- Augustus Keppel, 1st Viscount Keppel
Infobox Military Person
name=Augustus Keppel, 1st Viscount Keppel
25 April 1725– 2 October 1786
Joshua Reynolds's first painting of him,
produced on Menorca
War of the Austrian Succession(Voyage round the world), Seven Years' War(Quiberon Bay), War of American Independence(Ushant)
laterwork=Admiral Augustus Keppel, 1st Viscount Keppel PC (
25 April 1725– 2 October 1786), was an officer of the British Royal Navyduring the Seven Years' Warand the War of American Independence. During the final years of the latter conflict he served as First Lord of the Admiralty.
A member of a leading Whig aristocratic family (which had come to England with William of Orange in 1688), Augustus Keppel was the second son of
Willem Anne van Keppel, 2nd Earl of Albemarleand Anne van Keppel, a daughter of the 1st Duke of Richmond (himself an illegitimate son of King Charles II). Augustus Keppel went to sea at the age of ten, and had already five years of service to his credit when he was appointed to the "Centurion" and sent with Lord Anson round the world in 1740. He had a narrow escape from being killed at the capture of Paita( 13 November 1741), and was named acting lieutenant in 1742. Also on this voyage, he made friends with John Campbell, and lost many of his teeth to the scurvyprevalent on the voyage. After their return from the circumnavigation, in 1744, he was promoted to be Commander and Post Captain. He was actively employed throughout the rest of the War of the Austrian Succession, until peace was signed in 1748. In 1747 he ran his ship the "Maidstone" (50) ashore near Belleisle while chasing a French vessel, but was honourably acquitted by a court martial, and reappointed to another command.
Early in 1749, he was introduced by
Lord Edgecombeto Sir Joshua Reynolds. When, on 11 May 1749, Commodore Keppel sailed from Plymouth to the Mediterranean(to command his old ship HMS "Centurion" and to persuade the Deyof Algiersto restrain the piratical operations of his subjects) Reynolds travelled with him as far as Minorcaand there painted the first of his 6 portraits of Keppel, "left" [ One of the 6, belonging originally to Edmund Burke, is now in the National Gallery [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0004-3079(194706)29%3A2%3C126%3AEBAC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-6] , where there is also one by him of Keppel's mother). [http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/cgi-bin/WebObjects.dll/CollectionPublisher.woa/wa/work?workNumber=ng1259] ] , along with others of officers of the British garrison there. [Reynolds then stayed on the island for the rest of 1749 before leaving for Rome, where he stayed 2 years.] When Keppel arrived to negotiate, the Dey is said to have complained that the King of England had sent a beardless boy to treat with him, and to have been told that if the beard was the necessary qualification for an ambassador it would have been easy to send a Billy goat.Fact|date=August 2007 After trying the effect of bullying without success, the Dey made a treaty, and Keppel returned in 1751.
The Seven Years' War
Seven Years' Warhe saw constant service. He was in North America in 1755, on the coast of France in 1756, was detached on a cruise to reduce the French settlements on the west coast of Africa in 1758, and his ship the "Torbay" (74) was the first to get into action in the Battle of Quiberon Bayin 1759. In 1757 he had formed part of the court martial which had condemned Admiral Byng, but was active among those who endeavoured to secure a pardon for him; but neither he nor those who had acted with him could produce any serious reason why the sentence should not be carried out. In March 1761, Keppel transferred to HMS|Valiant|1759|6 and was put in command of a squadron to reduce Belle Isle, which was successfully completed in June. When Spainjoined Francein 1762 he was sent as second in command with Sir George Pocockin the British expedition against Cubawhich took Havana. His health suffered from the fever which carried off an immense proportion of the soldiers and sailors. The £25,000 of prize money which he received freed him from the unpleasant position of 'younger son of a family ruined by the extravagance of his father'.
Achievement of flag rank
He became Rear Admiral in October 1762, was one of the
AdmiraltyBoard from July 1765 to November 1766, and was promoted Vice Admiral on 24 October 1770. When the Falkland Island dispute occurred in 1770 he was to have commanded the fleet to be sent against Spain, but a settlement was reached, and he had no occasion to hoist his flag.
The American Revolutionary War
The most important and the most debated period of his life belongs to the opening years of the
American Revolutionary War. Keppel was by family connection and personal preference a strong supporter of the Whig connection, led by the Marquess of Rockingham and the Duke of Richmond. He shared in all the passions of his party, then excluded from power by the resolute will of George III.
As a member of Parliament, in which he had a seat for Windsor from 1761 until 1780, and then for
Surreyhe was a steady partisan, and was in constant hostility with the King's Friends. In common with them he was prepared to believe that the king's ministers, and in particular Lord Sandwich, then First Lord of the Admiralty, were capable of any villainy. When therefore he was appointed to command the Western Squadron, the main fleet prepared against France in 1778, he went to sea predisposed to think that the First Lord would be glad for him to be defeated.
It was a further misfortune that when Keppel hoisted his flag one of his subordinate admirals should have been Sir
Hugh Palliser(1723–1796), who was a member of the Admiralty Board, a member of parliament, and in Keppel's opinion, which was generally shared, jointly responsible with his colleagues for the bad state of the Royal Navy. When, therefore, the battle which Keppel fought with the French on 27 July 1778(the First Battle of Ushant) ended in a highly unsatisfactory manner, owing mainly to his own unintelligent management, but partly through the failure of Sir Hugh Palliser to obey orders, he became convinced that he had been deliberately betrayed.
Though he praised Sir Hugh in his public despatch he attacked him in private, and the Whig press, with the unquestionable aid of Keppel's friends, began a campaign of calumny to which the ministerial papers answered in the same style, each side accusing the other of deliberate treason: The result was a scandalous series of scenes in parliament and of courts martial. Keppel was first tried and acquitted 1779, and then Palliser was also tried and acquitted. Keppel was ordered to strike his flag in March 1779.
ervice in Parliament
Until the fall of Lord North's ministry he acted as an opposition member of parliament. He was MP for Chichester from 1755 to 1761, then for Windsor from 1761 to 1780 and finally for Surrey from 1780 to 1782.
When North's government fell in 1782 he became First Lord, was created Viscount Keppel and Baron Elden, and was sworn in as a Member of the Privy Council. His career in office was not distinguished, and he broke with his old political associates by resigning as a protest against the Peace of Paris. He finally discredited himself by joining the Coalition ministry formed by North and Fox, and with its fall disappeared from public life.
Last years and legacy
He died unmarried on
2 October 1786. Burke, who regarded him with great affection, said that he had something high in his nature, and that it was a wild stock of pride on which the tenderest of all hearts had grafted the milder virtues.
Named after Keppel:
Great Keppel Island
North Keppel Island
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