- Transport in Birmingham
Birminghamis a major transport hub, due in part to its location in central England. Public transport in the city is overseen by the West Midlands Passenger Transport Executivewhose public brand is Centro/Network West Midlands.
The first railway station to open in Birmingham was Vauxhall station, which opened in 1837 as a temporary railway shed. It served as the temporary Birmingham terminus of the
Grand Junction Railwayfrom Warrington. Curzon Street railway stationopened in 1838 as the permanent terminus in the city and Vauxhall became a goods-only station until it was rebuilt and opened in 1869 under the LNWR. The Curzon Street station remains today in its original form, designed by Philip Hardwick, mirroring his design of the Euston Archat the London terminus of the railway line. It is Grade I listed and is the world's oldest surviving piece of monumental railway architecture. It closed to all railway traffic in 1966. [cite web |url=http://www.railaroundbirmingham.co.uk/Stations/curzon_street.php |title=Curzon Street Station |publisher=Rail Around Birmingham and the West Midlands |accessdate=2008-07-05]
New Street station opened in 1854, and Curzon Street station fell out of passenger use, running only holiday excursions for the public. New Street helped by becoming a hub for railway lines, easing connections between them. Despite this, an extension of New Street station was required in the 1880s so that trains no longer needed to use Camp Hill Goods station [cite book |last=Pixton |first=B. |year=2005 |title=Birmingham-Derby: Portrait of a Famous Route |publisher=Runpast Publishing] which opened in 1840. [cite web |url=http://www.railaroundbirmingham.co.uk/Stations/camp_hill_goods.php |title=Camp Hill Goods Station |publisher=Rail Around Birmingham and the West Midlands |accessdate=2008-07-05]
Snow Hill station was the next major station to open in Birmingham, opening in 1852 as Livery Street station. It connected London (Paddington) to Wolverhampton Low Level. The station was rebuilt in 1871 to accommodate longer trains and again between 1906 and 1912. The latter scheme was undertaken so that the station could compete better with New Street. Other stations on the line in Birmingham were
Soho and Winson Green railway stationand Hockley railway station. To alleviate pressure on Snow Hill, Moor Street station was opened in 1909 as a terminus for the North Warwickshire lines. The two stations were connected by a tunnel link which closed in 1968, only to be reopened in 1987 when the new Moor Street station was completed. The 1960s Beeching Axestated Snow Hill station as being unnecessary and the station closed in 1972 along with the railway line leading to Wolverhampton Low Level. The station was demolished by 1977, with only the original gates and booking hall sign surviving. However, in the 1980s, British Raildecided to re-open Snow Hill station as part of the as part of the cross-city transport plan for Birmingham. It reopened in 1987 in a new building. In 1986, Moor Street was relocated adjacent to the original station. However, in 2002, the original Moor Street station was renovated by the Birmingham Alliance and Chiltern at a cost of £11 million, and converted into a shopping and refreshment area connected to the new platforms.
Harborne Branch Lineopened in 1875, connecting New Street to the outlying suburb of Harborne. A connection to the LNWR was created at Monument Lane. The branch terminated at Harborne railway station. The line began to suffer from falling passenger numbers, largely due to the increasing popularity of buses but also due to train delays as a result of congestion of routes at New Street station. Icknield Port Road station closed in 1931, and the other stations closed to passengers on 26 November 1934. The last passenger train to run on the line was an enthusiasts' special on 3 June 1950.
In the 1970s, the
Cross-City Linecame into being, formed out of the former Midland Railway line between Redditch and Birmingham via Selly Oak and the London and North Western Railway Line between Birmingham and Lichfield. It connected Sutton Coldfield, which was absorbed into Birmingham in 1974, with the Birmingham city centre. The route remains in use today and is the only passenger line passing through Sutton Coldfield. Sutton is also served by the Sutton Park Linewhich opened in 1879, and closed to passenger services in 1965. It remains in use as a freight line.
A large number of
railwaylines meet at Birmingham New Street railway station, which is a hub of the UK rail network. [cite web |url=http://www.renewstreet.co.uk/files/assets/BNS_Pre_Qualification.pdf |publisher=Renew Street |title=Birmingham New Street Station Prequalification Questionnaire |format=pdf |accessdate=2008-07-05 |year=2006] Trains to London Marylebone stationcan also be caught at Moor Street station or Snow Hill station, though Snow Hill's London services are due to be diverted into Moor Street station in 2009. [cite web| url=http://www.networkrail.co.uk/browse%20documents/BusinessPlan2007/PDF/Route%2017%20West%20Midlands.pdf |publisher=Network Rail |title=Route Plans 2007: West Midlands Route 17 |accessdate=2008-07-05 |format=pdf |month=March |year=2007]
New Street Station is due to be redeveloped in a £500 million scheme named
Gateway Plus. The project will improve passenger facilities and increase passenger capacity at the station, which is running at over capacity. [cite web |url=http://www.renewstreet.co.uk/ |title=ReNew Street |accessdate=2008-07-05] However, the project has met criticism from others who do not believe that the project will be effective. An alternative scheme has been suggested by Arupcite web |url=http://www.arup.com/_assets/_download/download488.pdf |title=Birmingham Grand Central - Unlocking the Network |format=pdf |author=Colin Stewart, Arup and Murray B Rayner, FRICS |publisher=Arup |accessdate=2008-07-05] , which would involve the construction of a new station adjacent to Moor Street Station, so that the approaches to the New Street could be improved and the station would provide better interchange facilities. The amount of land required would be very large and would also require the loss of proposed redevelopment projects in the Eastside area. The station would stretch from Moor Street to the former mainline station at Curzon Street. Arup have named the project 'Birmingham Grand Central'. The projected cost of the new station is over £500 million.
There is a network of rail services within Birmingham and the West Midlands county, operated by
London Midlandand supported by Centro/Network West Midlands, among the main lines is the Cross-City Line, which operates from Lichfieldthrough Birmingham New Street to Redditch. A similar rail service operates from Wolverhamptonthrough New Street to Coventry.
The Midland Metro, a
light-rail tramsystem promoted by Centro/Network West Midlands, connects Birmingham to Wolverhamptonvia West Bromwichand Wednesbury. Further expansion in Birmingham City Centre has been approved, [cite web |url=http://www.gnn.gov.uk/Content/Detail.asp?ReleaseID=159014&NewsAreaID=2 |title=Planning approval given to Midland Metro Birmingham city centre extension |publisher=Government News Network |date=2005-06-09 |accessdate=2007-08-04] however, government officials said no decision would be made on funding the plans until 2008. [cite web |url=http://icbirmingham.icnetwork.co.uk/mail/news/blackcountry/tm_method=full%26objectid=17993766%26siteid=50002-name_page.html |title=Metro plans derailed for another two years |publisher=" Birmingham Mail" |date2006-10-26 |accessdate=2007-08-04] There are plans to extend the system across Birmingham and the West Midlands. [cite web |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/west_midlands/4933954.stm |title=£322m needed for Metro extension |publisher=BBC News |date=2006-04-22 |accessdate=2007-08-04]
In the early 1950s, the government planned to protect essential communications by building a series of hardened underground telephone exchanges. Construction of the Anchor exchange in Birmingham started in 1953 with a cover story that a new underground rail network was being built. Work progressed until 1956 when the public were told the project was no longer economic; instead Birmingham got its underpasses through the city to help relieve congestion. An underground exchange and tunnel system 100ft below
Newhall Streethad been completed at a cost £4 million. The main tunnel runs from Anchor to Midland ATE in Hill Street, from there the tunnel continued under New Street Station and on to the exchange in Essex Street.cite web |url=http://www.subbrit.org.uk/rsg/sites/b/birmingham_anchor_exchange/index.html |publisher=Subbrit |title=Birmingham Anchor Telephone Exchange |accessdate=2008-07-05]
More recently, the Conservative-Lib-Dem alliance running Birmingham City Council proposed an underground system as an alternative to expansion of the Midland Metro. [cite web |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/west_midlands/2990058.stm |title=Underground idea for Birmingham |publisher=BBC News |date=2003-06-14 |accessdate=2007-08-04] A £150,000 feasibility study [cite web |url=http://icbirmingham.icnetwork.co.uk/post/news/page.cfm?objectid=14643175&method=full&siteid=50002 |title=Study on Brum underground |publisher=icBirmingham |date=2004-09-15 |accessdate=2007-08-04] was conducted, looking at the benefits and drawbacks of a state-of-the-art, £3 billion underground system serving the city. [cite web |url=http://centro.journalistpresslounge.com/centro/uploads/research/BCC%20tunnels%20report.pdf |title=Birmingham City Centre Underground Study |publisher=Centro |accessdate=2008-07-05 |format=pdf] Upon the outcome of the report, the city council backed plans for a street metro system. [cite web |url=http://centro.journalistpresslounge.com/centro/news/index.cfm/fuseaction/details/id/2F2640E8-1109-B563-070D7BCF5BCAB3CB/cnt/1/ref/main/type/News%20releases/ses/1.cfm |title=Council support for Midland Metro expansion follows outcome of Birmingham underground study |publisher=Centro |date=2005-10-25 |accessdate=2007-08-04]
Buses and coaches
Over 90% of public transport use in the West Midlands is by bus. [ [http://www.centro.org.uk/wwwroot/Bus/Bus%20intro.asp Centro: Bus Services] ] There are approximately 50 operators of registered local bus services in the West Midlands. The largest bus operator in the area is
National Express West Midlands, which accounts for over 80% of all journeys. National Express West Midlands operates a large network based on a range of services radiating out of Birmingham City Centre (there is only one Cross City service) and the Birmingham Outer Circlebus service, the longest urban bus service in EuropeFact|date=May 2008 which chiefly follows the A4040 circular road.
Most of the network is operated on a commercial basis, with some services (usually evenings and Sundays) supported by Centro. Smaller operators provide a range of services, either in competition with
National Express West Midlandsor under contract to Centro. These include Central Connect (which is made up of the merger of Zak's [ [http://www.connectbuses.com/ CentralConnect] ] , North Birmingham Buswaysand Birmingham Motor Tractionand recently purchased Diamond Bus), Central Logistics, Choice Travel (part of D&G [ [http://www.choicetravelservices.co.uk/ Choice Travel Services] ] ) and Redwing Contracts. Medium distance bus services from Birmingham include First Wyvern (formally First Midland Red) operating services to Worcesterand Redditch. Arrivaoperates services to Tamworth& Kingsbury in Staffordshire. Warwickshire County Council also funds a service to Stratford-upon-Avonoperated by Stagecoach in Warwickshire (formally known as Stratford Blue).
Despite the large number of buses serving Birmingham City Centre there is no longer a bus station. Instead buses use bus stops on surrounding roads which are given a two lettered code, beginning with the name of the street (e.g. Carrs Lane = C*).
The airport can also be reached via an express bus service from Coleshill Parkway station, on the
Birmingham to Peterborough Linewhich run four times per hour and take around fifteen minutes.
Birmingham is also a major hub in the
National Expresscoach network, whose headquarters are in Birmingham. The group will operate services from its hub at Digbeth Coach Station, which is currently being rebuilt. A temporary coach station is located in nearby Oxford Street. [http://www.busandcoach.com/featureStory.aspx?id=688 Bus and Coach: Birmingham's coach station saga] ] The company's flagship NXL Shuttle service operates services to Londonwith frequent services to all major airports and cities in Britain. Many of these are cross-country services operating from north to south, for which Birmingham provides interchange facilities. Birmingham also has a Megabusservice to London.
M40 motorwayis the more direct motorway route towards London. The M6 motorwayalso connects Birmingham to London (via the M1, therefore it is less direct) and the south, and the north-west of England and Scotland. Junction 6 of the M6 is also one of Birmingham's landmarks, and probably the most notable motorway junction in the UK: Spaghetti Junction, officially called the Gravelly Hill Interchange. Other local motorways include:
*The A38(M) which links Spaghetti Junction to the city centre
*The M5, connecting Birmingham to the south-west of England
*The M42, which connects Birmingham to
Tamworthand the East Midlands
M6 Toll, which enables through traffic on the M6 to bypass Birmingham and Wolverhampton.
Londonand Manchester, does not have a single orbital motorway. Instead, three motorways form a box which surrounds most of Birmingham- but not Wolverhampton, Walsall, Dudleyand Stourbridge. These are:
*The M42 which forms the southern and eastern sections. In the middle, the M40 terminates, which has its junction built with priority for traffic going from the M40 to the M42 west, instead of the more obvious M42 east-west priority. The M40 goes off south to
Warwick, Oxford, High Wycombeand London.
*The M5 which forms the western section.
*The M6 which forms the northern section. The M5 terminates on the M6.
Other major roads passing through Birmingham include:
*The A34 from
*The A38 from
*The A41 from
*The A45 from Birmingham to
Thrapston(formerly to Felixstowe)
*The A47 from Birmingham to
*The A4540 'Middleway' ring road
*The A4040 Outer Ring Road
Black Cab taxis can be flagged down anywhere in the city or can be found waiting at designated taxi ranks in the city centre such as Broad Street, New Street, Corporation Street etc.
Private hire taxis will always need to be pre-booked as flagging one down is illegal and such journeys are not insured.
Birmingham is served by Birmingham International Airport, located in the Borough of Solihull to the east of Birmingham, which has flights to Europe,
Dubai, Islamabadand New York. The airport is served by the railway network at Birmingham International railway station, also located in Solihull. Train services are provided by Virgin Trainsor London Midlandon contract to Centro/Network West Midlands.
Bus services also operate from the airport to
Coleshill Parkway railway stationon the Birmingham- Leicesterrailway line. This link improves access to the East Midlandsas well as providing further links to North Warwickshireand South-east Staffordshire.
The airport also has 4 major bus services running into Birmingham. These are the 38 (Birmingham - Olton - International Airport), 58 (Birmingham - Small Heath - Yardley - International Airport), 900 (Birmingham - International Airport - Coventry) and the 966 (Erdington - International Station - Solihull Station). The majority of bus services are run by
National Express West Midlands(formally known as Travel West Midlands) with other various Warwickshire County Council funded services such as the 757 and 777 operating from here. Central Connectservice 58N has now been withdrawn from service.
There are no usable
rivers: the Rea, on which the City was founded, is little more than a culverted stream, and the Tame, which only passes through the northern suburbs, is not navigable. The River Cole which runs through the south-east of the city through to the north west is too shallow for anything bigger than a raft to be able to sail upon it.
However, Birmingham is at the hub of the country's
canalnetwork. There are 35 miles (60 km) of canals within the city, of which most are navigable. Birmingham is often described as having more miles of canal than Venice. This is technically correct (Venice has 26 miles). However, Birmingham is far larger than Venice [http://jquarter.members.beeb.net/walk6x.htm] , so the latter has a far higher "concentration" of canals; and the type of waterway is very different.
Extensive regeneration of the canals has taken place since the 1980s, including
dredgingto enable the smooth passage of narrowboats and investment in and construction of canalside living accommodation. Similar development is planned for the Eastside area in Digbeth.
Canals in Birmingham include:
Birmingham Canal Navigationsnetwork, including the BCN Main Lineand the Birmingham and Fazeley Canal
Birmingham and Worcester Canal
Grand Union Canal.
Birmingham has several reservoirs to feed its canals, including:
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