- Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact
The Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact (日ソ中立条約 Nisso Chūritsu Jōyaku ), more extensively known as Japanese-Soviet Nonaggression Pact (日ソ不可侵条約 Nisso Fukashin Jōyaku ) was a pact between the Empire of Japan and the Soviet Union signed on April 13, 1941, two years after the brief Soviet-Japanese Border War (1939).
Background and history
In 1940, with the defeat of France and the subsequent expansion of the Axis Powers, the Soviet Union wished to mend its diplomatic relations in the Far East in order to safeguard its eastern border and concentrate on the European theatre of war. On the other hand, Japan, bogged down in a seemingly interminable war with China and with diplomatic relations with the United States rapidly deteriorating, sought an accommodation with the Soviet Union that would improve its international standing and secure the northern frontier of Manchukuo against possible Soviet invasion.
The treaty was signed in Moscow on April 13, 1941, by Foreign Minister Yosuke Matsuoka and Ambassador Yoshitsugu Tatekawa for Japan and Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov for the Soviet Union.
On the same day, the same people also signed a declaration regarding Mongolia and Manchuria. The Soviet Union pledged to respect the territorial integrity and inviolability of Manchukuo, while Japan did the same for the Mongolian People's Republic.
Later, in 1941, Japan, as a signatory of the Tripartite Pact, considered denouncing the Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact, especially after Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union (Operation Barbarossa), but made the crucial decision to keep it and to expand southwards invading the European colonies in Southeast Asia instead.
On April 5, 1945 the Soviet Union denounced the pact, informing the Japanese government that "in accordance with Article Three of the above mentioned pact, which envisaged the right of denunciation one year before the lapse of the five year period of operation of the pact, the Soviet Government hereby makes known to the Government of Japan its wish to denounce the pact of April 13, 1941." The wording of the denunciation suggested that the Soviet Union wished to see the treaty go out of effect immediately, and the Time Magazine reported that the Soviet Foreign Commissar's tone indicated that the Soviet Union might go to war with Japan soon. However, the text of the treaty clearly stated that the pact remained in force until April 1946. When pressed by the Japanese Ambassador Naotake Sato, Molotov confirmed that the treaty did remain in force till April 1946.
On August 8, 1945 the Soviet Union declared war on Japan and invaded Manchuria. In doing so, the Soviet Union kept its promise to the Allies at the Yalta Conference to enter the war with Japan two to three months after the end of World War II in Europe, but it acted in violation of the still valid neutrality pact.
PACT OF NEUTRALITY BETWEEN UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS AND JAPAN
The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and His Majesty the Emperor of Japan, guided by a desire to strengthen peaceful and friendly relations between the two countries, have decided to conclude a pact on neutrality, for which purpose they have appointed as their Representatives:
- The Presidum of the Supreme Soviet of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics -
- His Majesty the Emperor of Japan -
- Yosuke Matsuoka, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Jusanmin, Cavalier of the Order of the Sacred Treasure of the First Class, and
- Yoshitsugu Tatekawa, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Lieutenant General, Jusanmin, Cavalier of the Order of the Rising Sun of the First Class and the Order of the Golden Kite of the Fourth Class,
- Article one: Both Contracting Parties undertake to maintain peaceful and friendly relations between them and mutually respect the territorial integrity and inviolability of the other Contracting Party.
- Article two: Should one of the Contracting Parties become the object of hostilities on the part of one or several third powers, the other Contracting Party will observe neutrality throughout the duration of the conflict.
- Article three: The present Pact comes into force from the day of its ratification by both Contracting Parties and remains valid for five years. In case neither of the Contracting Parties denounces the Pact one year before the expiration of the term, it will be considered automatically prolonged for the next five years.
- Article four: The present Pact is subject to ratification as soon as possible. The instruments of ratification shall be exchanged in Tokyo, also as soon as possible.
Done in Moscow on April 13, 1941, which corresponds to the 13th day of the fourth month of the 16th year of Showa.
In conformity with the spirit of the Pact on neutrality concluded on April 13, 1941, between the U.S.S.R. and Japan, the Government of the U.S.S.R. and the Government of Japan, in the interest of insuring peaceful and friendly relations between the two countries, solemnly declare that the U.S.S.R. pledges to respect the territorial integrity and inviolability of Manchoukuo and Japan pledges to respect the territorial integrity and inviolability of the Mongolian People's Republic.
Moscow, April 13, 1941
On behalf of the Government of the U.S.S.R.
On behalf of the Government of Japan
Soviet Denunciation of the Pact with Japan
The American Ambassador at Moscow transmitted to the Secretary of State, by a telegram dated April 5, 1945, the following statement, as received from the press section of the Foreign Office, regarding Soviet denunciation of the U.S.S.R.-Japanese neutrality pact:
" Today at 3 p.m. People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs of the USSR Mr. V. M. Molotov, received the Japanese Ambassador, Mr. N. Sato, and made the following statement to him in the name of the Soviet Government:
'The neutrality pact between the Soviet Union and Japan was concluded on April 13, 1941, that is, before the attack of Germany on the USSR and before the outbreak of war between Japan on the one hand and England and the United States on the other. Since that time the situation has been basically altered. Germany has attacked the USSR, and Japan, ally of Germany, is aiding the latter in its war against the USSR. Furthermore Japan is waging a war with the USA and England, which are allies of the Soviet Union.
In these circumstances the neutrality pact between Japan and the USSR has lost its sense, and the prolongation of that pact has become impossible.
On the strength of the above and in accordance with Article Three of the above mentioned pact, which envisaged the right of denunciation one year before the lapse of the five year period of operation of the pact, the Soviet Government hereby makes know [sic] to the Government of Japan its wish to denounce the pact of April 13, 1941.'
The Japanese Ambassador Mr. N. Sato, promised to inform the Japanese Government of the statement of the Soviet Government."
Declaration of War
Soviet Declaration of War on Japan
London, Aug., 8, 1945 - Foreign Commissar Molotoff's (sic) announcement of the declaration of war, as broadcast by Moscow, follows:
"On Aug. 8, People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs of the U.S.S.R. Molotoff received the Japanese Ambassador, Mr. Sato, and gave him, on behalf of the Soviet Government, the following for transmission to the Japanese Government:
'After the defeat and capitulation of Hitlerite Germany, Japan became the only great power that still stood for the continuation of the war.
The demand of the three powers, the United States, Great Britain and China, on July 26 for the unconditional surrender of the Japanese armed forces was rejected by Japan, and thus the proposal of the Japanese Government to the Soviet Union on mediation in the war in the Far East loses all basis.
Taking into consideration the refusal of Japan to capitulate, the Allies submitted to the Soviet Government a proposal to join the war against Japanese aggression and thus shorten the duration of the war, reduce the number of victims and facilitate the speedy restoration of universal peace.
Loyal to its Allied duty, the Soviet Government has accepted the proposals of the Allies and has joined in the declaration of the Allied powers of July 26.
The Soviet Government considers that this policy is the only means able to bring peace nearer, free the people from further sacrifice and suffering and give the Japanese people the possibility of avoiding the dangers and destruction suffered by Germany after her refusal to capitulate unconditionally.
In view of the above, the Soviet Government declares that from tomorrow, that is from Aug. 9, the Soviet Government will consider itself to be at war with Japan.' "
- ^ a b Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact April 13, 1941. (Avalon Project at Yale University)
- ^ a b Declaration Regarding Mongolia April 13, 1941. (Avalon Project at Yale University)
- ^ a b Denunciation of the neutrality pact April 5, 1945. (Avalon Project at Yale University)
- ^ "So Sorry, Mr. Sato" in Time Magazine, April 16 1945
- ^ Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, Racing the Enemy: Stalin, Truman, and the Surrender of Japan, Harvard University Press, 2005, pp. 46-7.
- ^ a b Soviet War Declaration On Japan August 8, 1945. (Avalon Project at Yale University)
- Slavinsky, Boris (2003). The Japanese-Soviet Neutrality Pact -A Diplomatic History 1941-1945. Routledge. ISBN 0203300831.
Empire of Japan General topics
Emperors GovernmentConstitution • Charter Oath • House of Representatives • House of Peers • Daijō-kan • Ministry of Taxation • Ministry of the Treasury • Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Japan) • Ministry of Commerce • Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry • East Asia Development Board (Kōain) • Foreign relations • Government and military commanders of World War II • Gozen Kaigi • Ministry of Greater East Asia • Home Ministry • Imperial Rescript on Education • Imperial Way Faction (Kōdōha) • Kokutai • National Spiritual Mobilization Movement • Peace Preservation Law • Political parties • State Shinto • Supreme Court of Judicature • Taisei Yokusankai • Tokkō • Tonarigumi • Tōseiha • Tripartite Pact • Greater East Asia Conference MilitaryImperial General Headquarters • Imperial Japanese Army • Imperial Japanese Navy • Ministry of the Military • Ministers of Army of Japan • Ministry of the Navy of Japan • Taiwanese Imperial Japan Serviceman • Imperial Guard • Nuclear weapons program • Kamikaze • War crimes • Supreme War Council • Japanese holdout Emblems HistoryMeiji Restoration • Meiji period • Boshin War • Satsuma Rebellion • First Sino-Japanese War • Triple Intervention • Boxer Rebellion • Anglo-Japanese Alliance • Russo-Japanese War • Taishō period • During World War I • During the Siberian Intervention • General Election Law • Shōwa period • Shōwa financial crisis • Pacification of Manchukuo • Second Sino-Japanese War • Tripartite Pact • Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact • Pacific War • Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki • Soviet invasion of Manchuria • Surrender • Occupation Expansionism Other Joseph Stalin History and politics
- Early life
- Russian Revolution, Russian Civil War, Polish-Soviet War
- Rule as Soviet leader
- World War II
- Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
- Winter War
- Occupation of the Baltic states
- Invasion of Poland
- German–Soviet Axis talks
- Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact
- Tehran Conference
- Yalta Conference
- Potsdam Conference
- Cold War
- Sino–Soviet Treaty of Friendship
- Eastern Bloc
- Tito–Stalin split
- Great Purge
- Population transfer (Nazi–Soviet)
- Forced settlement
- Soviet war crimes
- Rootless cosmopolitan
- Doctors' plot
- Moscow Trials
- Allegations of antisemitism
- NKVD prisoner massacres
- Murder of Sergey Kirov
- Katyń massacre
- 1937 Soviet Census
- Deportations (Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina
- Operation North
- Georgian Affair
- Mingrelian Affair
- Leningrad Affair
- Relationship with Shostakovich
- Censorship of images
- Operation Lentil in the Caucasus
- Operation Priboi
- Vinnytsia massacre
- Nazino affair
- 1941 Red Army purge
- 1907 Tiflis bank robbery
- Soviet offensive plans controversy
Works De-Stalinization Criticism Remembrances Family
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Soviet–Japanese Border Wars — The Soviet–Japanese Border Wars were a series of border conflicts between the Soviet Union and Japan between 1938 to 1945.After the occupation of Manchukuo and Korea, Japan turned its military interests to Soviet territories. Conflicts between… … Wikipedia
Sino-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact — The Sino Soviet Nonaggression Pact (中蘇互不侵犯條約) was signed on August 21, 1937, between the Republic of China and the Soviet Union during the Second Sino Japanese War. At first the treaty led to improving relations between the Kuomintang, Chiang Kai … Wikipedia
Soviet invasion of Manchuria — (1945) Part of World War II and Soviet Japanese War (1945) Soviet gains in North E … Wikipedia
Japanese nationalism — (国家主義, Kokka shugi?) encompasses a broad range of ideas and sentiments harbored by the Japanese people over the last two centuries regarding their native country, its cultural nature, political form and historical destiny. It is useful to… … Wikipedia
Soviet Union in World War II — Stalin, U.S.President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill at the Tehran Conference, November 1943 … Wikipedia
Soviet Union — USSR and CCCP redirect here. For other uses, see USSR (disambiguation) and CCCP (disambiguation). Soviet redirects here. For the term itself, see Soviet (council). For other uses, see Soviet (disambiguation). Union of Soviet Socialist Republics … Wikipedia
Japanese militarism — See also: Statism in Shōwa Japan History of Japan Paleolithic 35,000–14,000 BC Jōmon period 14,000–300 BC Yayoi period … Wikipedia
Japanese occupation of Thailand — History of Thailand Prehistory … Wikipedia
Soviet invasion of Poland — This article is about the invasion in 1939. For the Soviet invasion of Poland in 1920, see Polish Soviet War. Soviet invasion of Poland Part of the invasion of Poland in World War II … Wikipedia
Japanese–German industrial co-operation before World War II — In the years leading up to the outbreak of World War II in Europe in 1939, there was some significant collaborative development in heavy industry between German companies and their Japanese counterparts as part of the two nation s evolving… … Wikipedia