Bristol Brigand


Bristol Brigand

infobox Aircraft
name = Type 164 Brigand
type = anti-shipping torpedo bomber, ground attack/dive bomber
manufacturer = Bristol Aeroplane Company




caption =
designer = Leslie J. Frise
first flight = 4 December 1944
introduced = June 1946
retired =
status =
primary user = Royal Air Force
more users =
produced =
number built =147
unit cost =
developed from = Bristol Buckingham

Bristol Aeroplane Company's Brigand was a British anti-shipping/ground attack/dive bomber attack aircraft developed as a replacement for the Bristol Beaufighter. A total of 147 were built, and they served with the Royal Air Force in Malaya during the Malayan Emergency and Kenya until replaced by the Canberra jet bomber.

Design and development

The Bristol Type 164 was the outcome of the 1942 Air Ministry specification H.7/42 calling for a faster edition of the Bristol Beaufighter for long range torpedo work and anti-shipping strikes.

The design produced by Bristol used the wings, tail and undercarriage of the Buckingham with a new fuselage of oval cross-section. The three crew - pilot, navigator/bomb aimer and radio-operator/gunner were grouped together in the forward cockpit. In spite of the official change in its role to a bomber, the first 11 Brigands off the production line were completed as torpedo-bombers. [ Taylor 1969, p. 335. ] These initial aircraft served with the RAF Coastal Command from 1946-1947 before being converted to bombers.

Operational history

The first unit to convert from Beaufighters to the Brigand was 45 Squadron, then based at RAF Station Tengah on the Island of Singapore and flying operations in support of British forces against the Communist Guerrillas then engaged in an insurgency in Malaya. The first Brigand was flown to Tengah from RAF St Athan in November 1949, a 16-day trip. After test flights, the first combat operation was conducted by this single Brigand, Piloted by Flt. Lt. Dalton Golding and crewed by radio/radar operator Peter Weston, together with four Beaufighters of No. 45 Squadron against CT targets in jungle west of Kluang, Malaya on 19 December 1949. On this flight the Brigand carried three rockets, one 500lb and two 1,000 lb bombs. The operation was successful and No. 45 Squadron soon completed its transition to the Brigand as more aircraft arrived.

Thereafter Brigands of 45 Squadron and, soon thereafter, 84 Squadron were routinely engaged in strikes against Communist Insurgent targets throughout Malaya, both direct and in close support of ground forces, as well as providing air cover as needed to convoys on the ground against possible ambushes.

Problems with the Brigand became apparent during its operations in Malaya. The first problem to arise were undercarriages failing to lower. This was traced to rubber seals in the hydraulic jacks gradually breaking up because of the hot, humid climatic conditions, for which they weren't suitable.Blyth 1977] Just as this problem was being resolved another, more serious problem arose because it led to fatalities; a propensity for aircraft damage and loss during strafing runs employing the four 20 mm cannon. It was ascertained that a build up of gases in the long cannon blast tubes, which ran under the cockpit, were igniting through use of high-explosive shells. This in turn severed hydraulic lines, which would burn. In effect the Brigands were shooting themselves down. This was cured by drastically reducing the ammunition loads and using only ball rounds. The Brigand also had a propensity to shed one propeller blade leading to complete propeller failure, which in turn would lead to the engine being wrenched off the wing, and an inevitable crash. This was found to be caused by corrosion in the propeller locking rings. More frequent maintenance helped alleviate this problem.When everything was working properly the Brigand was considered to be a good aircraft to fly by its pilots::"The Brigand was pleasant to fly, having nicely balanced flying controls and a wide range of power in the two Bristol Centaurus engines. These features made the aircraft splendid for formation flying, which was important to our method of operation. The aircraft also had sufficent range to reach targets all over Malaya from the Squadron's new base at Tengah, on Singapore Island." [Group Captain (Squadron Leader at the time) A.C. Blyth DFC, commander 45 Squadron. ] ;As the Brigand became hedged in with more restrictions both unit commanders had serious doubts about continued use of the aircraft. It was decided to keep on operating them - as long as thorough maintenance was carried out it was felt that nothing else could go wrong.Unfortunately another design flaw did arise in the leather bellows used to deploy air brakes during dives. In the tropical climate in which the Brigand found itself in Malaya, the leather would rot away, causing the brakes to fail. This led to Brigands losing wings in dives due to excessive airspeed or rotation as only one brake deployed. When this problem was discovered, the air brakes of all Brigands were wired shut, decreasing the aircraft's dive bombing capabilities.No. 45 Squadron converted to de Havilland Hornets in January 1952 while 84 Squadron was disbanded in February 1953. Soon after this, the Brigands were grounded and withdrawn from service.

Variants

The first to be built was the Brigand I or Brigand TF 1 and these entered service with RAF Coastal Command No. 36 Squadron and No. 42 Squadron). They were subsequently rebuilt to become the Brigand B 1, notable as both the first purpose-built multi-role strike aircraft built for the RAF, and its last piston-engined bomber. It could carry either a torpedo under the fuselage with two 500 lb (220 kg) bombs beneath the wings, one 2,000 lb (900 kg) or two 1,000 lb (450 kg) bombs beneath the fuselage and had under-wing racks for 16 RP-3 rocket projectiles.

*Brigand Met 3 was a meteorological reconnaissance aircraft of which 16 aircraft were built.
*Brigand T 4 trainer version, which was used to train airborne interception (AI) radar operators. Nine were built
*Brigand T 5 was an improved training version, which like the T 4 before it, was used to train airborne interception (AI) radar operators.

Operators

;UK
*Royal Air Force
** No. 8 Squadron RAF
** No. 45 Squadron RAF
** No. 84 Squadron RAF
** No. 1301 (Met) Flight
** No. 228 Operational Conversion Unit
** No. 238 Operational Conversion Unit

pecifications (Brigand)

aircraft specifications
plane or copter?=plane
jet or prop?=prop
ref=
crew=3
capacity=
payload main=
payload alt=
length main= 46 ft 5 in
length alt=14.2 m
span main=72 ft 4 in
span alt=22.1 m
span sweep=
height main=16 ft 4 in
height alt=5 m
area main= 718 ft²
area alt= 66.7 m²
airfoil=
empty weight main= 27,500 lb
empty weight alt= 12,470 kg
loaded weight main= 38,200 lb
loaded weight alt= 17,320 kg
useful load main=
useful load alt=
max takeoff weight main=
max takeoff weight alt=
more general=
engine (prop)=Bristol Centaurus 57
type of prop=radial piston engine
number of props=2
power main= 2,165 hp
power alt=1,620 kW
power original=
max speed main= 358 mph @ 13,700 ft
max speed alt= 576 km/h @ 4,180 m
cruise speed main=
cruise speed alt=
stall speed main=
stall speed alt=
never exceed speed main=
never exceed speed alt=
range main= 2,100 miles
range alt= 3,380 km
ceiling main= 26,000 ft
ceiling alt= 7,920 m
climb rate main= 1,500 ft/min
climb rate alt= 460 m/min
loading main=
loading alt=
thrust/weight=
power/mass main=
power/mass alt=
more performance=
armament=4 x Hispano 20 mm cannon, 0.5 in (12.7 mm) Browning machine gun, 16 RP-3 rockets, 22 inch (559 mm) torpedo, 1,000 lb (450 kg) or 2,000 lb (900 kg) bombs
avionics=

ee also

aircontent
related=
similar aircraft=
lists=
* List of aircraft of the RAF
see also=

References

Notes

Bibliography

* Blyth, A.C. (Group Captain). "Brigands over Malaya". "Aeroplane Monthly" Volume 5, Number 5, May 1977.
* Taylor, John W.R. "Bristol Brigand." "Combat Aircraft of the World from 1909 to the present". New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1969. ISBN 0-425-03633-2.
* Trimble, Robert L. "Bristol's Multi-mission Bomber." "Air Classics", Vol. 18, no. 8, August 1982.

External links

* [http://members.aol.com/famjustin/Brigandphoto.html Bristol Brigand Collection of Peter Weston, 45 Squadron, RAF]
* [http://members.aol.com/famjustin/Westonbio3.html Memoirs of Peter Weston's 45 Sqn service]
* [http://www.military.cz/british/air/war/bomber/brigand/brigand_en.htm British WWII's bombers: Bristol Brigand]
* [http://www.warbirdsresourcegroup.org/BARC/brigand.html Bristol Brigand]


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