Surname project


Surname project

A surname project is a genetic genealogy project which uses genealogical DNA tests to trace male lineage.

Because surnames are passed down from father to son in many cultures, and Y-chromosomes (Y-DNA) are passed from father to son with a predictable rate of mutation, people with the same surname can use genealogical DNA testing to determine if they share a common ancestor within recent history.

When two males share a surname, a test of their Y-chromosome markers will determine either that they are not related, or that they are related. If they are related, the number of markers tested and the number of matches at those markers determines the range of generations until their most recent common ancestor (MRCA). If the two tests match on 37 markers, there is a 50% probability that the MRCA was less than 5 generations ago and a 90% probability that the MRCA was less than 17 generations ago.

Markers

A Y-DNA test ranges from 10 to 67 markers on the Y chromosome. Most surname projects suggest at least 25 markers. Test results tell how many repeats a given subject has at a particular marker; the variations of repeats are known as alleles. For example, at DYS455, the results will show 8, 9, 10, 11 or 12 repeats. [ [http://ybase.org/statistics.asp Ybase statistics] ] The specific results for a given individual are referred to as a haplotype. When a surname project has enough participants, it can determine one or more modal haplotypes for the surname.

Testing companies

Surname projects are now being hosted by testing companies. Group rates may be obtained for surname projects and some labs even store the submitted samples for a number of years at no cost to the participants. This enables additional tests to be performed as they become available.

Haplogroups

The Y chromosome has been studied intensely and divided into Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups, based upon the results of the number of alleles in certain positions called markers. These "markers" have been chosen for their demonstrated ability to predict the haplogroup of the tested individual. They are tightly guarded proprietary information. Each testing company used a different set, although many are overlapping. This has allowed Y-STR database websites such as Ybase and Ysearch to convert scores from several companies and find matches within their database for submitted results.

urname projects with more than 100 participants

Surname projects with more than 100 participants include:
*the [http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Walker%20DNA%20Project%20mtDNA%20Results Walker Surname DNA Project]
*the Harris Surname DNA Project
*the LEWIS Surname DNA Project

ee also

*One-name study

References

External links

General

* [http://dna.reinyday.com/surprojs.html About DNA Surname Projects]

urname project databases

* [http://www.dnalist.net/ Surname DNA Projects Database]
* [http://www.cyndislist.com/surn-dna.htm Cyndi's List - Surname DNA Studies and Projects]
* [http://www.ybase.org/sname.asp Ybase surname search]
* [http://www.ysearch.org/lastname_start.asp Ysearch surname search]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Surname map — Surname maps are maps which display and indicate the highest concentration of residents with a particular surname, or set of surnames. This information can be useful for studying the current or historic distribution of surnames, and occasionally… …   Wikipedia

  • Harris Surname DNA Project — The [http://www.harrisdna.org/ Harris Surname DNA Project] is one of the larger DNA surname projects with almost 300 participants worldwide. It was created as a cooperative organization to develop a collection of Harris family groups who descend… …   Wikipedia

  • Lewis surname DNA project — The Lewis Surname DNA Project, one of the larger DNA surname projects with well over 250 participants, was created in 2003 as a nonprofit organization to develop a collection of Lewis family groups who descend from various male Lewis ancestors.… …   Wikipedia

  • Lost Colony DNA Project — The Lost Colony of Roanoke DNA Project was founded by a group led by Roberta Estes in 2005 in order to solve the mystery of the Lost Colonies of Roanoke using historical records, migration patterns, oral histories and DNA testing. Project… …   Wikipedia

  • Gilbert (surname) — Family name name = Gilbert imagesize= caption= pronunciation = meaning = region = British Isles origin = Norman French, Old Germanic related names = Gilbart, Gilbertson footnotes = [ [http://www.behindthename.com/name/gilbert Meaning and origin… …   Wikipedia

  • Schneider (surname) — Schneider (German for tailor ; literally someone who cuts, from the verb schneiden to cut ) is a very common family name in Germany [http://www.peter doerling.de/Geneal/Nachnamen 100.htm] .chneider Surname ProjectAn effort is underway via Y DNA… …   Wikipedia

  • Comollo (surname) — Comollo Family name Pronunciation Komóllo Meaning Little Jacob (truncated) Related names Comolli, Comelli, Comino, Giacomelli, Giacometti, Giacomino, Jacobelli, Jacobellis and similar Comollo is an Italian surname localized in the northe …   Wikipedia

  • Cockburn (surname) — Cockburn, often (or usually) pronounced /ˈkoʊbərn/, is a Scottish surname that originated in the Borders region of the Scottish Lowlands. In the United States most members of the same family have adopted the simplified spelling Coburn . The… …   Wikipedia

  • Cree (surname) — Cree is a surname which has several separate origins in England, Scotland and Ireland. It occurs in all those countries today and also in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States. It is of Medium Frequency in Scotland and Northern… …   Wikipedia

  • EXIT project — Infobox musical artist Name = EXIT project Background = group or band Origin = flagicon|Russia Moscow, Russia Genre = Progressive rock, Electronic music, Art rock, Experimental music, Instrumental, Easy listening, Electronica, Jazz fusion Years… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.