Treaty
- Treaty of Shimoda
- United States-Japan Treaty of Amity and Commerce
- ^ "From Washington; The Japanese Treaty-Its Advantages and Disadvantages-The President and Col. Rinney, &c.," New York Times. October 18, 1855.
- ^ *Perry, Matthew Calbraith. (1856). Narrative of the expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan, 1856.
- ^ Cullen, Louis M. (2003). A History of Japan, 1582-1941: Internal and External Worlds, p. 173-185.
- ^ Diplomatic Record Office of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Japan) exhibit.
- ^ Bert Edström, Bert. (2000). The Japanese and Europe: Images and Perceptions, p. 101.
- Auslin, Michael R. (2004). Negotiating with Imperialism: The Unequal Treaties and the Culture of Japanese Diplomacy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 10-ISBN 0674015215; 13-ISBN 9780674015210; OCLC 56493769
- Bert Edström, Bert. (2000). The Japanese and Europe: Images and Perceptions. London: Routledge. 10-ISBN 1-873-41086-7; 13-ISBN 978-1-873-41086-8
- Cullen, L.M. (2003). A History of Japan, 1582-1941: Internal and External Worlds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10-ISBN 0-521-82115-X (cloth); 10-ISBN 0-521-529918-2 (paper)
- Perry, Matthew Calbraith. (1856). Narrative of the expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan, 1856. New York : D. Appleton and Company. [digitized by University of Hong Kong Libraries, Digital Initiatives, "China Through Western Eyes." ]
- Taylor, Bayard. (1855). A visit to India, China, and Japan in the year 1853 New York : G.P. Putnam's sons. [digitized by University of Hong Kong Libraries, Digital Initiatives, "China Through Western Eyes".
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Convention De Kanagawa — Exercice des troupes américaines à Shimoda devant l envoyé de l empereur, le 8 juin 1854, lithographie de 1856 La convention de Kanagawa (日米和親条約, Nichibei Washin Jōyaku … Wikipédia en Français
Convention de kanagawa — Exercice des troupes américaines à Shimoda devant l envoyé de l empereur, le 8 juin 1854, lithographie de 1856 La convention de Kanagawa (日米和親条約, Nichibei Washin Jōyaku … Wikipédia en Français
Convention de Kanagawa — Exercice des troupes américaines à Shimoda devant l envoyé de l empereur, le 8 juin 1854, lithographie de 1856 La convention de Kanagawa (日米和親条約, Nichibei Washin Jōyaku … Wikipédia en Français
Kanagawa (disambiguation) — The word Kanagawa may refer to:Places*Kanagawa Prefecture, one of the prefectures in Japan *Kanagawa ku, Yokohama, one of the 18 wards in Yokohama City, JapanPeople*nihongo|Kanagawa|金川, a Japanese surnameee also*nihongo|Kanagawa Station… … Wikipedia
Kanagawa Prefecture — Infobox Prefecture Japan Name = Kanagawa JapaneseName = 神奈川県 Rōmaji = Kanagawa ken Symbol = PrefSymbol Kanagawa.png Capital = Yokohama Region = Kantō Island = Honshū TotalArea = 2,415.42 AreaRank = 43rd PCWater = 2.3 PopDate = September 1, 2007… … Wikipedia
Kanagawa, Treaty of — ▪ Japan United States  also called Perry Convention (March 31, 1854), Japan s first treaty with a Western nation. Concluded by representatives of the United States and Japan at Kanagawa (now part of Yokohama), it marked the end of… … Universalium
Traité de Kanagawa — Convention de Kanagawa Exercice des troupes américaines à Shimoda devant l envoyé de l empereur, le 8 juin 1854, lithographie de 1856 La convention de Kanagawa (日米和親条約, Nichibei Washin Jōyaku … Wikipédia en Français
Tratado de Kanagawa — Busto de Matthew Perry en Shimoda. El tratado de Kanagawa (en japonés 神奈川条約 Kanagawa Jōyaku o 日米和親条約 Nichibei Washin Jōyaku) se firmó el 31 de marzo de 1854 entre el Comodoro Matthew Perry de Estados Unidos y las autoridades de Japón, en el… … Wikipedia Español
Treaty of Amity and Commerce (United States-Japan) — The Nihongo|Treaty of Amity and Commerce|日米修好通商条約|Nichibei Shūkō Tsūshō Jōyaku between the United States and Japan was signed at the Ryōsen ji in Shimoda on July 29, 1858.The treatyThe treaty followed the 1854 Convention of Kanagawa, which… … Wikipedia
Traité d'amitié et de commerce États-Unis-Japon de 1858 — Le président James Buchanan accueille la délégation japonaise à la Maison Blanche pour la signature du Traité d Amitié et de Commerce. Le Traité d Amitié et de Commerce (日米修好通商条約, Nichibei Shūkō Tsūshō Jōyaku) entre les États Unis et le Japon a… … Wikipédia en Français